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    16 September 2019, Volume 52 Issue 18
    Basic Research
    The Concept and Development of Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture and Its Enlightenments to China
    LU ShiJun,HUANG JiaZhang,WU Ming,SHEN DongJing,SUN JunMao
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3083-3088.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.001
    Abstract ( 618 )   HTML ( 60 )   PDF (841KB) ( 450 )   Save
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    In order to solve the many nutritional problems facing the world and explore the relationship between nutrition, health and agricultural development, since 2013, the concept system of NSA has gradually developed and improved, and its policy measures have played an important role in promoting the NSA strategy globally. The concept generation stage was around 2013, and the concept development stage was from 2014 to 2018.The definition and target of NSA were mainly food supply oriented and food system oriented. In 2017, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) put forward that NSA was an approach that sought to ensure the production of a variety of affordable, nutritious, culturally appropriate and safe foods in adequate quantity and quality to meet the dietary requirements of populations in a sustainable manner. NSA used nutrition and health issues as its ultimate goal orientation and measurement. In order to achieve this goal, attention had to be paid to the entire food system. At the same time, the development of NSA in China had to consider many problems facing China's agricultural development. First, the main contradiction of China's agricultural development has changed from the quantity insufficient in the past to structural deficiency. Second, the benchmark data of nutritional quality of agricultural products was not clear, and the laws and regulations in agricultural product quality were of lack. Reconstructing the agricultural industry chain and food nutrition value chain with nutrition orientation could bring out enlightenments to solve many problems facing agricultural development in China: First, we should take food nutrition as the orientation and increase the supply of medium and high-end agricultural products to meet the new needs of consumers. Second, the nutritional quality should be taken as test standard of high quality, the national benchmark database of nutritional composition of agricultural products should be established, and relevant laws and the revision and formulation of the new food and nutrition development program should be improved.

    Research and Revelation on International Policy and Planning of Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture
    SUN JunMao,LU ShiJun,JIANG XiaoBo,WU Ming,HUANG JiaZhang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3089-3096.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.002
    Abstract ( 277 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (558KB) ( 427 )   Save
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    Taking the Outline of the Healthy China 2030 Plan, the National Nutrition Plan (2017- 2030) and other important domestic policy plans as the background, the importance of carrying out Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture (NSA) research and practice in China was analyzed. From the two dimensions of international organizations and relevant countries, the content and characteristics of NSA policy planning and programs were sorted out and analyzed, combining with the existing NSA policies and practices in China, the policy suggestions for the development of NSA in China were proposed. The analysis showed that the international organizations represented by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) have fully reflected the globality and systematicness in NSA policy and planning. Relevant countries represented by the European Union (EU) have also taken regional and global coordination as the main direction of NSA development. The development of NSA in China started late, and in the context of globalization, the formulation of China's NSA policies and plans should comply with international standards and fully consider the exertion of regional and even global influence. A highly unified understanding from different levels, from country to society and theory to practice, needs to be formed, and a holistic approach to design, implementation and evaluation is required to develop NSA in China.

    New Vision and Policy Recommendations for Nutrition-Oriented Food Security in China
    CHEN Kevin,BI JieYing,NIE FengYing,FANG XiangMing,FAN ShengGen
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3097-3107.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.003
    Abstract ( 558 )   HTML ( 35 )   PDF (463KB) ( 317 )   Save
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    After four-decade significant economic growth and development, China sets a series of goals aiming at sustainable medium to high speed economic growth,reasonable equity, and better market oriented economy. In this pursue, agriculture will take a crucial role. Under the Health China 2030, National Nutrition Plan (2017-2030) and Rural Vitalization Strategy, more attention has been paid on nutrition both in policy and research field, meanwhile the linkage between agriculture and nutrition is enhancing, but the integration of Agriculture-Food Security-Nutrition system is not yet completed. During the economic transformation, agriculture and food industry will play a key role, especially when considering the nutrition and health status will impact the national physical fitness and therefore influence the economic transformation approach. It may also impact whether China can move out of the Middle Income Trap to some extent. In the new development era, China needs a new food security development strategy to improve the national nutrition status and sets of policies to strengthen the integration of agriculture and nutrition. This paper reviewed the major challenges about China’s food security and put forward a new vision based on international experiences, which aimed at providing recommendations for designing China’s food security strategy. The key food security challenges include natural and environmental pressure, such as insufficiency and degradation of land resources, shortage and pollution of water resources, climate change and extreme disaster, fiscal pressure caused by increasing agriculture subsidy, Triple Burden of malnutrition, food safety issues and food loss and waste. It requires institutional and technical innovations for the transformation of agriculture development which means that more value added, nutritious and healthy food should be produced, the productivity and efficiency of water, land and energy should be improved, and environmentally friendly social inclusive development should be considered. All of those call for a transformation of China’s food security strategy. This paper put forwards a new vision for China’s food security: China should set nutrition-oriented food security strategy with nutrition indicators as key targeted goals, aim to eliminate hunger and undernutrition by 2025 while effectively reducing overweight/ obesity and food safety risks. Therefore policy innovations are recommended including: Improve nutrition governance, Market motivated and nutrition oriented agriculture support system, Promote Nutrition-based Food Production, Establish efficient, safe, and inclusive food value chains, Policy innovation for sustainable nutritious diet and nutrition education, and Evidence based research to support policy making.

