Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (9): 1981-1992.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2021.09.014

• HORTICULTURE • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Quality Analysis of Frozen Pear Based on Color, Aroma, Taste and Texture

WANG Yang(),WANG WenHui(),TONG Wei,JIA XiaoHui,DU YanMin   

  1. Research Institute of Pomology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Germplasm Resources Utilization of Horticultural Crops, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Afffairs/Key Laboratory of Fruits Storage and Processing of Liaoning Province, Xingcheng 125100, Liaoning
  • Received:2020-07-13 Accepted:2020-10-14 Online:2021-05-01 Published:2021-05-10
  • Contact: WenHui WANG;


【Objective】Three suitable frozen pear varieties (Nanguoli, Jianbali and Huagaili) were studied to analyze the color, aroma, taste and texture of fresh pear and frozen pear. 【Method】Color values (L*, a*, b*, C, h, ∆E) were determined by chromatic meter, aroma component and content were tested by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, sugar component and content were measured by ion chromatograph, acid component and content were determined by liquid chromatograph, and texture include hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were tested by physical property analyzer of peel and flesh of three fresh and frozen pears, respectively. 【Result】The peel color of frozen pear was black brown, and its flesh was yellow brown which changed obviously. The L* of peel and flesh of frozen pear decreased. The color of frozen pear was darker and color values fell near the achromatic region. Compared to flesh, the color of peel changed obviously. Twenty-eight kinds of aroma components were detected in fresh Nanguoli peel, while twenty-seven kinds in frozen Nanguoli peel. Among them, twenty kinds of aroma components were retained in frozen Nanguoli peel, but fifteen kinds of aroma components were significantly different (P<0.05). Twenty-two kinds of aroma components were measured in fresh Nanguoli flesh, while twenty-six kinds of aroma components were detected in frozen Nanguoli flesh. Among them, there were nineteen common aroma components. The contents of eighteen kinds of aroma components were significantly different (P<0.05) except for methyl butyrate. Twenty-five kinds of aroma components were determined in Jianbali peel, and twenty-three kinds in frozen Jianbali peel. Among them, twenty kinds of aroma components did not change. The contents of other sixteen kinds of aroma components were significantly different (P<0.05) except for ethyl propionate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl 3-hydroxybutyrate and reverse 2-octyl aldehyde. Thirteen kinds of aroma components were tested in fresh Jianbali flesh, and sixteen kinds in frozen Jianbali flesh. Among them, eleven kinds of aroma components were retained in frozen Jianbali flesh. The contents of other eight kinds of aroma components were significantly different (P<0.05) except for ethyl propionate, ethyl caproate and ethyl 3-hydroxycaproate. Eleven kinds of aroma components were detected in Huagaili peel, and seventeen kinds in frozen Huagaili peel. Among them, nine kinds of aroma components were always present. The contents of other eight kinds of aroma components were significantly different (P<0.05) except for methyl butyrate. Seven kinds of aroma components were detected in Huagaili flesh, and sixteen kinds in frozen Huagaili flesh. Among them, six kinds of aroma components did not change and were significantly different (P<0.05). Compared with fresh pear, the glucose content of frozen pear increased and the total sugar content decreased. The sorbitol and fructose contents of frozen Huagaili decreased significantly (P<0.05), and no sucrose content was detected in the frozen Nanguoli and Huagaili. Furthermore, the contents of malic acid, shikimic acid and total acid in frozen pear decreased, both of the content of fumaric acid in frozen Nanguoli and citric acid in frozen Huagaili decreased significantly (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】The color, aroma, taste and texture of fresh and frozen pear were analyzed in this study, and the result showed that compared to fresh pears, the frozen pears peel color were changed to black and brown significantly. Three frozen pear varieties showed different aroma, but esters with fruit flavor were detected in frozen pear peel and flesh. The content of total sugar and total acid decreased. The texture of frozen pears were soft, in addition the flesh were chewed easily and could be sucked.

