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    Effects of salt stress on rice growth, development characteristics, and the regulating ways: A review
    Sajid Hussain, ZHANG Jun-hua, ZHONG Chu, ZHU Lian-feng, CAO Xiao-chuang, YU Sheng-miao, Allen Bohr James, HU Ji-jie, JIN Qian-yu
    2017, 16(11): 2357-2374.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61608-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is highly susceptible to the rhizosphere salinity than other cereals.  High sensitivity has been observed, mainly at vegetative and reproductive stages in rice.  It is the duty of plant physiologists to comprehend the growth, development, and physiological processes of rice plants under stress.  This paper includes the overview of rice growth and developmental processes influenced by salt stress and the regulation pathways involved in these processes.  It also includes the promising salt tolerance strategies, i.e., genetic modification techniques, agronomic practices to improve rice growth, yield, and role of phytohormones and their management, especially inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis by using inhibitors 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP).  Rice cultivation may be a first choice for improvement of salt tolerance through plant growth regulators and improved cultivation techniques.  This study will significantly improve the understanding toward low rice grain yield and poor rice resistance under salt stress and will also stream scientific knowledge for effective utilization of salt affected soils by using different regulating ways.  
    Crop Science
    Identification of quantitative trait loci and candidate genes associated with ABA sensitivity in common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.)
    CAI Wen-yang, TAN Lu-bin, LIU Feng-xia, SUN Chuan-qing
    2017, 16(11): 2375-2385.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61683-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Abscisic acid (ABA), as one of the foremost signaling molecules in plants, is an important hormone which plays versatile functions in regulating developmental process and adaptive stress process.  A set of introgression lines were previously generated via a backcrossing program using an elite indica cultivar rice Teqing (O. sativa L.) as recipient and an accession of Yuanjiang common wild rice (O. rufipogon Griff.) as donor.  In this study, the previously developed introgression lines were evaluated for ABA sensitivity.  Here we reported that a total of 14 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with ABA sensitivity were identified.  An ABA sensitive introgression line, YIL53, was identified and characterized.  Physiological characterization, including chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, soluble sugar content, and stomata movement, demonstrated that YIL53 exhibited the characteristics associated with ABA sensitivity.  Genotypic analysis revealed that YIL53 harbored one QTL related to ABA sensitivity, qASS1-2, which was located on chromosome 1 within one introgressed segment derived from the Yuanjiang common wild rice.  Furthermore, the qASS1-2 was finally narrowed down to a 441-kb region between simple sequence repeats (SSR) marker RM212 and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker M3 using the segregation population derived from the cross between Teqing and YIL53, and three candidate genes associated with ABA sensitivity were identified using a strategy combined gene expression analysis with QTL mapping.  Identification of the QTLs related to ABA sensitivity and characterization of the ABA sensitive line YIL53 would provide a helpful basis for isolating novel genes related to ABA sensitivity.  
    Novel and favorable genomic regions for spike related traits in a wheat germplasm Pubing 3504 with high grain number per spike under varying environments
    CHEN Dan, WU Xiao-yang, WU Kuo, ZHANG Jin-peng, LIU Wei-hua, YANG Xin-ming, LI Xiu-quan, LU Yu-qing, LI Li-hui
    2017, 16(11): 2386-2401.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61711-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
       Grain number per spike (GNPS) is a major factor in wheat yield breeding.  A new wheat germplasm Pubing 3504 shows superior features in spike traits.  To elucidate the genetic basis of spike and yield related traits in Pubing 3504, 282 F2:3 families were generated from the cross Pubing 3504×Jing 4839, and seven spike and yield related traits, including GNPS, spike length (SL), kernel number per spikelet (KPS), spikelet number per spike (SNS), thousand-grain weight (TGW), spike number per plant (SNP), and plant height (HT) were investigated.  Correlation analysis indicated significant positive correlations between GNPS and spike-related traits, including KPS, SNS, and SL, especially KPS.  A genetic map was constructed using 190 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR), expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSR, and sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers.  For the seven traits measured, a total of 37 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in a single-environment analysis and 25 QTLs in a joint-environment analysis were detected.  Additive effects of 70.3% (in a single environment) and 57.6% (in a joint environment) of the QTLs were positively contributed by Pubing 3504 alleles.  Five important genomic regions on chromosomes 1A, 4A, 4B, 2D, and 4D could be stably detected in different environments.  Among these regions, the marker interval Xmag834–Xbarc83 on the short arm of chromosome 1A was a novel important genomic region that included QTLs controlling GNPS, KPS, SNS, TGW, and SNP with stable environmental repeatability.  This genomic region can improve the spike trait and may play a key role in improving wheat yield in the future.  We deduced that this genomic region was vital to the high GNPS of Pubing 3504.
