Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2015, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (14): 2884-2890.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.14.020

• RESEARCH NOTES • Previous Articles    

Improvement of the Effects of Phytase Application by Lowering the High Level of Copper in Piglets Diets

LU Yang, HU Er-yong, ZI Zheng-hao, SUN Guo-rong, XIA Dong   

  1. Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201106
  • Received:2014-02-25 Online:2015-07-16 Published:2015-07-16

Abstract: 【Objective】To promote the growth of piglets and nutrient digestibility, high copper and/or phytase additives are usually added to weaned piglet diets. However, the effects of high dietary copper on the phytase application are not very clear. This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementation of phytase on nutrient apparent digestibility (AD), growth performance, fecal copper (FCu) and fecal phosphorus (FP) in piglets with high copper diets, and the effects of reducing copper dosage on the phytase application. 【Method】Total of 180 Landrace ´ Yorkshire piglets with initial body weight of 9-10 kg were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments group, 5 replicate pens of 12 piglets in each group. The diets based on corn-soybean meal meet or exceed NRC (1998) nutrient requirements. For the first group (control group, Group 1), 180 mg·kg-1 copper from copper sulfate addition was added to the diet without phytase. For the second and third group (phytase treatment groups, Group 2 and Group 3), 180 and 120 mg·kg-1 copper from copper sulfate addition was added to the diets with 500 IU·kg-1 phytase, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the three weeks of experimental period, following by three days of adaptation. Feed consumption and diarrhea were checked daily, and body weight was recorded at the beginning and end of the experiment to calculate average daily bodyweight gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion ratio (F/G) and diarrhea frequency. At the last week, fececs were spot sampled for three consecutive days from each pen. Every 100 gram of feces was immediately added with 10 mL of 10% ethanol and stored at -20°C until required for further analysis. Nutrients apparent digestibilities were calculated using acid-insoluble ash as an index in feed and fecal samples. 【Result】 The results showed that adding phytase to high copper level diet increased phosphorus (P) apparent digestibility by 21.12% (Group 2 to Group 1, P<0.05), decreased FCu by 4.41% (P=0.09) and diarrhea frequency by 19.22 % (P=0.35). No significant difference was observed in apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP), ADFI, ADG or F/G. Compared with two phytase treatment groups, reducing the copper supplement from 180 mg·kg-1 to 120 mg·kg-1 increased the apparent digestibility of calcium (Ca) and P by 13.74% and 9.79% (Group 3 to Group 2, P=0.02 and P=0.01), decreased FP by 18.86% (P<0.01) and diarrhea frequency by 25.24% (P=0.25). No significant difference was observed in digestibility of DM, CP, ADFI, ADG or F/G. In contrast to high copper diet without phytase addition, lower copper diet with phytase addition showed higher apparent digestibility of DM, CP, Ca and P by 1.80%, 2.84%, 17.20% and 32.98% (Group 3 compare with Group 1, P=0.02, P=0.04,P<0.01 and P<0.01) and lower diarrhea frequency by 39.6% (P=0.04). 【Conclusion】Results of the current experiment indicate that reducing copper supplementation in the corn-soybean meal basal diet from 180 mg·kg-1 to 120 mg?kg-1 could prevent severely diminishing phytase’s positive effects on Ca and P apparent digestibility and FCu and FP content.

