Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2017, Vol. 16 Issue (11): 2470-2481    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61674-5
Crop Science Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Effects of paclobutrazol on biomass production in relation to resistance to lodging and pod shattering in Brassica napus L.
KUAI Jie, LI Xiao-yong, YANG Yang, ZHOU Guang-sheng
College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract     Paclobutrazol was sprayed at 0, 150, and 300 mg L−1 during the closed canopy stage and the early bud stage with two high-yielding cultivars of rapeseed, Yangguang 2009 and Fengyou 520.  The impact of paclobutrazol on the accumulation and distribution of biomass and its relationship with yield, resistance to lodging and pod shattering were determined.  All the treatments increased the resistance as well as yield.  The maximum yield was obtained when paclobutrazol was applied during the closed canopy stage at 150 mg L–1.  The plant’s resistance to both lodging and pod shattering was the maximum when paclobutrazol was applied during the early bud stage at 300 mg L–1.  Paclobutrazol also delayed senescence, with the higher concentration or later spraying leading to more obvious effects; improved the net assimilation rate before the early bud stage; and promoted the relative growth rate of the main growth organ at each stage of growth and maximized the rate and quantities of biomass accumulation.  However, at the higher concentration and later spraying, the increments were smaller.  The spraying also increased the rates of biomass allocation to roots, leaves, and pods, but the rate of allocation to stems decreased as the plants grew shorter.  The higher allocation to roots and the lower allocation to stems favoured resistance to both lodging and pod shattering whereas higher allocation to leaves and pods favoured yield.  The higher concentration or late spraying led to excessive biomass being allocated to roots, which decreased leaf biomass during the bud stage, leading to greater resistance but lower yields. 
Keywords:  rapeseed        paclobutrazol        biomass        yield        resistance to lodging and shattering  
Received: 08 November 2017   Accepted:

This research was funded by the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of China (2014BAD11B03), the earmarked fund for the China Agricultural Research System (CARS-13), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (2013PY001).

Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence ZHOU Guang-sheng, Tel/Fax: +86-27-87281822, E-mail:    
About author:  KUAI Jie, E-mail:

Cite this article: 

KUAI Jie, LI Xiao-yong, YANG Yang, ZHOU Guang-sheng. 2017. Effects of paclobutrazol on biomass production in relation to resistance to lodging and pod shattering in Brassica napus L.. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 16(11): 2470-2481.

Addoquaye A A, Daniels R W, Scarisbrick D H. 1985. The influence of paclobutrazol on the distribution and utilization of 14C-labelled assimilate fixed at anthesis in oil-seed rape (Brassica napus L.). Journal of Agricultural Science, 105, 365–373.

Berry P M, Spink J. 2012. Predicting yield losses caused by lodging in wheat. Field Crops Research, 137, 19–26.

Bar?óg P, Grzebisz W. 2004. Effect of timing and nitrogen fertilizer application on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). I. Growth dynamics and seed yield. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 190, 305–313.

Burrows G E, Boag T S, Stewart W P. 1992. Changes in leaf, stem, and root anatomy of Chrysanthemum cv. Lillian Hoek following paclobutrazol application. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 11, 189–194.

Diepenbrock W. 2000. Yield analysis of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.): A review. Field Crops Research, 67, 35–49.

Dordas C. 2009. Biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation, partitioning and remobilization as affected by N and P fertilization and source-sink relations. European Journal of Agronomy, 30, 129–139.

Dordas C A, Sioulas C. 2009. Laboratory biomass and nitrogen accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) as affected by nitrogen fertilization. Field Crops Research, 110, 35–43.

Gammelvind L H, Schjoerring J K, Mogensen V O, Jensen C R, Bock J G H. 1996. Photosynthesis in leaves and siliques of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Plant and Soil, 186, 227–236.

Gill D S, Singh O S. 1993. Modification of growth, yield and lodging response of lentil to phosphorus by paclobutrazol. Annals of Applied Biology, 123, 667–671.

Gomathinayagam M, Jaleel C A, Lakshmanan G M A, Panneerselvam R. 2007. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism by triazole growth regulators in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz); effects on tuber production and quality. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 330, 644–655.

Hampton J G, Hebblethwaite P D. 1985. The effect of the growth regulator paclobutrazol (PP333) on the growth, development and yield of Lolium perenne grown for seed. Grass and Forage Science, 40, 93–101.

Huang W D, Shen T, Han Z H, Liu S. 1995. Influence of paclobutrazol on photosynthesis rate and biomass partitioning in the apple tree. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 18, 901–910.