    Influence of Farmers’ Farm Production Diversity on Their Own Dietary Diversity and Nutritional Health
    HUANG ZeYing,SUN JunMao,GUO YanZhi,WANG XiuLi,MA YunQian
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3108-3121.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.004
    Abstract ( 411 )   HTML ( 27 )   PDF (488KB) ( 332 )   Save
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    【Objective】One of the basic national conditions in China is ‘smallholders in the large country’. The proportion of smallholders is high, and the degree of self-production and self-marketing costs is also high. The coordinated development of smallholders’ food production, consumption and nutrition is the health guarantee of rural revitalization strategy. Farmers’ dietary diversity (types of food eaten per day) and the correlation between farmers' farm production diversity (types of food produced on a daily basis) and their dietary diversity and nutritional health (BMI) were analyzed for providing the theoretical basis for farmers' good eating habits formation and rural human capital construction.【Method】395 farmers' questionnaires were collected from 10 villages in Jiangsu province, 10 villages in Henan province and 6 villages in Sichuan province based on random sampling and stratified sampling. Descriptive analysis was carried out on the types of food produced by farmers in three provinces, which involved the sources and quantities of all kinds of food intake, and the nutritional status of daily intake of food which produced by farmers. According to the economic theory of food consumption and individual health utility, multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the influence of farmers' agricultural production diversity on their dietary diversity, and Probit model was used to explore the influence of farmers' agricultural production diversity on their nutritional health without the endogeneity.【Result】The respondents' farm production diversity was not high and 3.37 food types were produced on average, but the inter-provincial gap was small and the intake of food such as aquatic products, fruits, milk and dairy products, livestock and poultry were mainly from the purchase. Farmers also had a low degree of dietary diversity with an average daily intake of 3.34 types of food, but the inter-provincial gap was large. The amount of home-grown food consumed was lower than national recommendation. In total daily intake per capita, livestock and poultry meat intake was too much, while milk and dairy products, aquatic products intake were insufficient. Farmers had nutritional imbalance from daily intake of food produced by themselves. Home-grown food provided plenty of energy, but low intakes of protein, fat, calcium, magnesium, potassium and vitamin A. Nearly 60 percent of farmers had normal BMI but the inter-provincial gap was large. Farmers' farm production diversity had a significant positive correlation with their dietary diversity and nutritional health at the statistical level of 10%. In addition, factors such as farmers' age, education level, total net family income, nutrition knowledge cognition and market access had significant influence on dietary diversity while the factors, such as farmers' gender, age, education level and food nutrition education, had significant influence on individual nutrition health.【Conclusion】As in other developing countries, farmers' farm production diversity in China promotes their dietary diversity and nutritional health. However, along with agriculture commercialization degree and farmers’ non-agricultural income enhancement, the trend of farmers' food purchase to meet the dietary diversity is irreversible and it is not feasible to improve farmers' farm production diversity under the practical condition of limited water and soil resources. Therefore, to encourage the establishment of standardized agricultural products market in rural areas and strengthen the publicity and education of food nutrition to improve farmers' nutrition knowledge may be a feasible way to ensure dietary diversity and nutritional health.