Key words: phytase, piglets, performance, digestibility, fecal copper

[1]    Li S F, Niu Y B, Liu J S, Lu L, Zhang L Y, Ran C Y, Feng M S, Du B, Deng J L, Luo X G. Energy, amino acid, and phosphorus digestibility of phytase transgenic corn for growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2013, 91(1):298-308.
[2]    Roberson K D. Estimation of the phosphorus requirement of weanling pigs fed supplemental phytase. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 1999, 80(2):91-100.
[3]    张克英, 陈代文, 余冰, 罗献梅, 李永义. 饲粮中添加植酸酶对断奶仔猪生长性能及蛋白质、氨基酸和磷利用率的影响. 动物营养学报, 2001, 13(3):19-24.
Zhang K Y, Chen D W, Yu B, Luo X M, Li Y Y. The performance and protein, amino acid and phosphorus utilization of piglets fed diets added with phytase. Acta Zoonutrimenta Sinica, 2001, 13(3):19-24. (in Chinese)
[4]    Selle P H, Ravindran V. Phytate-degrading enzymes in pig nutrition. Livestock Science, 2008, 113(2/3):99-122.
[5]    Bikker P, Jongbloed A W, Thissen J T. Meta-analysis of effects of microbial phytase on digestibility and bioavailability of copper and zinc in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 2012, 90(Suppl 4):134-136.
[6]    Jolliff J S, Mahan D C. Effect of dietary inulin and phytase on mineral digestibility and tissue retention in weanling and growing swine. Journal of Animal Science, 2012, 90(9):3012-3022.
[7]    NRC. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. Washington D C: The National Academies Press, 2012.
[8]    Barber R S, Braude R, Mitchell K G. Antibiotic and copper supplements for fattening pigs. British Journal of Nutrition, 1955, 9(4):378-381.
[9]    Maenz D D, Engele-Schann C M, Newkird R W. The effect of minerals and mineral chelators on the formation of phytase-resistant and phytase-susceptible forms of phytic acid in solation and in a slurry of canola meal. Animal Feed Science Technology, 1999(3/4):177-192.
[10]   Lu L, Hao S, Zhang L, Luo X. Effect of copper source on phytase stability in the premixes of weanling piglets. Animal Production Science, 2013, 53:142-145.
[11]   Lu L, Wang R L, Zhang Z J, Steward F A, Luo X, Liu B. Effect of dietary supplementation with copper sulfate or tribasic copper chloride on the growth performance, liver copper concentrations of broilers fed in floor pens, and stabilities of vitamin E and phytase in feeds. Biological Trace Element Research, 2010, 138(1/3):181-189..
[12]   NRC. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. Washington D C: The National Academies Press, 1998.
[13]   王九峰, 李同洲, 译. 动物营养. 6 ed. 北京: 中国农业大学出版社, 2007.
Wang J F, Li T Z translated. Animal Nutrition. 6 ed. Beijing: China Agricultural University Press, 2007. (in Chinese)
[14]   张丽英. 饲料分析及饲料质量检测技术. 北京: 中国农业大学出版社, 2002.
Zhang L Y. Feed Analysis and Feed Quality Inspection Technology. Beijing: China Agricultural University Press, 2002. (in Chinese)
[15]   Emiola A, Akinremi O, Slominski B, Nyachoti C M. Nutrient utilization and manure P excretion in growing pigs fed corn-barley- soybean based diets supplemented with microbial phytase. Journal of Animal Science, 2009, 80(1):19-26.
[16]   Varley P F, Callan J J, O’Doherty J V. Effect of dietary phosphorus and calcium level and phytase addition on performance, bone parameters, apparent nutrient digestibility, mineral and nitrogen utilization of weaner pigs and the subsequent effect on finisher pig bone parameters. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2011, 165(3/4): 201-209.
[17]   Yanez J L, Landero J L, Owusu-Asiedu A, Cervantes M, Zijlstra R T. Growth performance, diet nutrient digestibility, and bone mineralization in weaned pigs fed pelleted diets containing thermostable phytase. Journal of Animal Science, 2013, 91(2): 745-754.
[18]   Selle P H, Cowieson A J, Cowieson N P, Ravindran V. Protein-phytate interactions in pig and poultry nutrition: a reappraisal. Nutrition Research Reviews, 2012, 25(1):1-17.
[19]   Shockravi S, Mohammad-Shirazi M, Abadi A, Seyedain M, Kimiagar M. Phytase supplementation improves blood zinc in rats fed with high phytate Iranian bread. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 2012, 17(4):361-367.