    Genome-wide assessment of genetic diversity and fiber quality traits characterization in Gossypium hirsutum races
    Kiflom Weldu Okubazghi, LI Xiao-na, CAI Xiao-yan, WANG Xing-xing, CHEN Hao-dong, ZHOU Zhong-li, WANG Chun-ying, WANG Yu-hong, LIU Fang, WANG Kun-bo
    2017, 16(11): 2402-2412.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61671-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Gossypium hirsutum races are believed to be potential reservoirs of desirable traits, which can play crucial roles to overcome the existing narrow genetic base of modern Upland cotton cultivars.  However, prior to utilizing the races in cotton improvement programs, understanding their genetic constitutions is needed.  Thus, this study used molecular and morphological techniques to characterize 110 G. hirsutum germplasm including 109 semi-wild accessions and one Upland cotton cultivar, CRI12.  In the study, 104 SSR markers detected 795 alleles, with an average of 7.64 alleles per marker, ranging from 3 to 14, and average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.71.  And 96 of the markers were found to be highly informative, with PIC value≥0.50.  Pairwise genetic similarity coefficient across the accessions ranged from 0.19 to 1.00, with an average value of 0.46.  Morphological characterization was done using fiber length, fiber strength, micronaire, fiber uniformity index, and fiber elongation.  Pairwise taxonomic distance within the accessions ranged from 0.17 to 3.41, with a mean of 1.33.  The SSR and fiber quality traits data set based unweighted pair group method of arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis grouped the accessions into 7 and 12 distinct clusters, respectively, that corresponds well with the results of principal component analysis (PCA).  Our study revealed the existence of vast molecular and morphological diversities within the accessions and provided valuable information on each semi-wild accession for quick and better informed germplasm utilization in cotton breeding programs.   
    Marker-assisted pyramiding of soybean resistance genes RSC4, RSC8, and RSC14Q to soybean mosaic virus
    WANG Da-gang, ZHAO Lin, LI Kai, MA Ying, WANG Li-qun, YANG Yong-qing, YANG Yun-hua, ZHI Hai-jian
    2017, 16(11): 2413-2420.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61682-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the major viral pathogens affecting soybean crops worldwide.  Three SMV resistance genes, RSC4, RSC8, and RSC14Q , have been identified and mapped on soybean chromosomes 14, 2, and 13 from Dabaima, Kefeng 1, and Qihuang 1 cultivars, respectively.  Soybean cultivar Nannong 1138-2 is widely grown in the Yangtze River Valley of China.  In this study, crosses were made between Qihuang 1×Kefeng 1 and Dabaima×Nannong 1138-2.  Ten simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers linked to three resistance loci (RSC4, RSC8, and RSC14Q ) were used to assist pyramided breeding.  Pyramided families containing three resistance loci (RSC4, RSC8, and RSC14Q ) were evaluated by inoculating them with 21 SMV strains from China.  Results indicated that the 10 markers can be used effectively to assist the selection of resistant individuals containing RSC4, RSC8, and RSC14Q .  A total of 53 F6 plants were confirmed to contain three homozygous alleles conferring resistance to SMV.  Five F7 homozygous pyramided families exhibited resistance to 21 strains of SMV and showed desirable agronomic traits using dual selection.  The strategy of pyramiding resistance gene derived from different varieties has practical breeding value in providing broad-spectrum resistance against the existing strains of SMV in China.  
    Inheritance and molecular characterization of resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides in rapeseed
    HU Mao-long, PU Hui-ming, GAO Jian-qin, LONG Wei-hua, CHEN Feng, ZHOU Xiao-ying, ZHANG Wei, PENG Qi, CHEN Song, ZHANG Jie-fu
    2017, 16(11): 2421-2433.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61659-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Rapeseed is a very important oil crop in China; however, its production is challenging due to the absence of effective weed management strategies.  This is predominantly because of a shortage of herbicide resistance genes.  Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) herbicides inhibit AHAS, a key enzyme involved in branched-chain amino acid synthesis that is required for plant growth.  A rapeseed line designated M342 with AHAS herbicide resistance was developed through seed mutagenesis and was studied to assess the level and mode of inheritance of the resistance and to identify the molecular basis of resistance.  M342 possessed a high level of cross-resistance to sulfonylureas (SUs) and imidazolinones (IMIs).  This resistance was due to AHAS insensitivity to these herbicides and was inherited as a dominant trait conferred by a single nuclear-encoded gene.  Molecular analysis revealed the presence of a Trp574Leu mutation in M342, and an allele-specific cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (AS-CAPS) marker was developed and cosegregated with herbicide resistance in the F2, BC1, and BC2 populations.  This mutation altered the transcript levels of BnAHAS1 and BnAHAS3 in M342 compared with those in the wild type, but it did not affect the agronomic or quality traits.  The simple genetic inheritance of this mutation and the availability of the cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker and herbicide resistance gene should facilitate the development of herbicide-resistant rapeseed cultivars for effective weed control in China.  