    Promoting the Development of Nutritionally-Guided Agriculture in Research and Development of Selenium-Enriched Agri-Products in China
    TANG ChaoHua , ZHAO QingYu , ZHANG Kai , LI Shuang , QIN YuChang , ZHANG JunMin
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3122-3133.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.005
    Abstract ( 328 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF (514KB) ( 510 )   Save
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    Nutrition is the guarantee of health. The global burden of disease study in 2016 showed that the disease burden caused by dietary factors accounted for 15.9%, which has become an important risk factor affecting the health of people. In recent years, the nutritional and health status of Chinese residents has been improved significantly, but still faces the coexistence of malnutrition and supernutrition, and the frequent occurrence of nutrition-related diseases. Nutrition and health have become the mainstream demands of food consumption in China. The basic goal of agricultural production is to meet the needs of residents' food consumption. As the biggest supply side of food consumption, the main contradiction in China's agriculture at the present stage has changed from numeric to structural. How to satisfy the people's desire for high-quality food and meet the needs of nutrition and health has become the first issue for agriculture structural reform and modernization. Therefore, promoting the production of nutritious and high-quality agricultural products is an important way to realize the reform of agriculture supply side and to meet the needs of healthy food consumption. Selenium, a key antioxidant component of organisms, its intake is insufficient in Chinese people according to the latest National Nutrition and Health Monitoring Program. Thus, the development of selenium-enriched agricultural products is important for health. In this article, we reviewed the basic information of selenium nutrition concerning the Chinese population, the dose-dependent function of selenium, and the development of selenium-enriched agricultural foods, and also provided some suggestions for selenium-enriched industry development, which might promote the development of nutritionally-guided agriculture. As one of the most important components of nutritional and healthy food development, the application of scientific concepts of consumption, the building of whole-chain production, monitoring and product standard establishment for selenium-enriched agricultural foods are critical for nutritionally-guided agriculture, which will meet the public demand for nutrition and health and also lead to a better life.

    Addressing the Losses and Waste of Chinese Rice Supply Chain: Sources, Drivers and Mitigation Strategies
    LU ShiJun,LIU XiaoJie,XUE Li,TANG ZhenChuang,LIU Gang,CHENG GuangYan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3134-3144.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.006
    Abstract ( 508 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (1291KB) ( 694 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The aim of the study was to quantitatively estimate the rice losses and waste along the total supply chain in China, to analyze the main causes of loss and waste, and then to put forward the mitigation strategies to inform policy-making on ensuring food security and developing the nutrition-sensitive agriculture.【Method】 This study conducted questionnaires and qualitative interviews in major industrial chain areas (four provinces and eight counties) at each stage of the total supply chain (including agricultural production, post-harvest handling and storage, processing, distribution, and consumption).【Result】 The total loss and waste rate of rice along the whole supply chain was 13.64%. The standardized loss and waste rate at the agricultural production stage, post-harvest handling, storage, processing, distribution, and consumption stages were 2.84%, 1.85%, 1.21%, 1.73%, 0.79% and 5.22%, respectively. When the total loss rate and waste rate of rice was reduced by 1%, it can meet the demand of rice for 1.455 million and 904,000 people per year, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The losses and waste of rice along the entire food supply chain in China is still at a relatively high level, and it is urgent to take effective measures to reduce the losses and waste to improve the level of food supply.

    Standard and Evaluation Research
    Review and Suggestion for Nutrition Standard of Agricultural Products in China
    ZHU Hong , LIANG KeHong , XU HaiQuan , QIU Ju , GUO YanZhi , HUANG JiaZhang , ZHU DaZhou , SUN JunMao
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3145-3154.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.007
    Abstract ( 318 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (444KB) ( 405 )   Save
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    With the steady and sustainable development of Chinese economy, society, and the continuous improvement of residents’ living standards, consumers are increasingly concerned about the nutritional quality of agricultural products and their dietary health. It is imperative to develop nutrition-sensitive agriculture, which is supported by nutrition standard of agricultural products. The objective of this paper was to develop the basic framework of nutrition standard of agricultural product in China by analyzing agricultural products standard system, including grading and specifications, green food, the grain & oil products, selenium-enriched agricultural products, geographical indication agricultural products, and organic foods. More specifically, this paper investigated the relationship of nutrition standards between food and agricultural product, mainly based on health food, pre-packaged food nutrition label. In addition, this paper deliberated the latest international developments in agricultural product nutrition standards, hoping to find more reference and suggestions for developing China’s nutrition standard system. We found that the nutrition standard of agricultural products in China was still on the early stage side, as few standards contain nutrition indicators. On this basis, we concluded that it was inevitable to put forward the proposition for the nutrition standard system of agricultural product in China. The standard system was divided into six aspects: basic standards, analytic methods of nutritional components, evaluation standards of nutritional quality, labeling, product standards and production technical regulations. From the point of view of evaluation standards of nutritional quality, agricultural products were divided into three categories: the bulk agricultural products, distinctive agricultural products and bio-fortified agricultural products.