Key words: frozen pears, color, aroma, sugar and acid, texture

Table 1

The optimum process parameters of three varieties frozen pear"

Ripen-softening firmness (N)
Thawing time (times)
Thawing time (h)
Thawing interval (d)
冻南果梨 Frozen Nanguoli 30—50 3 36 10
冻尖把梨 Frozen Jianbali 30—50 3 24 10
冻花盖梨 Frozen Huagaili 50—70 3 36 15

Table 2

Color of peel and flesh of three varieties frozen pear"

品种 Cultivar L* a* b* C h ∆E
鲜梨皮 Peel of fresh pear 71.72±2.68a 6.84±0.31a 44.18±2.07a 44.89±2.09a 81.22±5.46a 71.73±5.52
冻梨皮 Peel of frozen pear 25.91±1.33b -0.08±0.03b 6.41±0.66b 6.42±0.65b 90.88±2.60b
鲜梨肉 Flesh of fresh pear 80.21±1.25a -2.58±0.13a 16.84±1.29a 17.04±1.29a 98.73±0.60b 34.85±4.93
冻梨肉 Flesh of frozen pear 49.69±4.56b -5.25±0.21b 11.96±1.83b 13.09±1.60b 114.12±4.20a
鲜梨皮 Peel of fresh pear 69.77±2.78a 5.47±0.26a 50.10±3.64a 50.43±3.78a 83.89±2.35a 61.33±1.06
冻梨皮 Peel of frozen pear 36.20±2.68b 3.57±0.16b 13.83±1.78b 14.25±1.79b 81.35±12.41a
鲜梨肉 Flesh of fresh pear 80.29±1.23a 0.13±0.01a 21.64±2.64a 21.65±2.64a 89.86±1.94b 29.34±1.67
冻梨肉 Flesh of frozen pear 58.33±1.75b -5.82±0.94b 18.24±2.54b 19.17±2.44a 107.91±3.50a
鲜梨皮 Peel of fresh pear 74.27±2.53a 4.16±0.26a 43.62±1.98a 44.02±2.23a 84.71±5.51a 64.84±5.57
冻梨皮 Peel of frozen pear 30.15±1.87b 2.50±0.45a 10.16±0.73b 10.47±0.76b 76.17±2.15b
鲜梨肉 Flesh of fresh pear 81.52±1.27a -1.29±0.11a 11.97±1.58b 12.04±1.58b 96.20±0.46a 32.70±1.79
冻梨肉 Flesh of frozen pear 54.60±1.93b -2.70±0.70b 25.01±2.17a 25.16±2.14a 96.23±1.78a

Fig. 1

Three frozen pear varieties"

Table 3

Aroma components of fresh Nanguoli and frozen Nanguoli"