    Genetic diversity and population structure of 288 potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) germplasms revealed by SSR and AFLP markers
    WANG Jian, HOU Lu, WANG Ruo-yu, HE Miao-miao, LIU Qing-chang
    2017, 16(11): 2434-2443.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61619-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important staple food and economic crop in many countries.  China has led world potato production in recent years.  To understand the genetic diversity of potato germplasms and to enrich the current gene pool for potato improvement, we made a global collection consisted of 288 potato germplasms from eight countries and the International Potato Center (CIP).  Using SSR and AFLP techniques, we evaluated the genetic diversity and population structure of these 288 potato accessions.  A total of 190 alleles on 20 SSR loci were detected and all of the SSR alleles were polymorphic among these potato germplasms with an average of 9.5 alleles per SSR locus ranging from 2 to 23.  The effective number of alleles per locus (Ne*), Nei’s genetic diversity (H*), and Shannon’s information index (I*) was from (0.1709±0.3698) to (1.6166±0.3414), (0.076±0.1388) to (0.3812±0.1886), and (0.1324±0.1970) to (0.5347±0.1440), respectively, and the mean polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.7312.  A total of 988 AFLP alleles were detected by 10 AFLP primer combinations with 983 polymorphic alleles, and 99.49% alleles was polymorphic with an average of 98.3 polymorphic alleles per primer combination ranging from 91 to 116.  The values of Ne*, H* and I* were from (1.5162±0.311) to (1.6423±0.3278), (0.3114±0.145) to (0.3675±0.1121), and (0.4761±0.1792) to (0.547±0.1322), respectively, and the average PIC value was 0.9871.  Bayesian analysis discriminated the accessions into seven subgroup and an admix group.  The majority of accessions from CIP and China were assigned into SG1, SG5, SG6, SG7 and admix group.  Accessions in SG3 were mainly from CIP and two small groups SG2 and SG4 were mainly from northeastern China.  In general, the results obtained from Bayesian statistical analysis, cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis consistently revealed the lack of geographical differentiation among country-wide collections, indicating germplasm introduction was common for the countries out of potato origin center.  The polymorphic markers and the differentiate genetic lineages found in this study provide useful information for potato improvement and conservation programs.  
    Global sensitivity analysis of the AquaCrop model for winter wheat under different water treatments based on the extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test
    XING Hui-min, XU Xin-gang, LI Zhen-hai, CHEN Yi-jin, FENG Hai-kuan, YANG Gui-jun, CHEN Zhao-xia
    2017, 16(11): 2444-2458.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61626-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Sensitivity analysis (SA) is an effective tool for studying crop models; it is an important link in model localization and plays an important role in crop model calibration and application.  The objectives were to (i) determine influential and non-influential parameters with respect to above ground biomass (AGB), canopy cover (CC), and grain yield of winter wheat in the Beijing area based on the AquaCrop model under different water treatments (rainfall, normal irrigation, and over-irrigation); and (ii) generate an AquaCrop model that can be used in the Beijing area by setting non-influential parameters to fixed values and adjusting influential parameters according to the SA results.  In this study, field experiments were conducted during the 2012–2013, 2013–2014, and 2014–2015 winter wheat growing seasons at the National Precision Agriculture Demonstration Research Base in Beijing, China.  The extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (EFAST) method was used to perform SA of the AquaCrop model using 42 crop parameters, in order to verify the SA results, data from the 2013–2014 growing season were used to calibrate the AquaCrop model, and data from 2012–2013 and 2014–2015 growing seasons were validated.  For AGB and yield of winter wheat, the total order sensitivity analysis had more sensitive parameters than the first order sensitivity analysis.  For the AGB time-series, parameter sensitivity was changed under different water treatments; in comparison with the non-stressful conditions (normal irrigation and over-irrigation), there were more sensitive parameters under water stress (rainfall), while root development parameters were more sensitive.  For CC with time-series and yield, there were more sensitive parameters under water stress than under no water stress.  Two parameters sets were selected to calibrate the AquaCrop model, one group of parameters were under water stress, and the others were under no water stress, there were two more sensitive parameters (growing degree-days (GDD) from sowing to the maximum rooting depth (root) and the maximum effective rooting depth (rtx)) under water stress than under no water stress.  The results showed that there was higher accuracy under water stress than under no water stress.  This study provides guidelines for AquaCrop model calibration and application in Beijing, China, as well providing guidance to simplify the AquaCrop model and improve its precision, especially when many parameters are used.  