    Discussion on the Definition and Screening Method of Characteristic Quality Indicators of Edible Agricultural Products
    LIANG Ying,LI Yi,ZHANG LiuJuan,LIU XianJin,LU BaiYi
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3155-3162.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.008
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    Under the new situation of the development of edible agricultural products closely linked with high quality and nutrition, a series of new words emerged, among which the “characteristic quality indicators of edible agricultural products” occupied a prominent position. The clarification of the characteristic quality indicators of edible agricultural products has a leading significance for the scientific and effective evaluation of the quality of edible agricultural products. This paper discussed the definition of characteristic quality indicators of edible agricultural products, and preliminarily provided some suggestions on the screening methods of characteristic quality indicators of edible agricultural products from the aspects of object determination, consumer investigation, literature investigation, literature information extraction, sampling index verification, specification index, and health index consideration as well as process correction. The purpose of this paper was to attract the attention of relevant functional departments, industrial groups and scientific researchers, to make the definition and screening methods of characteristic quality indicators of edible agricultural products accurate and practical, to promote the establishment of quality evaluation system of edible agricultural products, to evaluate the quality of edible agricultural products scientifically and effectively, and truly to serve the development of edible agricultural products industry.

    Review on the Application of Metabolomic Approaches to Investigate and Analysis the Nutrition and Quality of Agro-Products
    XU YanYang,YAO GuiXiao,LIU PingXiang,ZHAO Jie,WANG XinLu,SUN JunMao,QIAN YongZhong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3163-3176.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.009
    Abstract ( 417 )   HTML ( 39 )   PDF (510KB) ( 291 )   Save
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    Scientific evaluation of the nutrition and quality of agricultural products is essential for improving the nutrition level of agro-products. Because of the complex composition of nutrients in agro-products, the existing analytical methods can only analyze the concentration and function of known nutrients but cannot analyze and identify a large number of unknown functional substances. On the basis of high-throughput chemical analyses, metabolomics can qualitatively and quantitatively analyze endogenous and exogenous metabolites of biological samples. Therefore, metabolomics has outstanding advantages in the analysis of small molecular substances with special nutritional functions in agricultural products; it has advantages like providing new methods for the characterization and differential analysis of nutrient components, traceability and authenticity of identification, variation analysis of functional substances during growth and storage, and the effect mechanisms of functional components. It also provides new strategies for structural optimization of dietary requirements. In this paper, the recent advances in metabolomics research, including sample preparation, metabolite analysis, data processing, differential metabolite identification, and metabolic pathway analysis were reviewed. This work summed up the application of metabolomics in the characterization and difference analysis of metabolites, traceability and authenticity identification of origin, metabolite variation in the process of storage, and the evaluation of nutritional functions to provide theoretical bases and practical references for high-quality agricultural development in China. In the field of sample preparation, the activity of metabolism-related enzymes is first terminated by rapidly changing the environmental conditions, such as adding strong acid (alkali) or freezing in liquid nitrogen. Different extraction solvents are selected based on the polarities of the metabolites to obtain a higher extraction rate. In the field of sample analysis methods, technologies, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chromatography mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, have been widely used. Among them, the combination of chromatography and mass spectrometry has become the most commonly used analytical technique in metabolomics. In the field of data processing and analysis, principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis are the most common data analysis techniques. Through enrichment and topological analysis, the metabolic pathway with the highest correlation to differential metabolites can be identified, and the reason of differential metabolites can be explained and analyzed. In the field of evaluation of nutrition and quality of agricultural products, through the comprehensive characterization of primary metabolites and secondary metabolites in agricultural products, unique fingerprints of agricultural products are established and used for differential analysis, whereas through non-specific target analysis and unsupervised analysis methods, differences between groups and relating metabolites can be identified. Via concentration analysis of key components in the growth process of agricultural products, the best harvest periods can be provided. Interaction studies between functional components and metabolism of organisms based on the detection of humoral metabolism and biomarkers can provide valuable information for dietary guidance.