Aroma component
果皮中含量 Peel content (μg/100 g) 香气成分
Aroma component
果肉中含量 Flesh content (μg/100 g)
Fresh Nanguoli
Frozen Nanguoli
Fresh Nanguoli
Frozen Nanguoli
乙酸乙酯 Ethyl acetate 69.65±11.35b 189.72±8.75a 乙酸乙酯 Ethyl acetate 21.84±9.70b 107.92±33.35a
丙酸乙酯 Ethyl propionate 3.47±0.56a 4.10±1.60a 丙酸乙酯 Ethyl propionate 1.10±0.52b 3.52±0.86a
丁酸甲酯 Methyl butyrate 8.22±0.20a 7.24±3.35a 乙酸丙酯 Propyl acetate 0.51±0.29
Methyl 2-methylbutyrate
2.69±0.77 丁酸甲酯
Methyl butyrate
3.49±0.78a 5.07±0.87a
Ethyl butyrate
129.59±1.46a 88.26±30.08b 甲基丁酸甲酯
Methyl 2-methylbutyrate
0.62±0.05b 2.95±1.33a
乙酸丙酯 Propyl acetate 8.73±0.41 丁酸乙酯 Ethyl butyrate 132.94±54.17b 205.10±76.37a
乙酸丁酯 Butyl acetate 5.14±3.46 乙酸丁酯 Butyl acetate 10.19±4.30a 4.84±1.75b
Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate
7.60±0.27b 10.35±3.39a 2-甲基丁酸乙酯
Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate
6.48±2.66b 42.38±16.14a
戊酸乙酯 Ethyl valerate 1.86±0.58a 2.35±0.72a 戊酸乙酯 Ethyl valerate 3.27±0.36b 5.70±0.33a
己酸甲酯 Methyl hexoate 92.39±10.23a 36.64±7.54b 己酸甲酯 Methyl hexoate 51.97±22.31b 77.55±31.79a
己酸乙酯 Ethyl hexanoate 303.55±33.02a 123.97±38.26b 己酸乙酯 Ethyl hexanoate 537.69±20.18b 615.80±33.40a
乙酸己酯 Hexyl acetate 44.11±7.52a 17.64±8.01b 乙酸己酯 Hexyl acetate 156.81±6.12b 176.51±6.52a
辛酸甲酯 Methyl octylate 20.17±3.79a 9.37±2.73b 庚酸乙酯 Ethyl heptanoate 1.18±0.86
Ethyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate
22.88±1.43 3-羟基己酸乙酯
Ethyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate
4.16±1.03b 19.69±7.59a
辛酸乙酯 Ethyl caprylate 5.59±2.79 乙酸辛酯 Octyl acetate 1.99±0.53b 4.71±1.76a
乙酸辛酯 Octyl acetate 2.46±0.86 γ-己内酯 γ-Caprolactone 1.38±0.50
辛烯酸乙酯 Ethyl 2-octenoate 4.09±1.30 苯乙酸乙酯 Ethyl 2-phenylacetate 1.68±0.90b 4.28±1.82a
Methyl octylate
2.58±0.73 3-羟基己酸乙酯
Ethyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate
4.85±1.66b 32.75±6.94a
Ethyl 2-phenylacetate
1.63±0.11b 2.49±0.11a 2,4-葵二烯酸甲酯
2,4-decadienoic acid methyl ester
Ethyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate
4.14±0.55b 16.72±1.43a 2,4-癸二烯酸乙酯
Ethyl (2E,4Z)-deca-2,4-dienoate
2.59±0.55b 21.72±7.38a
2,4-葵二烯酸甲酯2,4-decadienoic acid methyl ester 8.84±2.88
9.98±5.60b 24.28±8.40a
棕榈酸甲酯 Methyl palmitate 11.04±0.73a 3.84±0.37b
棕榈酸乙酯 Ethyl palmitate 5.60±1.25
2-己烯醛 2-hexenal 40.44±5.43 戊醛 Valeraldehyde 2.14±1.06
正己醛 Hexanal 85.83±4.44a 56.07±16.78b 正己醛 Hexanal 27.30±10.75
反-2-辛烯醛 (2E)-2-octenal 2.01±3.49 柠檬醛 Citral 0.64±0.02
4.35±0.99b 13.01±1.43a (Z)-3,7-二甲基-2,6-辛二烯醛(Z)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal 1.35±0.66
柠檬醛 Citral 2.41±0.80
正己醇 Hexanol 51.64±0.37b 62.53±1.72a 正己醇 Hexanol 4.10±1.39b 52.08±19.59a
2-乙基己醇 2-Ethylhexanol 8.22±0.88 芳樟醇 Linalool 0.85±0.15b 3.99±1.57a
4.21±1.35a 4.84±0.87a 6-甲基-5-庚烯-2-酮6-Methylhept-5-en-2-one 9.97±0.58b 27.98±12.52a
6-甲基-5庚烯-2-酮6-Methylhept-5-en-2-one 338.50±44.88a 319.14±77.89a 大马士酮
正己酸 1-Hexanoic acid 12.91±0.29b 116.84±30.62a 正己酸 1-Hexanoic acid 120.63±47.03
戊基环丙烷 Pentylcyclopropane 11.79±0.99

Table 4

Aroma components of fresh Jianbali and frozen Jianbali"