    Genetic variation of yellow pigment and its components in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) from different eco-regions in China
    YANG Yan-bing, JIA Guan-qing, DENG Li-gang, QIN Ling, CHEN Er-ying, CONG Xin-jun, ZOU Renfeng, WANG Hai-lian, ZHANG Hua-wen, LIU Bin, GUAN Yan-an, DIAO Xian-min, YIN Yan-ping
    2017, 16(11): 2459-2469.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61598-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
        Kernel color is an important trait for assessing the commercial and nutritional quality of foxtail millet.  Yellow pigment content (YPC) and carotenoid components (lutein and zeaxanthin) of 270 foxtail millet accessions, including 50 landraces and 220 improved cultivars, from four different eco-regions in China were surveyed using spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography methods.  Results indicated that YPC had rich variance, ranging from 1.91 to 28.54 mg kg–1, with an average value of 17.80 mg kg–1.  The average YPC of improved cultivars (18.31 mg kg–1) was significantly higher than that of landraces (15.51 mg kg–1).  The YPC in cultivars from the Loess Plateau spring sowing region (LPSSR) was the highest (20.59 mg kg–1), followed by the North China summer sowing region (NCSSR, 18.25 mg kg–1), the northeast spring sowing region (NSSR, 17.25 mg kg–1), and the Inner Mongolia Plateau spring sowing region (IMPSSR, 13.92 mg kg–1).  The variation coefficients of YPC in cultivars from NSSR, LPSSR, and IMPSSR were higher than that from NCSSR.  A similar carotenoid profile was also obtained for 270 foxtail millet cultivars.  Lutein and zeaxanthin accounted for approximately 55–65% of YPC in accessions.  The lutein content was higher than zeaxanthin content in all cultivars.  The ratio of lutein to zeaxanthin ranged from 1.51 to 6.06 with an average of 3.34.  YPC was positively correlated with lutein (r=0.935, P<0.01), zeaxanthin (r=0.808, P<0.01), and growth duration (r=0.488, P<0.01), whereas it was negatively correlated with grain protein (r=−0.332, P<0.01) and 1 000-kernel weight (r=−0.153, P<0.05).  Our study is useful for screening and selecting cultivars with high levels of yellow pigment and for enhancing phytochemical concentrations in breeding programs.
    Effects of paclobutrazol on biomass production in relation to resistance to lodging and pod shattering in Brassica napus L.
    KUAI Jie, LI Xiao-yong, YANG Yang, ZHOU Guang-sheng
    2017, 16(11): 2470-2481.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61674-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
       Paclobutrazol was sprayed at 0, 150, and 300 mg L−1 during the closed canopy stage and the early bud stage with two high-yielding cultivars of rapeseed, Yangguang 2009 and Fengyou 520.  The impact of paclobutrazol on the accumulation and distribution of biomass and its relationship with yield, resistance to lodging and pod shattering were determined.  All the treatments increased the resistance as well as yield.  The maximum yield was obtained when paclobutrazol was applied during the closed canopy stage at 150 mg L–1.  The plant’s resistance to both lodging and pod shattering was the maximum when paclobutrazol was applied during the early bud stage at 300 mg L–1.  Paclobutrazol also delayed senescence, with the higher concentration or later spraying leading to more obvious effects; improved the net assimilation rate before the early bud stage; and promoted the relative growth rate of the main growth organ at each stage of growth and maximized the rate and quantities of biomass accumulation.  However, at the higher concentration and later spraying, the increments were smaller.  The spraying also increased the rates of biomass allocation to roots, leaves, and pods, but the rate of allocation to stems decreased as the plants grew shorter.  The higher allocation to roots and the lower allocation to stems favoured resistance to both lodging and pod shattering whereas higher allocation to leaves and pods favoured yield.  The higher concentration or late spraying led to excessive biomass being allocated to roots, which decreased leaf biomass during the bud stage, leading to greater resistance but lower yields. 
    Morphological and ISSR molecular markers reveal genetic diversity of wild hawthorns (Crataegus songorica K. Koch.) in Xinjiang, China
    SHENG Fang, CHEN Shu-ying, TIAN Jia, LI Peng, QIN Xue, WANG Lei, LUO Shu-ping, LI Jiang
    2017, 16(11): 2482-2498.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61688-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The wild hawthorn species, Crataegus songorica K. Koch., is an important wild germplasm resource in Xinjiang, China that has been endangered in recent years.  The genetic diversity of C. songorica K. Koch. germplasm in five populations from Daxigou, Xinjiang, China were evaluated based on phenotypic traits and ISSR molecular markers to provide basic information on resource protection, rational utilization and genetic improvement.  The F-value for the phenotypic differentiation coefficient of the 33 traits measured ranged from 0.266 to 15.128, and mean value was 13.85%.  The variation among populations was found to be lower than that within population.  A total of 303 loci were detected within the five populations by 12 primers.  Within 298 polymorphic loci, the polymorphism was 98.35%, showing a high genetic diversity in C. songorica K. Koch.  The gene diversity within population, total population genetic diversity, genetic differentiation coefficient and gene flow were 0.2779, 0.3235, 0.1408, and 3.0511, respectively.  Our results showed that C. songorica K. Koch. from Xinjiang has a high level of genetic diversity at both the phenotypic and molecular levels.  Significant genetic differentiation existed within population and the differentiation trend showed a regional association.  And in this study, in situ and ex situ conservation approaches were raised for wild hawthorn protection utilization.