    Evaluation of the Vegetables Nutritive Values Based on ‘Three Degree’ Method
    LIU YanJun,LIU Zhe,MENG XiangHong,LU BaiYi
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3177-3191.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.010
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    【Objective】 As the important components of our daily diet, the vegetables contain various nutrients people need. The objective of this study was to evaluate vegetables by the categories, contents and proportion of nutrients in vegetables to provide scientific guides for people to choose vegetables. 【Method】 38 common vegetables were selected as test materials and divided into ten kinds, including leaf vegetables, stem vegetables, flower vegetables, allium species, solanaceous vegetables, melon vegetables, root vegetables, tuber vegetables, fresh bean vegetables, and wild vegetables, according to China Food Composition 2 nd. 42 essential nutrients were defined as evaluation indexes, including water, protein, fat, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, amino acids and 2 unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid (ω-6) and a-linolenic acid (ω-3)) and dietary fiber, which were considered as good for health. And then the contents of the nutrients of the vegetables were listed in terms of China Food Composition 2nd. Three degree ( Degree of Diversity (DD), Degree of Match (DM) and Degree of Balance(DB)) of 42 kinds of nutrients’ in 38 common vegetables were calculated respectively.. Finally, the Deviation Index as the overall nutrient evaluation of the three indexes was culculated, and then an overall nutrient evaluation of the vegetables based on Deviation Index was analyzed. 【Result】 DD indices showed that the common vegetables had the similar kinds of nutrients. DM indices indicated the contents of nutrients of the stem, leaf and flower vegetables were high and the top three vegetables were shepherd’s purse, coriander and spinach. DB indices showed the proportion of nutrients of the flower vegetables and allium vegetables were more suitable for people’s needs and that the top three vegetables were onions (young green), leek and cucumber. Finally, based on ‘Deviation Index’ giving an overall nutrient evaluation ranking for vegetables, it showed that the deviation index of the stem, leaf and flower vegetables were small and that the top three vegetables were shepherd’s purse, coriander and spinach.【Conclusion】 Compared with previous vegetable profiling models, such as index of nutrition quality and nutrient profiling, this method considered the proportion of the nutrients in vegetables so that it ensured the nutrition profiling of vegetables more comprehensive. As the deepening of the scientific research, we coud certify the contribution of the nutrients to people and then multiplied by the corresponding weights so that this nutrient evaluation was more suitable for people’s needs.

    Advances and Perspectives in Research of Volatile Flavor Quality of Agricultural Products
    PANG XueLi,SUN YuQing,KONG FanYu,QIU Jun,ZHANG JiGuang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3192-3198.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.011
    Abstract ( 353 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (455KB) ( 427 )   Save
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    As the development of modern economics and the improvement of the living standard, the consumer demands on food have been turned from quantity to quality. Among many quality factors, volatile flavor quality is one of the most important evaluation indicators of inherent quality of agricultural products, directly determining their acceptability and commercial value. It is of great significance to conduct researches on volatile flavor quality, aiming to develop agricultural products with the high flavor quality. Herein, the current status and development trends of domestic and foreign researches on volatile flavor quality of agricultural products were detailed in this review; the new approaches and techniques used for flavor characteristic identification were expounded emphatically; the latest research progresses in characteristic flavor analysis, biological control techniques for improving flavor quality of agricultural products, application of flavor characteristic analysis in grade classification, production area discrimination, and authentic identification, utilization of intelligent odor detection techniques in flavor quality evaluation, as well as interactions between flavor compounds and matrices, were summarized. Finally, problems in current researches in volatile flavor quality in our country were discussed, and the future trends and focuses in research of volatile flavor quality were prospected. This review would provide guidance and give ideas for future studies on volatile flavor quality evaluation as well as development, utilization and consumption upgrading of high value-added agricultural products.

    Analytical Methods of the Organic Sulfur Compounds in Garlic
    WENG Rui,SHENG XiaoJing,LIU PingXiang,ZHANG JiGuang,QIU Jing,QIAN YongZhong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3199-3206.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.012
    Abstract ( 453 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF (452KB) ( 216 )   Save
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    Garlic is a kind of widely planted agricultural product in China, which has plenty of nutritional and healthy functions, such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidation. These functions are mainly attributed to the organic sulfur compounds, including the flavor precursors, thiosulfinates and thioether volatile compounds. The organic sulfur compounds either have its own biological activities, or multiple compounds work together to produce the same physiological effect. However, considering the poor stability and property diversity of the organic sulfur compounds, the analysis of organic sulfur compounds remains a big challenge. Existing reports are mainly on the determination of several compounds or one group of compounds, and there has been no comprehensive analysis of the organic sulfur compounds in garlic yet. Therefore, in the present review, the analysis methods of the main flavor precursors, thiosulfinates and thioether volatile compounds in garlic were separately discussed and summarized, including the sample pretreatment and detection methods.