Aroma component
果皮中含量 Peel content (μg/100 g) 香气成分
Aroma component
果肉中含量 Flesh content (μg/100 g)
Fresh Jianbali
Frozen Jianbali
Fresh Jianbali
Frozen Jianbali
Ethyl acetate
1365.88±826.79a 1129.52±200.75b 乙酸甲酯
丙酸乙酯 Ethyl propionate 9.81±0.82a 8.34±1.86a 乙酸乙酯 Ethyl 2-phenylacetate 1202.12±217.45a 1099.42±5.15b
乙酸丙酯 Propyl acetate 8.07±3.90b 10.78±2.33a 丙酸乙酯 Ethyl propionate 10.14±2.30a 10.77±0.18a
丁酸甲酯 Methyl butyrate 9.96±3.98a 6.32±2.34b 乙酸丙酯 Propyl acetate 7.79±1.09b 15.08±1.45a
乙酸异丁酯 Isobutyl acetate 20.88±10.40 丁酸甲酯 Methyl butyrate 7.55±1.03
Ethyl butyrate
113.21±65.62a 45.90±9.03b 2-甲基丁酸甲酯
Methyl 2-methylbutyrate
乙酸丁酯 Butyl acetate 46.64±2.29a 40.51±1.95b 丁酸乙酯 Ethyl butyrate 87.06±17.42a 74.33±8.30b
Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate
93.92±59.87a 70.42±14.81b 乙酸丁酯
Butyl acetate
44.33±9.09b 76.25±4.38a
Isoamyl acetate
12.30±1.03a 10.70±1.09a 甲基丁酸乙酯
Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate
55.67±13.85b 149.99±9.00a
2-甲基丁基酸乙酯2-Methylbutylacetat 24.31±1.58b 29.69±2.23a 乙酸异戊酯
Isoamyl acetate
5.95±1.74b 18.25±1.11a
Methyl hexoate
49.81±16.20 2-甲基丁基乙酸酯2-Methylbutylacetat 19.62±1.79b 60.70±7.35a
己酸乙酯 Ethyl hexanoate 89.98±55.41a 23.49±6.33b 己酸乙酯 Ethyl hexanoate 18.82±4.08a 17.94±4.34a
8.00±3.28a 8.03±1.51a 羟基丁酸乙酯
乙酸己酯 Hexyl acetate 152.77±66.20a 27.76±3.77b 乙酸己酯 Hexyl acetate 26.49±9.79b 58.54±6.01a
Methyl octylate
52.09±11.55a 11.08±3.94b 3-羟基己酸乙酯
Ethyl 3-hydroxyhexanoate
15.66±3.12a 12.35±1.22a
辛酸乙酯 Ethyl caprylate 47.22±6.32a 24.82±6.55b
Ethyl 2-octenoate
Ethyl (2E,4Z)-deca-2, 4-dienoate
24.77±11.39a 13.69±5.60b
2-甲基丁醛 2-Methylbutanal 10.90±3.03
正己醛 Hexanal 1146.59±34.75a 53.54±12.23b 戊醛 Valeraldehyde 5.83±1.02
己烯醛 Trans-2-hexenal 142.74±32.14
-2-庚烯醛 Heptenal 42.70±21.95
反-2-辛烯醛 (2E)-2-Octenal 14.92±3.04a 13.48±2.62a
壬醛 Nonanal 5.85±1.73b 10.51±2.79a
正己醇 Hexanol 128.94±45.88a 44.03±11.98b 正己醇 Hexanol 49.44±4.93
3-羟基-2-丁酮 Acetoin 130.72±27.21 3-羟基-2-丁酮 Acetoin 89.72±2.68
甲基庚烯酮6-Methylhept-5-en-2-one 631.22±193.48a 230.29±49.68b
香叶基丙酮 Geranylacetone 8.83±3.01

Table 5

Aroma components of fresh Huagaili and frozen Huagaili"

Aroma components
果皮中含量 Peel content (μg/100 g) 香气成分
Aroma components
果肉中含量 Flesh content (μg/100 g)
Fresh Huagaili
Frozen Huagaili
Fresh Huagaili
Frozen Huagaili
乙酸乙酯 Ethyl acetate 31.25±9.20 丁酸甲酯 Methyl butyrate 8.49±4.69b 17.20±7.23a
Methyl butyrate
13.98±1.52a 12.99±4.26a 2-甲基丁酸甲酯
Methyl 2-methylbutyrate
3.00±1.71b 7.43±3.05a
Methyl 2-methylbutyrate
3.25±0.83b 5.74±0.68a 丁酸乙酯
Ethyl butyrate
1.22±0.48b 4.81±1.67a
丁酸乙酯 Ethyl butyrate 1.39±0.50b 5.55±2.07a 乙酸丁酯 Butyl acetate 3.23±1.83
己酸甲酯 Methyl hexanoate 8.35±1.34 乙酸丙酯 Propyl acetate 6.14±2.55
Ethyl hexanoate
12.90±60.83 2-甲基丁酸乙酯
Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate
乙酸己酯 Hexyl acetate 6.81±1.63b 8.87±1.96a 己酸甲酯 Methyl hexoate 4.29±2.43b 9.11±3.94a
辛酸甲酯 Methyl octylate 82.24±1.13 己酸乙酯 Ethyl hexanoate 4.80±2.85
辛酸乙酯 Ethyl caprylate 0.57±0.02 乙酸己酯 Hexyl acetate 7.99±3.58b 21.83±9.62a
乙酸辛酯 Octyl acetate 7.13±2.52
戊醛 Valeraldehyde 13.92±3.15 正己醛 Hexanal 3.94±0.13b 61.41±24.58a
正己醛 Hexanal 102.37±17.09b 173.10±48.82a (E)-2-庚烯醛 Heptenal 13.29±6.37
2-己烯醛 Trans-2-hexenal 51.32±7.44a 28.79±8.35b 反-2-辛烯醛 (2E)-2-Octenal 14.00±8.48
正辛醛 Octanal 4.52±1.88
反-2-辛烯醛 (2E)-2-Octenal 7.05±2.29b 13.10±5.18a
壬醛 Nonanal 3.09±0.11b 4.65±0.25a
十二醛 Lauryl aldehyde 1.31±0.59
8.23±2.71 甲基庚烯酮
甲基庚烯酮6-Methylhept-5-en-2-one 36.26±9.24a 22.95±5.02b 突厥烯酮
香叶基丙酮 Geranylacetone 2.49±0.30 丁基-2-氧杂卓酮 -butyloxepan-2-one 2.67±0.71
6,10-二甲基-5,9-十一双烯-2-酮6,10-Dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-one 3.32±0.83