    Identification of two Monilia species from apricot in China
    YIN Liang-fen, CAI Ming-li, DU Sheng-fang, LUO Chao-xi
    2017, 16(11): 2496-2503.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61734-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Monilinia fructicola, Monilia mumecola and Monilia yunnanensis have been reported as the causal agents of brown rot disease on stone fruits in China.  Up to date, these species have been identified from peach and plum, and M. mumecola has also been reported on apricot recently.  To investigate whether M. fructicola and M. yunnanensis can cause brown rot disease on apricot in China, 37 isolates were collected from four orchards in Chongqing and Beijing municipalities in 2014.  These isolates were divided into two phenotypes according to their distinct colony appearances.  Two representative isolates of each phenotype and reference species of M. mumecola from apricot were selected for further analysis.  Based on the morphological characterization and molecular identification,  the two phenotypes of isolates were identified as M. fructicola and M. yunnanensis, respectively. 
    Plant Protection
    FpPDE1 function of Fsarium pseudograminearum on pathogenesis in wheat
    WANG Li-min, ZHANG Yi-fan, DU Zhen-lin, Kang Rui-jiao, CHEN Lin-lin, XING Xiao-ping, YUAN Hong-xia, Ding Sheng-li, LI Hong-lian
    2017, 16(11): 2504-2512.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61689-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Wheat crown rot caused by Fusarium spp. is a common disease worldwide.  Both Fusarium pseudograminearum and Fusarium graminearum infect wheat crown and produce mycotoxin leading to grain loss due to white head.  F. pseudograminearum (Fp) was reported in wheat from Henan Province of China a couple of years ago.  The wheat crown rot (CR) caused by this new pathogen is as an emerging severe disease of wheat, which has recently expanded to several provinces in China and is, therefore, under rapid investigation.  Colonization of wheat tissue by Fp is accomplished though the formation of a septated foot-shaped appressoria and generation of a penetration peg to break through the internal cells of leaf sheath.  The molecular mechanism by which Fp regulates the pathogenesis on wheat host is unclear.  Here, we report FpPDE1, a P-type ATPase-encoding predicted PDE1 orthologue gene of Magnaporthe oryzae, belonging to the DRS2 subfamily of aminophospholipid translocases.  The gene deletion of FpPDE1 with the split-marker approach did not obviously affect hyphae growth and conidiation, but led to an attenuated virulence on wheat base stem and root.  Our finding indicates that the putative aminophospholipid translocases is not essential for the infectious hyphae development in Fp.  
    Antimicrobial activity from Piper sarmentosum Roxb. against rice pathogenic bacteria and fungi
    Pragatsawat Chanprapai, Warinthorn Chavasiri
    2017, 16(11): 2513-2524.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61693-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    In vitro antimicrobial activity of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Piper sarmentosum leaves, fruits, stems, and the essential oil obtained from the fresh leaves together with their constituents were investigated against two rice pathogenic fungi: Rhizoctonia solani (sheath blight causal agent) and Bipolaris oryzae (brown spot causal agent), and two rice pathogenic bacteria: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) (bacterial leaf blight causal agent) and pv. oryzicola (Xoc) (bacterial leaf streak causal agent).  Among them, the dichloromethane extracts of the leaves and fruits, and the essential oil showed significantly high potential anti-rice microbial activity.  Based on bioassay-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane leave and fruit extracts, myristicin, sarmentine, brachystamide B, brachyamide B, and piperonal were isolated.  Moreover, the major constituent of its oil was also myristicin.  Myristicin and brachyamide B revealed the highest potent inhibition against R. solani and B. oryzae (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.69 and 0.12 mmol L–1), respectively.  Moreover, brachyamide B and piperonal displayed most antibacterial activity against Xoo (MIC/MBC 7.62/1.90 mmol L–1) and Xoc (MIC/MBC 2.59/20.75 mmol L–1), respectively.  Additionally, the essential oil also exhibited the antimicrobial activity against all tested rice pathogenic bacteria and fungi.  These compounds and the oil were first evaluated for anti-rice pathogenic microbial activity.
    Electrophysiological responses of the rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis to volatiles of the trap plant vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.)
    LU Yan-hui, LIU Kai, ZHENG Xu-song, LÜ Zhong-xian
    2017, 16(11): 2525-2533.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61658-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) was previously found to effectively attract female adults of Chilo suppressalis (Walker), an important pest of rice.  To determine the volatile compounds involved in this attraction, electroantennography (EAG) responses to seven synthetic volatiles released from vetiver plants were examined.  Our results indicated that the responses of C. suppressalis adult antennae to the different compounds varied widely.  The compounds elicited strong EAG responses in female antennae were subsequently selected for further EAG response tests, namely, caryophyllene, β-ocimene, linalool and α-pinene.   EAG responses to a combination of these four compounds did not differ significantly from the individual compounds.  However, pair combination tests indicated that 0.01 μg μL–1 linalool and 50 μg μL–1 α-pinene, 50 μg μL–1 caryophyllene and 0.01 μg μL–1 linalool, 0.01 μg μL–1 β-ocimene and 0.01 μg μL–1 linalool, and 0.01 μg μL–1 β-ocimene and 50 μg μL–1 caryophyllene elicited significantly greater EAG responses in 3-day female moths compared to the 1-day female.  These compound combinations and the corresponding ratios are probably playing an important role in attracting female adults of C. suppressalis to the vetiver grass.  