[20]   McClung J P, Stahl C H, Marchitelli L J, Morales-Martinez N, Mackin K M, Young A J, Scrimgeour A G. Effects of dietary phytase on body weight gain, body composition and bone strength in growing rats fed a low-zinc diet. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2006, 17(3): 190-196.
[21]   Scrimgeour A G, Marchitelli L J, Whicker J S, Song Y, Ho E, Young A J. Phytase supplementation increases bone mineral density, lean body mass and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-zinc diet. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2010, 21(7):653-658.
[22]   Akhter S, Saeed A, Irfan M, Malik K A. In vitro dephytinization and bioavailability of essential minerals in several wheat varieties. Journal of Cereal Science, 2012, 56(3):741-746.
[23]   Pallauf J, Höhler D, Rimbach G. Effect of microbial phytase supplementation to a maize–soya-diet on the apparent absorption of Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn and parameters of Zn-status in piglets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (Berl), 1992, 68:1-9.
[24]   Madrid J, Martínez S, López C, Hernández F. Effect of phytase on nutrient digestibility, mineral utilization and performance in growing pigs. Livestock Science, 2013, 154(1/3):144-151.
[25]   Woyengo T A, Adeola O, Udenigwe C C, Nyachoti C M. Gastro-intestinal digesta pH, pepsin activity and soluble mineral concentration responses to supplemental phytic acid and phytase in piglets. Livestock Science, 2010, 134(1/3):91-93.
[26]   计成, 蔡青和, 岳洪源. 添加植酸酶对仔猪生长和营养物质回肠表观消化率的影响. 中国农业大学学报, 2003, 8(1):87-90.
Ji C, Cai Q H, Yue H Y. Efect of phytase supplementation on growth performance and apparent ileal digestibility in weaned pigs. Journal of Clum Agricultural University, 2003,8(1):87-90. (in Chinese)
[27]   Kuhn I, Partanen K. Phytase improves apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in piglets fed diets with adequate or reduced phosphorus content. Journal of Animal Science, 2012, 90 (Suppl 4):194-196.
[28]   Poulsen H D, Carlson D, Nørgaard J V, Blaabjerg K. Phosphorus digestibility is highly in?uenced by phytase but slightly by calcium in growing pigs. Livestock Science, 2010, 134(1):100-102.
[29]   Pang Y, Applegate T J. Effects of copper source and concentration on in vitro phytate phosphorus hydrolysis by phytase. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2006, 54(5):1792-1796.
[30]   Adeola O, Lawrence B V, Sutton A L, Cline T R. Phytase-induced changes in mineral utilization in zinc-supplemented diets for pigs. Journal of Animal Science,1995, 73(11):3384-3391.
[31]   Walk C L, Srinongkote S, Wilcock P. Influence of a microbial phytase and zinc oxide on young pig growth performance and serum minerals. Journal of Animal Science, 2013, 91(1):286-291.
[32]   Champagne E T, Fisher M S, Hinojosa O. NMR and ESR studies of interactions among divalent cations, phytic acid, and N-acetyl-amino acids. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 1990, 38(3):199-215.
[33]   刘晓波, 罗绪刚. 高剂量铜对猪促生长作用机理的研究进展. 动物营养学报, 1997, 9(3):1-6.
Liu X B, Luo X G. Recent advances in the mode of action of copper for the growth stimulation of pigs: a review. Chinese Journal of Animal
Nutrition, 1997, 9(3):1-6. (in Chinese)
[34]   郭彤, 许梓荣. 铜离子对引起仔猪腹泻的大肠杆菌K88杀菌机理的研究. 中国预防兽医学报, 2004, 26(3):127-130.
Guo T, Xu Z Y. Studies on antibacterial mechanism of cupric ions in Escherichia coli K88. Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 2004, 26(3):127-130. (in Chinese)
[35]   Ball R O, Aherne F X. Influence of dietary nutrient density, level of feed intake and weaning age on young pigs. II. Apparent nutrient digestibility and incidence and severity of diarrhea. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 1987, 67(4):1105-1115.
[1] XIAO LuTing,LI XiuHong,LIU LiJun,YE FaYin,ZHAO GuoHua. Effects of Starch Granule Size on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Barley Starches [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(5): 1010-1024.