Karp A, Richter G M. 2011. Meeting the challenge of food and energy security. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62, 3263–3271.

Kuai J, Liu Z, Wang Y H, Meng Y L, Chen B L, Zhao W Q, Zhou Z G, Oosterhuis D M. 2014. Waterlogging during flowering and boll forming stages affects sucrose metabolism in the leaves subtending the cotton boll and its relationship with boll weight. Plant Science, 223, 79–98.

Kuai J, Yang Y, Sun Y, Zhou G S, Zuo Q S, Wu J S, Ling X X. 2015. Paclobutrazol increases canola seed yield by enhancing lodging and pod shatter resistance in Brassica napus L. Field Crops Research, 180, 10–20.

Leffler H R. 1976. Development of cotton fruit I. Accumulation and distribution of biomass. Agronomy Journal, 68, 855–857.

Morgan C L, Bruce D M, Child R, Ladbrooke Z L, Arthur A E. 1998. Genetic vari-ation for pod shatter resistance among lines of oilseed rape developed fromsynthetic B. napus. Field Crops Research, 58, 153–165.

Muchow R C, Robertson M J, Pengelly B C. 1993. Accumulation and partitioning of biomass and nitrogen by soybean, mungbean and cowpea under contrasting environmental conditions. Field Crops Research, 33, 13–36.

Muthiah G, Cheruth A J, Alagu G M, Rajaram P. 2007. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism by triazole growth regulatorsin cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz); effects on tuber production and quality. Plant Physiology, 330, 644–655.

NBSC (National Bureau of Statistics of China). 2013. China Statistical Yearbook. China Statistics Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)

Papantoniou A N, Tsialtas J T, Papakosta D K. 2013. Biomass and nitrogen partitioning and translocation in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) grown under rainfed Mediterranean conditions. Crop & Pasture Science, 64, 115–122.

Poorter H, Niklas K J, Reich P B, Oleksyn J, Poot P, Mommer L. 2012. Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: Meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control. New Phytologist, 193, 30–50.

Rajala A, Peltonen-Sainio P, Onnela M, Jackson M. 2002. Effects of applying stem shortening plant growth regulators to leaves on root elongation by seedlings of wheat, oat and barley: Mediation by ethylene. Plant Growth Regulation, 38, 51–59.

Rieger M, Scalabrelli G. 1990. Paclobutrazol, root growth, hydraulic conductivity, and nutrient uptake of nemaguard’ peach. HortScience, 25, 95–98.

Ruiz-Robleto J, Villar R. 2005. Relative growth rate and biomass allocation in ten woody species with different leaf longevity using phylogenetic independent contrasts (PICs). Plant Biology, 7, 484–494.

Sharma R K, Agrawal M, Agrawal S B. 2007. Interactive effects of cadmium and zinc on carrots: Growth and biomass accumulation. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 31, 19–34.

Tekalign T, Hammes P S. 2004. Response of potato grown under non-inductive condition paclobutrazol: Shoot growth, chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, tuber yield, quality, and dormancy. Plant Growth Regulation, 43, 227–236.

Tekalign T, Hammes P S. 2005. Growth and biomass production in potato grown in the hot tropics as influenced by paclobutrazol. Plant Growth Regulation, 45, 37–46.

Tripathi S C, Sayre K D, Kaul J N, Narang R S. 2003. Growth and morphology of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) culms and their association with lodging: Effects of genotypes, N levels and Ethephon. Field Crops Research, 84, 271–290.

Vu J C, Yelenosky G. 1992. Growth and photosynthesis of sweet orange plants treated with paclobutrazol. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 11, 85–89.

Williams R F. 1946. The physiology of plant growth with special reference to the concept of net assimilation rate. Annals of Botany, 10, 41–72.