    Effects of sesame nectar on longevity and fecundity of seven Lepidoptera and survival of four parasitoid species commonly found in agricultural ecosystems
    LIU Kai, ZHU Ping-yang, Lü Zhong-xian, CHEN Gui-hua, ZHANG Jing-ming, Lü Yao-bing, LU Yan-hui
    2017, 16(11): 2534-2546.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61665-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Ecological engineering involves the use of plants to promote establishment, survival and efficiency of natural enemies in agricultural systems.  Some plant species may be hosts or provide resources to some pest species.  We assessed the risks and benefits of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), as a nectar source for seven economically important Lepidopteran pest and four parasitoid species in a range of vegetable crop systems.  Our results showed that the mean longevities of arthropod parasitoids Pteromalus puparum (L.), Encarsia sophia (Girault & Dodd) and male Microplitis tuberculifer (Wesmael) were significantly extended when fed on sesame flowers compared to the water control.  Sesame flowers had no effect on adult longevities and fecundities of six out of the seven Lepidoptera pest species tested except Plutella xyllostella (L.) females laid more eggs when fed on sesame flowers.  It is likely that the increased fecundity is due to accessibility to nectar at the bottom of corolla because of their smaller body sizes.  Our findings provide a first step towards better understanding of the risks and benefits of using sesame to implement ecological engineering for the management of vegetable pests.
    Animal Science · Veterinary Medicine
    Establishment and characterization of immortalized bovine male germline stem cell line
    LEI Qi-jing, PAN Qin, MA Ju-hong, ZHOU Zhe, LI Guang-peng, CHEN Shu-lin, HUA Jin-lian
    2017, 16(11): 2547-2557.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61625-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
       Male germline stem cells (mGSCs) are unique adult germ cells with self-renewal potential and spermatogenesis function in the testis.  However, further studies are needed to establish a long-term cultural system of mGSCs in vitro, especially for large animals such as bovine mGSCs.  In this study, we first established a stable immortalized bovine male germline stem cell line by transducing Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen.  The proliferation of these cells was improved significantly.  These cells could express spermatogonial stem cell (SSC)-specific markers, such as PLZF, PGP9.5, VASA, LIN28A, and CD49F, both in the mRNA and protein levels.  Additionally, these cells could be differentiated into three germ layer cells to enter meiosis, form colonies, and proliferate in the seminiferous tubules of busulfan-induced infertile mice.  The immortalized bovine mGSCs maintain the criteria of mGSCs.  
    Modulation of protein expression in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root and leaf tissues by Fusarium proliferatum
    CONG Li-li, SUN Yan, LONG Rui-cai, KANG Jun-mei, ZHANG Tie-jun, LI Ming-na, WANG Zhen, YANG Qing-chuan
    2017, 16(11): 2558-2572.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61690-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important forage crop and is also a target of many fungal diseases including Fusarium spp.  As of today, very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against Fusarium spp. and specifically against Fusarium proliferatum, the causal agent of alfalfa root rot.  In this study, we used a proteomic approach to identify inducible proteins in alfalfa during a compatible interaction with F. proliferatum strain YQC-L1.  Samples used for the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry were from roots and leaves of alfalfa cultivar AmeriGraze 401+Z and WL656HQ.  Plants were grown in hydroponic conditions and at 4 days post inoculation with YQC-L1.  Our disease symptom assays indicated that AmeriGraze 401+Z  was tolerant to YQC-L1 infection while WL656HQ was highly susceptible.  Analysis of differentially expressed proteins found in the 2-DE was further characterized using the MASCOT MS/MS ion search software and associated databases to identify multiple proteins that might be involved in F. proliferatum resistance.  A total of 66 and 27 differentially expressed proteins were found in the roots and leaves of the plants inoculated with YQC-L1, respectively.  These identified proteins were placed in various categories including defense and stress response related metabolism, photosynthesis and protein synthesis.  Thirteen identified proteins were validated for their expressions by quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR.  Our results suggested that some of the identified proteins might play important roles in alfalfa resistance against Fusarium spp.  These finding could facilitate further dissections of molecular mechanisms controlling root rot disease in alfalfa and potentially other legume crops.   