[2] FANG HaoYuan, YANG Liang, WANG HongZhuang, CAO JinCheng, REN WanPing, WEI ShengJuan, YAN PeiShi. Effects of Cross-Ventilation System on Physiology and Production Performance of Beef Cattle in Summer [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(5): 1025-1036.
[3] CHE DaLu,ZHAO LiChen,CHENG SuCai,LIU AiYu,LI XiaoYu,ZHAO ShouPei,WANG JianCheng,WANG Yuan,GAO YuHong,SUN XinSheng. Effect of Litter Bed on Growth Performance and Odor Emission in Fattening Lamb [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(24): 4943-4956.
[4] NUERHATI·Silafuer ,WUSIMAN·Yimiti . Effects of Amino Acid By-Products on Fermentation Quality and Digestibility of White Sorghum Silage [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(20): 4065-4074.
[5] LIU WangJing,TANG DeFu,AO ChangJin. Effect of Allium mongolicum Regel and Its Extracts on the Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality and Serum Biochemical Indices of Captive Small-Tailed Han Sheep [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(17): 3461-3472.
[6] HAN ShouWei,SI JiSheng,YU WeiBao,KONG LingAn,ZHANG Bin,WANG FaHong,ZHANG HaiLin,ZHAO Xin,LI HuaWei,MENG Yu. Mechanisms Analysis on Yield Gap and Nitrogen Use Efficiency Gap of Winter Wheat in Shandong Province [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(16): 3110-3122.
[7] CHEN ZhiMin,CHANG WenHuan,ZHENG AiJuan,CAI HuiYi,LIU GuoHua. Effect of Expanded Feather Powder on Growth Performance, Slaughter Performance and Serum Biochemical Index of Broiler [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(13): 2643-2653.
[8] HAN Xiao, YANG HangYu, CHEN WeiKai, WANG Jun, HE Fei. Effects of Different Rootstocks on Flavonoids of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tannat Grape Fruits [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2022, 55(10): 2013-2025.
[9] QIN HongDe, FENG ChangHui, ZHANG YouChang, BIE Shu, ZHANG JiaoHai, XIA SongBo, WANG XiaoGang, WANG QiongShan, LAN JiaYang, CHEN QuanQiu, JIAO ChunHai. F1 Performance Prediction of Upland Cotton Based on Partial NCII Design [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2021, 54(8): 1590-1598.
[10] Xue BAI,Teng HUI,ZhenYu WANG,YunGang CAO,DeQuan ZHANG. Determination of 5 Nitropolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Roasted Meat Products by High Performance Liquid Chromatography- Fluorescence Detection [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2021, 54(5): 1055-1062.
[11] WANG JinFei,YANG GuoYi,FAN ZiHan,LIU Qi,ZHANG PengCheng,REN YouShe,YANG ChunHe,ZHANG ChunXiang. Effects of Whole Plant Corn Silage Ratio in Diet on Growth Performance, Rumen Fermentation, Nutrient Digestibility and Serological Parameters of Dorper×Hu Crossbred Female Lambs [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2021, 54(4): 831-844.
[12] ZONG YuZheng,ZHANG HanQing,LI Ping,ZHANG DongSheng,LIN Wen,XUE JianFu,GAO ZhiQiang,HAO XingYu. Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and Temperature on Photosynthetic Characteristics, Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism in Flag Leaves and Yield of Winter Wheat in North China [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2021, 54(23): 4984-4995.
[13] ZHANG Lan,WANG LiangZhi,HUANG YanLing,LIAO XiuDong,ZHANG LiYang,LÜ Lin,LUO XuGang. Effects of Dietary Supplemental Pattern of Trace Eloments on the Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Broilers [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2021, 54(22): 4906-4916.
[14] LIU Jiao,CHEN ZhiMin,ZHENG AiJuan,LIU GuoHua,CAI HuiYi,CHANG WenHuan. Effects of Glucose Oxidase on Growth Performance, Immune Functions and Intestinal Health of Ducks Challenged by Escherichia coli [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2021, 54(22): 4917-4930.
[15] WANG YuLin,LEI Lin,XIONG WenWen,YE FaYin,ZHAO GuoHua. Effects of Steaming-Retrogradation Pretreatment on Physicochemical Properties and in Vitro Starch Digestibility of the Roasted Highland Barley Flour [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2021, 54(19): 4207-4217.
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!