Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (15): 2977-2994.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.15.012

• HORTICULTURE • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Analysis of the Interaction Between VvGAI1 and VvJAZ9 Proteins in Grape and Its Expression Pattern Under Low Temperature

LIU DeShuai(), FENG Mei, SUN YuTong, WANG Ye, CHI JingNan, YAO WenKong()   

  1. College of Enology and Horticulture, Ningxia University/Ningxia Modern Facility Horticulture Engineering Technology Research Center/Ningxia Key Laboratory of Modern Molecular Breeding of Dominant and Characteristic Crops, Yinchuan 750021
  • Received:2023-01-12 Accepted:2023-03-31 Online:2023-08-01 Published:2023-08-05


【Objective】 DELLA protein belongs to plant-specific GRAS protein family, which is a significant regulatory factor in GA signal transduction pathway and plays important roles in plant growth, development and resistance to different stresses. In this study, the European grapevine VvGAI1 gene was cloned and the analysis of subcellular localization, protein interaction and expression were performed, so as to lay the foundation for the further study of the function of DELLA protein in response to cold stress in grapevine.【Method】 The VvGAI1 gene sequence was obtained by homologous cloning from the leaves of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay. The VvGAI1 sequence was analyzed by bioinformatics method, and the multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic trees were performed by DNAMAN and MEGA7.0, respectively. The location of VvGAI1 protein in cells was determined by subcellular localization, and the transcriptional activation activity of the VvGAI1 protein was confirmed by a yeast assay. The interaction between VvGAI1 protein and VvJAZ9 protein was verified by yeast two-hybrid and BiFC assays. The VvGAI1 protein polyclonal antibodies from rabbit was prepared by VvGAI1 protein purified from prokaryotic expression. The VvGAI1 protein expression at low temperature was detected by Western blot method. The effect of exogenous MeJA and GA3 on the cold resistance in grape was analyzed by relative electrical conductivity.【Result】 The VvGAI1 gene was cloned from Chardonnay leaves, with carrying an ORF of 1 773 bp, encoding 590 amino acids, locating on chromosome 1, and containing only one exon. The VvGAI1 protein had a molecular weight of 64.87 kDa and pI of 5.31, which was an acidic unstable hydrophilic protein. The VvGAI1 belonged to GRAS family and had the conserved DELLA and GRAS domains. Protein clustering analysis showed that VvGAI1 was closely related to Arabidopsis GAI and tobacco GAI1. The results of subcellular location and transcriptional activation showed that VvGAI1 was a transcription factor localized in the nucleus and had transcriptional self-activation activity. The interaction between VvGAI1 and VvJAZ9 was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid and BiFC assays. The VvGAI1 gene sequence was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector to form a pET28b-VvGAI1 recombinant vector, and the Escherichia coli BL21 carrying pET28b-VvGAI1 recombinant vector was incubated in culture medium with 1.0 mmol∙L-1 isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside (IPTG) at 16 ℃ to obtain VvGAI1-His fusion protein. The anti-VvGAI1 polyclonal antibody (rabbit-derived) was prepared by antigen immunization and serum purification and used to specifically detect VvGAI1 protein in Chardonnay grapes. Western blot results showed that the VvGAI1 protein in grape protoplasts under low temperature treatment showed an increasing first and then decreasing trend, which indicated the expression of VvGAI1 protein was induced at a low temperature. For 50 μmol·L-1 MeJA and 50 μmol·L-1 GA3 treatments, compared with the control group exogenous MeJA treatment could improve the cold resistance of grape, whereas GA3 treatment made grapes more sensitive to cold.a【Conclusion】 Grape VvGAI1 protein was a transcription factor and interacts with VvJAZ9. The VvGAI1 responded to low temperature stress, and exogenous MeJA was able to positively regulate the cold stress, while GA3 negatively regulated the cold response.

Key words: Vitis vinifera, DELLA protein, GAI1, protein interaction, low temperature, expression pattern

Table 1

List of primers"

引物名称 Primer name 引物序列Primer sequence (5′→3′) 用途 Purpose

Fig. 1

The PCR amplification of VvGAI1 gene M: DL5000 bp DNA Marker; 1: VvGAI1 gene"

Fig. 2

VvGAI1 protein sequence and conserved domain prediction A: Nucleotide and amino acid sequence of VvGAI1; B: The conserved domain of VvGAI1 protein, the amino acids in the shaded part are DELLA and GRAS conserved domains, * represents the stop codon"

Fig. 3

Sequence alignment analysis of VvGAI1 protein The dots represent sequence alignment vacancies, the blue line region represents the DELLA conservative domain, and the orange line region represents the GRAS conservative domain in the figure"

Fig. 4

Phylogenetic analysis of DELLA protein sequences in Vitis vinifera"

Fig. 5

Subcellular localization of VvGAI1"

Fig. 6

Analysis of cold resistance of grape treated with exogenous MeJA and GA3 * indicate significant difference (P<0.05), ** indicate extremely significant difference (P<0.01)"

Fig. 7

Protein structure and self-activation activity detection of the VvGAI1 protein A: Structure diagram of VvGAI1 protein; B: Verification of the transcriptional activation activity of VvGAI1 protein. BD: pGBKT7 empty vector control; Po: pGADT7-T+pGBKT7-p53 as a positive control; Ne: pGADT7-T+pGBKT7-Lam as negative control"

Fig. 8

Verification of the interaction between VvGAI1 and VvJAZ9 by yeast two-hybrid assays Po: pGADT7-T+pGBKT7-p53 as a positive control; Ne: pGADT7-T+pGBKT7-Lam as negative control"

Fig. 9

BiFC verification of VvGAI1 interaction with VvJAZ9 protein"

Fig. 10

PCR detection of prokaryotic expression vector pET28b constructed from VvGAI1 M: DL 5000 bp DNA Marker; Lanes 1-3: PCR detection of recombinant vector pET28b-VvGAI1-His bacterial solution"

Fig. 11

Polyclonal antibody preparation of VvGAI1 protein A: Prokaryotic expression of VvGAI1; B: VvGAI1 protein purification; C: Detection after preparation of anti-VvGAI1. CK represents non-induced bacteria culture (negative control). M represents molecular weight marker, lanes 1-4 represent the E. coli BL21 natural protein extract induced by IPTG at 16 ℃, natural protein extract induced by IPTG at 37 ℃, denatured protein extract induced by IPTG at 16 ℃ and denatured protein extract was obtained by IPTG at 37 ℃, respectively"

Fig. 12

Expression analysis of VvGAI1 protein under low temperature"

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WU Y Y, CHEN T C, QIU T, SHEN L Y, XIE X H. Establishment of tissue culture, protoplast isolation and transient expression system in ‘Summer Black' grape. Plant Physiology Journal, 2021, 57(11): 2128-2144. (in Chinese)
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