    Advances in Research on Physiological Functions of Vitamin K1 and Its Detection Methods in Agricultural Products
    XU YueQing,WANG DanDan,ZHAO XinNan,YU Li,WANG XiuPin,ZHANG LiangXiao,ZHANG Qi,ZHANG Wen,LI PeiWu
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3207-3217.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.013
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    Agricultural products are rich in nutrients, which play important roles in maintaining the normal metabolism and physiological functions of human beings. Vitamin K1 is widely found in agricultural products such as green vegetables and oilseeds. As a fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin K1 plays indispensable roles in daily diet and draws more and more attentions. The recent researches showed that vitamin K1 in agricultural products had the physiological functions including not only promoting normal blood coagulation, preventing bleeding disorders in newborn babies, but also inhibiting cancer, preventing vascular calcification, participating in bone metabolism, inhibiting diabetic cataract, and treating acute and chronic hepatitis. Since vitamin K1 is sensitive to oxidation, alkali, strong acid and ultraviolet radiation, it is necessary to conduct pre-treatment methods, including saponification, enzymatic hydrolysis, organic solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and purification and solid-phase extraction method with good effect. With the advantages and disadvantages of different pre-treatment methods, it is necessary to select a suitable pre-treatment method according to real samples. Meanwhile, vitamin K1 was mainly detected by fluorescence spectrophotometry, liquid chromatography, liquid chromatographic mass spectrometry and other methods. An accurate, efficient and rapid detection method is also a hot research topic. This review summarized the pretreatment and detection methods of vitamin K1 in different agricultural products in recent years. Finally, the trends and prospect of vitamin K1 detection methods were proposed as follows (1) developing green solvent to improve extraction efficiency; (2) developing extraction materials to improve extraction selectivity and recovery rate; (3) Establishing simultaneous detection methods of vitamin K1 and other nutrient functional components in agricultural products. This review systematically summarized the research progress of the physiological functions and detection methods of vitamin K1 in agricultural products, and aimed to promote the in-depth study of nutrients in agricultural products and comparisons of advantages and disadvantages of pretreatment and detection methods.

    Nutrition-Enuironment Relationship Study
    Effects of Different Types of Climate and Soil on Foxtail Millet Quality
    ZHANG AiYing,GUO ErHu,DIAO XianMin,FAN HuiPing,LI YuHui,WANG LiXia,ZHANG Li,WANG Rui,WANG Jun,GUO HongLiang,HAN Fang,CHENG LiPing,WU YinSheng
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3218-3231.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.014
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    【Objective】 The foxtail millet grain quality under different types of climate and soil, was determined in this study, in order to discover the main natural factors on the quality of millet, and to reveal the law in quality change, and to provide technical guidance and theoretical support for the rational distribution of high-quality millet.【Method】 This experiment was carried out at Qinxian and Changzhi, which have different types of climate and soil, during 2012 to 2017. The soil samples at the depth of 0-60 cm were exchanged between two places so that each experimental site has two soil types at the same time. The same millet cultivars were sowed at this two sites with the same fertilization. The soil nutrition, seventeen kinds of amino acids, protein, fat, amylose, VB and mineral nutrients such as K, Cu and Zn in millet grain were determined. The data during 2013 to 2017 was collected and analyzed using a split split-block design with interannual data as duplicates, climate types as the main area, soil types as the main fissure area, and other factors as the secondary fissure area.【Result】 There are obvious differences in millet quality under different climatic conditions. The results showed that the contents of most amino acids (except methionine, alanine and cystine), total amino acids, crude protein, VB2, K, Cu and Zn of millet grain in Qinxian were higher than in Changzhi, in contrast, the content of fat in Qinxian was lower than in Changzhi. Moreover the grain in Qinxian had higher gel consistency but lower pastification temperature and less amylose in compared with the grain in Changzhi. In addition, the yield of millet from red soil is significantly higher than that from cinnamon soil. There are obvious differences in millet quality from different types of soils. The millets harvested from red soil contained more methionine, glycine, cystine, isoleucine, magnesium, iron and copper than that from cinnamon soil. The millets harvested from cinnamon soil contained more amino acids, protein, gel consistency, starch, VB1, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, zinc content than that from red soil. Moreover, the content of selenium of millet from cinnamon soil is significantly higher than that from red soil, but the content of millet fat from red soil was significantly higher than that from cinnamon soil.【Conclusion】 Different types of climate and soil have effects on grain quality, millet palatability and the accumulation of mineral. Qinxian climate benefits the accumulation of most amino acids, protein and VB in millet grain. Also the grain harvested in Qinxian had higher gel consistency but lower pastification temperature and less amylose in compared with the grain in Changzhi. Therefore, the millet in Qinxian has good quality and palatability. Moreover, red soil benefits the accumulation of magnesium, iron and copper, but cinnamon soil benefits the accumulation of amino acids, protein and VB1. In addition, the yield of millet from red soil is significantly higher than that from cinnamon soil, but millet from cinnamon soil are selenium-rich millet. In short, climate factors affect millet palatability, and soil factors affect millet quality and the accumulation of various mineral elements.