    Critical role of cytochrome c1 and its cleavage in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 4-induced cell apoptosis via interaction with nsp4
    ZHANG Feng, GAO Peng, GE Xin-na, ZHOU Lei, GUO Xin, YANG Han-chun
    2017, 16(11): 2573-2585.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61670-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
        Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) actively induces cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, which can contribute critically to viral pathogenesis.  Previous studies have shown that the PRRSV nonstructural protein 4 (nsp4) is an important mediator of this process, but the underlying molecular details remain poorly understood.  In this study, we found that the PRRSV nsp4 interacted with the mitochondrial inner membrane protein cytochrome c1 (cyto.c1) and induced its proteolytic cleavage.  Interestingly, the cleaved N-terminal fragment of cyto.c1 was found to exert apoptotic activity, which could cause mitochondrial fragmentation, resulting in apoptotic cell death.  And RNA interference (RNAi) silencing experiments further confirmed the crucial role which cyto.c1 played in nsp4- and PRRSV-induced cell apoptosis.  Thus, our data provide an important piece of mechanistic clues for PRRSV-induced cell apoptosis and also elucidate a novel mechanism for the 3C-like proteases in this finding. 
    Agro-Ecosystem & Environment
    Soil mineral nitrogen and yield-scaled soil N2O emissions lowered by reducing nitrogen application and intercropping with soybean for sweet maize production in southern China
    TANG Yi-ling, YU Ling-ling, GUAN Ao-mei , ZHOU Xian-yu, WANG Zhi-guo, GOU Yong-gang , WANG Jian-wu
    2017, 16(11): 2586-2596.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61672-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
        The increasing demand for fresh sweet maize (Zea mays L. saccharata) in southern China has prioritized the need to find solutions to the environmental pollution caused by its continuous production and high inputs of chemical nitrogen fertilizers.  A promising method for improving crop production and environmental conditions is to intercrop sweet maize with legumes.  Here, a three-year field experiment was conducted to assess the influence of four different cropping systems (sole sweet maize (SS), sole soybean (SB), two rows sweet maize-three rows soybean (S2B3) intercropping, and two rows sweet maize-four rows soybean (S2B4) intercropping), together with two rates of N fertilizer application (300 and 360 kg N ha–1) on grain yield, residual soil mineral N, and soil N2O emissions in southern China.  Results showed that in most case, intercropping achieved yield advantages (total land equivalent ratio (TLER=0.87–1.25) was above one).  Moreover, intercropping resulted in 39.8% less soil mineral N than SS at the time of crop harvest, averaged over six seasons (spring and autumn in each of the three years of the field experiment).  Generally, intercropping and reduced-N application (300 kg N ha–1) produced lower cumulative soil N2O and yield-scaled soil N2O emissions than SS and conventional-N application (360 kg N ha–1), respectively.  S2B4 intercropping with reduced-N rate (300 kg N ha–1) showed the lowest cumulative soil N2O (mean value=0.61 kg ha–1) and yield-scaled soil N2O (mean value=0.04 kg t–1) emissions.  Overall, intercropping with reduced-N rate maintained sweet maize production, while also reducing environmental impacts.  The system of S2B4 intercropping with reduced-N rate may be the most sustainable and environmentally friendly cropping system.   
    Responses of N2O reductase gene (nosZ)-denitrifier communities to long-term fertilization follow a depth pattern in calcareous purplish paddy soil
    WANG Ying-yan, LU Sheng-e, XIANG Quan-ju, YU Xiu-mei, ZHAO Ke, ZHANG Xiao-ping, TU Shihua, GU Yun-fu
    2017, 16(11): 2597-2611.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61707-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
        The effect of long-term fertilization on soil denitrifying communities was analysed by measuring the abundance and diversity of the nitrous oxide (N2O) reductase gene, nosZ.  Soil samples were collected from plots of a long-term fertilization experiment established in 1982 in Suining City, China.  The fertilizer treatments were no fertilizer (CK), three chemical fertilizer (CF) treatments (N, NP, NPK), manure (M) alone, and manure with chemical fertilizers (NM, NPM, NPKM).  The abundance and diversity of the denitrifying bacteria were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and cloning and sequencing of nosZ genes.  The diversity and abundance of nosZ-denitrifiers was higher in soil amended with manure and chemical fertilizers (CFM) than in soil amended with CF alone, and the highest in topsoil (0–20 cm).  The nosZ-denitrifier community composition was more complex in CFM soil than in CF soil.  Specific species were detected only in the CFM soil.  The abundance of nosZ-denitrifier in the NPKM treatment was approximately two times higher than that in the CK, N, and NPK treatments.  Most of the cloned nosZ sequences were closely related to nosZ sequences from Bradyrhizobiaceae and Rhodospirillaceae in Alphaproteobacteria.  Of the measured abiotic factors, soil organic matter correlated significantly with the abundance (P<0.01); available phosphorus correlated significantly with the topsoil community composition (P<0.01), whereas soil organic matter correlated significantly with the subsoil (20–90 cm) community composition (P<0.01). This study demonstrated that long-term CFM fertilization affected both the abundance and composition of the nosZ-denitrifier community. 