Yang G, Tang H, Tong J, Nie Y, Zhang X. 2012. Effect of fertilization frequency on cotton yield and biomass accumulation. Field Crops Research, 125, 161–166.
[1] TAO Jian-bin, ZHANG Xin-yue, WU Qi-fan, WANG Yun. Mapping winter rapeseed in South China using Sentinel-2 data based on a novel separability index[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(6): 1645-1657.
[2] TIAN Jin-yu, LI Shao-ping, CHENG Shuang, LIU Qiu-yuan, ZHOU Lei, TAO Yu, XING Zhi-peng, HU Ya-jie, GUO Bao-wei, WEI Hai-yan, ZHANG Hong-cheng. Increasing the appropriate seedling density for higher yield in dry direct-seeded rice sown by a multifunctional seeder after wheat-straw return[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(2): 400-416.
[3] NING Ning, HU Bing, BAI Chen-yang, LI Xiao-hua, KUAI Jie, HE Han-zi, REN Yi-lin, WANG Bo, JIA Cai-hua, ZHOU Guang-sheng, ZHAO Si-ming. Influence of two-stage harvesting on the properties of cold-pressed rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) oils[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(1): 265-278.
[4] YANG Wen-jia, LI Yu-lin, LIU Wei-jian, WANG Shi-wen, YIN Li-na, DENG Xi-ping. Agronomic management practices in dryland wheat result in variations in precipitation use efficiency due to their differential impacts on the steps in the precipitation use process[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(1): 92-107.
[5] JIANG Hui, GAO Ming-wei, CHEN Ying, ZHANG Chao, WANG Jia-bao, CHAI Qi-chao, WANG Yong-cui, ZHENG Jin-xiu, WANG Xiu-li, ZHAO Jun-sheng. Effect of the L-D1 alleles on leaf morphology, canopy structure and photosynthetic productivity in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(1): 108-119.
[6] LI Teng, ZHANG Xue-peng, LIU Qing, LIU Jin, CHEN Yuan-quan, SUI Peng. Yield penalty of maize (Zea mays L.) under heat stress in different growth stages: A review[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(9): 2465-2476.
[7] RONG Hao, YANG Wen-jing, XIE Tao, WANG Yue, WANG Xia-qin, JIANG Jin-jin, WANG You-ping. Transcriptional profiling between yellow- and black-seeded Brassica napus reveals molecular modulations on flavonoid and fatty acid content[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(8): 2211-2226.
[8] TIAN Chang, SUN Ming-xue, ZHOU Xuan, LI Juan, XIE Gui-xian, YANG Xiang-dong, PENG Jian-wei. Increase in yield and nitrogen use efficiency of double rice with long-term application of controlled-release urea[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(7): 2106-2118.
[9] XIE Jun, Blagodatskaya EVGENIA, ZHANG Yu, WAN Yu, HU Qi-juan, ZHANG Cheng-ming, WANG Jie, ZHANG Yue-qiang, SHI Xiao-jun. Substituting nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer with optimal amount of crop straw improved rice grain yield, nutrient use efficiency and soil carbon sequestration[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(11): 3345-3355.
[10] Ebrahim ROOHI, Reza MOHAMMADI, Abdoul Aziz NIANE, Javad VAFABAKHSH, Mozaffar ROUSTAEE, Mohammad Reza JALAL KAMALI, Shahriar SOHRABI, Shahriar FATEHI, Hossain TARIMORADI. Genotype×tillage interaction and the performance of winter bread wheat genotypes in temperate and cold dryland conditions[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(11): 3199-3215.
[11] LIU Xue-jing, YIN Bao-zhong, HU Zhao-hui, BAO Xiao-yuan, WANG Yan-dong, ZHEN Wen-chao. Physiological response of flag leaf and yield formation of winter wheat under different spring restrictive irrigation regimes in the Haihe Plain, China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(9): 2343-2359.
[12] CHEN Yuan, LIU Zhen-yu, HENG Li, Leila I. M. TAMBEL, ZHANG Xiang, CHEN Yuan, CHEN De-hua. Effects of plant density and mepiquat chloride application on cotton boll setting in wheat–cotton double cropping system[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(9): 2372-2381.
[13] LIU Zheng-chun, WANG Chao, BI Ru-tian, ZHU Hong-fen, HE Peng, JING Yao-dong, YANG Wu-de. Winter wheat yield estimation based on assimilated Sentinel-2 images with the CERES-Wheat model[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(7): 1958-1968.
[14] YAO Bo, HE Hai-bing, XU Hao-cong, ZHU Tie-zhong, LIU Tao, KE Jian, YOU Cui-cui, ZHU De-quan, WU Li-quan. Determining nitrogen status and quantifying nitrogen fertilizer requirement using a critical nitrogen dilution curve for hybrid indica rice under mechanical pot-seedling transplanting pattern[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(6): 1474-1486.
[15] CAO Jian-bo, HE Li-min, Chinedu Charles NWAFOR, QIN Li-hong, ZHANG Chun-yu, SONG Yan-tun, HAO Rong. Ultrastructural studies of seed coat and cotyledon during rapeseed maturation[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(5): 1239-1249.
No Suggested Reading articles found!