    Yellow Pigment Contents in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica) Under Diverse Ecological Conditions
    YANG YanBing, CHEN ErYing, WANG RunFeng, QIN Ling, YIN XiuBo, ZHANG HuiDi, LI FeiFei, GUAN YanAn
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3232-3241.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.015
    Abstract ( 359 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF (401KB) ( 337 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Grains of Setaria italica (L.) are known as millet after dehulling. Yellow pigment content in grains is one of the crucial factors affecting the value of commodity as well as nutritional quality of foxtail millet. Investigating variations of yellow pigment content across ecological conditions would contribute to breeding and utilization of new foxtail millet varieties featured by superior qualities.【Method】 Eight newly released superior and distinctive foxtail millet cultivars from the summer- sowing region in North China were planted at five locations in two consecutive years (2016 and 2017). Yellow pigment contents of the foxtail millet cultivars were determined for each location. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was adopted to determine the significant levels of differences for yellow pigment contents of foxtail millet cultivars under ecological conditions. Correlation analysis was performed on between yellow pigment content, and air temperature, rainfall and sunshine duration.【Result】Growing years, cultivar genotypes, growing locations × growing years, cultivar genotypes × growing years, and growing years × cultivar genotypes × growing years showed highly significant effects on yellow pigment content (P<0.01). Growing locations and growing locations×cultivar genotypes showed significant influences on yellow pigment content (P<0.05). Cultivar genotypes, growing locations, and their interactions had high contribution rate (57.12%, 27.57% and 6.12%, respectively) to the variation of yellow pigment content. Generally, yellow pigment contents of cultivars planted in 2017 were higher than those in 2016. In terms of growing locations, yellow pigment contents of cultivars planted at Jinan, Dezhou and Jining were significantly higher than those at Taian and Linyi both 2016 and 2017 (P<0.05). Yellow pigment content of the eight cultivars was averaged at 23.42 mg·kg -1 and ranged from 18.56 mg·kg -1 to 26.14 mg·kg -1. Among the cultivars, Zhonggu 2 had the highest yellow pigment content, while Jilügu 1 had the lowest. Moreover, there were no significant differences between Zhonggu 2, Jinuogu 2, Jigu 21, and Jigu19. However, yellow pigment contents of the above mentioned cultivars were higher than those of Yugu 18, Jigu 22, Jigu 20, and Jilügu 1. Furthermore, yellow pigment content was positively correlated with average temperature at seedling stage in June (r=0.908, P<0.01), average temperature at the middle and late grain filling stage (r=0.798, P<0.01), average temperature during growth period (r=0.808, P<0.01), sunshine hour in middle and later growth stages in September (r=0.771, P<0.01), and total sunshine hour of during growth period (r = 0.769, P<0.01).【Conclusion】Cultivar genotypes, growing years, locations and their interactions significantly affected yellow pigment content in foxtail millet. Among these factors, cultivar genotype played a key role. Moreover, variations and spatial-temporal distribution differences in meteorological factors such as temperature, rainfall and sunshine hour in different years and locations were important for yellow pigment accumulation. The higher average temperature and more sunshine hours in the middle and late stages of grain filling were beneficial to the accumulation of yellow pigment. Cultivar genotypes are the most significant element influencing yellow pigment contents.