    Effects of film mulching regime on soil water status and grain yield of rain-fed winter wheat on the Loess Plateau of China
    XUE Nai-wen, XUE Jian-fu, YANG Zhen-ping, SUN Min, REN Ai-xia, GAO Zhi-qiang
    2017, 16(11): 2612-2622.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61706-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Shortages and fluctuations in precipitation are influential limiting factors for the sustainable cultivation of rain-fed winter wheat on the Loess Plateau of China.  Plastic film mulching is one of the most effective water management practices to improve soil moisture, and may be useful in the Loess Plateau for increasing soil water storage.  A field experiment was conducted from July 2010 to June 2012 on the Loess Plateau to investigate the effects of mulching time and rates on soil water storage, evapotranspiration (ET), water use efficiency (WUE), and grain yield.  Six treatments were conducted: (1) early mulching (starting 30 days after harvest) with whole mulching (EW); (2) early mulching with half mulching (EH); (3) early mulching with no mulching (EN); (4) late mulching (starting 60 days after harvest) with whole mulching (LW); (5) late mulching with half mulching (LH); and (6) late mulching with no mulching (LN).  EW increased precipitation storage efficiency during the fallow periods of each season by 18.4 and 17.8%, respectively.  EW improved soil water storage from 60 days after harvest to the booting stage and also outperformed LN by 13.8 and 20.9% in each growing season.  EW also improved spike number per ha by 13.8 and 20.9% and grain yield by 11.7 and 17.4% during both years compared to LN.  However, EW decreased WUE compared with LN.  The overall results of this study demonstrated that EW could be a productive and efficient practice to improve wheat yield on the Loess Plateau of China.  
    Food Science
    Effects of thiamine on Trichothecium and Alternaria rots of muskmelon fruit and the possible mechanisms involved
    GE Yong-hong, LI Can-ying, Lü Jing-yi, ZHU Dan-shi
    2017, 16(11): 2623-2631.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61584-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The effects of thiamine against pink and black spot rots caused by Trichothecium roseum and Alternaria alternata and modulation on the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phenylpropanoid pathway were investigated in this paper.  In vitro test indicated that thiamine significantly inhibited mycelia growth and spore germination of T. roseum and A. alternata.  Thiamine at 100 mmol L–1 effectively inhibited lesion development of muskmelon fruit inoculated with T. roseum or A. alternata, enhanced production rate of O2-. and H2O2 content, activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in muskmelon fruit.  Thiamine also affect phenylpropanoid pathway in muskmelon fruit by increasing the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and peroxidase (POD), the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and lignin.  These results suggest that the effects of thiamine on pink and black spot rots in muskmelon fruits are associated with its direct fungitoxic against the pathogens and the modulation of O2-. and H2O2 production, eliminating enzymes and phenylpropanoid pathway.
    Sweet potato and potato residual flours as potential nutritional and healthy food material
    JU Dong, MU Tai-hua, SUN Hong-nan
    2017, 16(11): 2632-2645.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61601-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
        In this study, the proximate composition, mineral content and amino acid composition of starch processing residues from 10 cultivars of sweet potato and 10 cultivars of potato were determined, and the nutritional and health-related values of these residues were investigated.  The residual flours contained 20.63–31.48 g and 17.14–28.57 g rich dietary fiber per 100 g dry weight for sweet potato and potato, respectively, as well as mineral elements, including potassium, ferrum, zinc and copper.  The highest limiting amino acid score (AAS) of the almost balanced amino acid composition were observed to be 71.07 and 57.96 for sweet potato and potato residues, respectively.  A grey relational analysis showed that the nutritional values of Jishu 4 at 0.7519 and LT-5 at 0.7281 were the highest among the sweet potato and potato residues, respectively.  The evaluation of the sweet potato/potato residues, the by-products of the starch industry, based on recommended daily intake (RDI) standards, indicated that the residues have potential nutritional and health-related food values. 
    The effect of dehydrogenase enzyme activity in glycolysis on the colour stability of mutton during postmortem storage
    XIN Jian-zeng, LI Zheng, LI Xin, LI Meng, WANG Ying, YANG Fu-min, ZHANG De-quan
    2017, 16(11): 2646-2654.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61622-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    This study investigated the influence of activities of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and lactate dehydrogenase-B (LDH-B) on the colour stability of mutton.  From 60 sheep (Bayannur mutton sheep), 15 longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were selected on the basis of colour stability (R630/580 and a* value) during the storage and classified into three groups (5 for each group) as high colour stability (HCS), intermediate colour stability (ICS) and low colour stability (LCS).  The activities of GAPDH and LDH-B, muscle colour attributes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleuotide (NADH) concentration and lactate concentration were measured.  The samples in HCS had higher activities of GAPDH and LDH-B than the samples in the LCS, and the samples in the HCS group also possessed higher NADH and lower lactate concentration.  The higher activity of dehydrogenase enzyme may result in higher NADH concentrations and colour stability in muscle tissue.  The results suggest that the activity of GAPDH and LDH-B may also play a role in maintaining colour stability.