Table 6

The sugar compositions and contents of three pear varieties"

Sorbitol (%)
Glucose (%)
Fructose (%)
Sucrose (%)
Total sugar (%)
鲜南果梨 Fresh Nanguoli 2.39±0.13a 3.14±0.08b 7.55±0.08a 2.42±0.01 15.50±0.31a
冻南果梨 Frozen Nanguoli 2.20±0.08a 3.92±0.13a 7.63±0.36a 13.74±0.57a
鲜尖把梨 Fresh Jianbali 1.12±0.01a 2.14±0.04b 5.25±0.01a 4.73±0.13a 13.23±0.08a
冻尖把梨 Frozen Jianbali 1.18±0.06a 2.33±0.04a 4.75±0.04b 4.60±0.32a 12.85±0.38a
鲜花盖梨 Fresh Huagaili 3.44±0.13a 3.55±0.14a 7.67±0.37a 14.65±0.65a
冻花盖梨 Frozen Huagaili 2.43±0.08b 3.66±0.08a 7.52±0.04a 13.31±0.20a

Table 7

The organic acid compositions and contents of three varieties fresh and frozen pear"

Malic acid
(mg·g-1 FW)
Shikimic acid
(mg·g-1 FW)
Citric acid
(mg·g-1 FW)
Fumaric acid
(mg·kg-1 FW)
Total acid
(mg·g-1 FW)
鲜南果梨 Fresh Nanguoli 1.87±0.10a 0.12±0.00a 2.91±0.11a 1.03±0.08a 4.90±0.02a
冻南果梨 Frozen Nanguoli 1.79±0.05a 0.10±0.00a 2.93±0.18a 0.49±0.07b 4.82±0.23a
鲜尖把梨 Fresh Jianbali 4.72±0.03a 0.05±0.00a 3.62±0.15a 0.61±0.34a 8.37±0.18a
冻尖把梨 Frozen Jianbali 3.15±0.04b 0.04±0.00b 3.17±0.07a 0.30±0.03a 6.36±0.11b
鲜花盖梨 Fresh Huagaili 2.20±0.02a 0.08±0.00a 5.22±0.06a 0.43±0.16a 7.51±0.04a
冻花盖梨 Frozen Huagaili 1.98±0.03b 0.06±0.00b 4.56±0.00b 1.32±0.06a 6.60±0.03b

Table 8

The texture of three varieties fresh and frozen pear"

Hardness (N)
Adhesiveness (J)
Springiness (m)
胶黏性 Gumminess (N) 咀嚼性
Chewiness (J)
鲜南果梨 Fresh Nanguoli 46.17±8.21a 10.38±3.03b 0.62±0.08a 2.03±0.11a 30.06±4.48a 58.26±15.40a
冻南果梨 Frozen Nanguoli 1.63±0.25b 52.04±17.72a 0.61±0.10a 1.60±0.28a 0.99±0.19b 1.62±0.54b
鲜尖把梨 Fresh Jianbali 29.68±6.34a 8.35±2.27b 0.57±0.03a 1.84±0.09a 16.75±3.49a 30.75±6.88a
冻尖把梨 Frozen Jianbali 1.87±0.41b 668.29±59.80a 0.52±0.03a 0.95±0.13b 0.97±0.20b 0.94±0.28b
鲜花盖梨 Fresh Huagaili 3.38±0.20a 24.74±6.69b 0.56±0.03a 2.59±0.16a 23.25±5.56a 60.51±15.50a
冻花盖梨 Frozen Huagaili 1.79±0.46b 98.71±35.80a 0.51±0.11a 1.72±0.40b 0.92±0.40b 0.15±0.01b
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