    Response of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Yield and Quality to Climatic and Ecological Conditions on the West Yellow-Huaihe-Haihe Rivers Plain
    QU Yang,ZHANG Fei,WANG KeZhen,HAN Fang,LIU Yang,LUO Yan,GAO XiaoLi,LU Feng,
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3242-3257.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.016
    Abstract ( 304 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (588KB) ( 335 )   Save
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    Regulation of Comprehensive Nutritional Quality of Cucumber by Water and Fertilizer Coupling with Magnesium
    ZHU ChangAn,HE ZhiHao,CAI ZeLin,LIU JianFei,ZHANG Zhi
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3258-3270.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.017
    Abstract ( 297 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (1389KB) ( 293 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To provide a scientific basis of water and fertilizer management for high quality in cucumber production, this research aimed to analyze the effects of water-fertilizer coupling with magnesium on the comprehensive nutritional quality of cucumber. 【Method】 A design of composite quadratic orthogonal regressive rotation with four factors and five levels was adopted to characterize the experimental variables, such as the percentage of irrigation upper limit to field water holding capacity (X1), nitrogen application rate (X2), potassium application rate (X3) and magnesium application rate (X4). The contents of soluble protein, free amino acid, soluble sugar, reducing sugar, vitamin C and nitrate were determined, and these six quality indicators were weighted according to AHP analytic hierarchy process, entropy weighting method and game-based combination weighting method, and then the comprehensive nutrition quality evaluation system of cucumber fruit was constructed based on TOPSIS method. Also, the response model of cucumber comprehensive nutritional quality to the coupling of water and fertilizer was established by regression analysis. 【Result】 The weights of single indicators were expressed as: vitamin C (0.2457)> reducing sugar (0.2305)> free amino acid (0.1666)> soluble sugar (0.1390)> soluble protein (0.1179)> nitrate (0.1003). Regarding the four-factor coupling, when the combination of factors were optimized as with magnesium application of 176.54-182.23 kg?hm -2, the upper limit of irrigation amount accounted of 65.71%-67.61%, the nitrogen application of 490.78-512.16 kg?hm -2and potassium application of 591.00-608.11 kg?hm -2, the comprehensive nutritional quality of cucumber reached to the best level. 【Conclusion】 Water-fertilizer coupling had a significant effect on the comprehensive nutritional quality of cucumber. Proper control of irrigation and nitrogen application, increase of magnesium and potassium application had a positive effect on the improvement of cucumber comprehensive nutritional quality.

    Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on CLA Synthesis and Mechanism
    WANG LiFang,ZHANG XingFu
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2019, 52(18):  3271-3278.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.18.018
    Abstract ( 327 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (417KB) ( 254 )   Save
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    【Objective】The effects of Artemisia annua extracts (AAE) on gene SCD, ACACA, FASN and LPL related to CLA and milk fat synthesis in the bovine mammary epithelial cells(BMECs) culture in vitro were studied in this paper. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of AAE on the part mechanism of effecting CLA synthesis from the mammary.【Method】 We isolated BMEC by using tissue fragments from the mammary gland of a healthy Holstein cows in Mid lactation. The cells used in the experiment were the second generation ones which have been resuscitated. The cells were inoculated into 24-well plates at a density of 3×10 4 cells/mL and cultured at 37℃ in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. The cells were counted by trypan blue counting method once a day. The experiment lasted for 7 d to draw the growth curve of the cells with three replicates, and the uncounted groups changed liquid every 2 d. When the cells grew to logarithmic proliferation stage, fresh culture medium was replaced and randomly divided into four groups, and the concentration of AAE in culture medium was 0, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 mg·L -1 individually for 48 h. The effects of different concentration of AAE on the gene expression of SCD, ACC, FAS and LPL related to fatty acid synthesis were detected. Each treatment was repeated for three times. 【Result】 The results showed as follows: the morphology and the growth curve for the BMECS looked like paving appearance and S-shaped respectively at 3×10 4 cfu/mL. The latent period and the exponential growth period for the BMECS was 1-2 d and 3-6 d, respectively, and then in the plateau stage, which were accorded with the general cells growth curve rule and showed that the cultured mammary epithelial cells had normal proliferation ability as used in the subsequent researches. Compared with the control group, there was the trend that AAE supplementation increased the expression of SCD enzyme gene, 3 mg·L -1 group significantly increased the expression of SCD gene (P<0.05), while the 6 mg·L -1 group and the 12 mg·L -1 group increased the expression of SCD gene, but there was no significant difference compared with the control group (P>0.05). The addition of AAE increased the expression of ACACA gene in mammary epithelial cells (P>0.05). The addition of AAE increased the expression of FASN gene with a dose-dependent manner, the 12mg·L -1 group increased the expression of FASN gene significantly (P<0.05). There was the trend that AAE supplementation decreased the expression of LPL enzyme gene with a dose-dependent manner, and the 6 mg·L -1 group and the 12 mg·L -1 group decreased the expression of LPL gene significantly (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 It was concluded that AAE supplementation could increase the expression of SCD, ACACA and FASN genes in BMECS, which was beneficial to CLA synthesis.