Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2021, Vol. 20 Issue (6): 1465-1473    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63311-1
Special Focus: High quality and high efficiency fertilization of rice Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Response of grain-filling rate and grain quality of mid-season indica rice to nitrogen application
ZHANG Jing1, ZHANG Yan-yan1, SONG Ning-yuan1, CHEN Qiu-li1, SUN Hong-zheng1, PENG Ting1, HUANG Song2, ZHAO Quan-zhi1  
1 College of Agronomy, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, P.R.China
2 Xinyang Agriculture and Forestry University, Xinyang 464001, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      

氮素是水稻取得高产的重要因素之一。除高产外,优质已成为当前水稻生产的又一迫切要求。灌浆期是水稻产量和品质形成的关键时期。而氮素对籼稻籽粒灌浆特性的影响及其与稻米品质的关系仍不清楚。通过大田栽培试验,研究了施氮条件下籽粒灌浆的关键特性与稻米研磨品质、外观品质和蒸煮食味品质的变化。结果表明,施氮延长了强、弱势粒灌浆的持续时间。弱势粒的平均灌浆速率(Gmean)和最大灌浆速率(Gmax)与垩白粒率、垩白度和直链淀粉含量呈正相关关系。弱势粒达到最大灌浆速率的时间(Tmax G)与糙米率、精米率和整精米率呈正相关关系。垩白粒率、垩白度与最高黏度、崩解值呈负相关关系。2016年和2017年两优培九和Y两优2号两个品种均在施氮后出现直链淀粉含量下降,粗蛋白含量增加。相关性分析说明,直链淀粉含量较低的Y两优2号蒸煮食味品质较好,可能是其弱势粒的最大灌浆速率(Gmax)和平均灌浆速率(Gmean)高于两优培九所引起的。施氮后弱势籽粒灌浆时间的延长和达到最大灌浆速率时粒重的增加可以提高中籼稻的碾磨品质、外观品质和蒸煮食味品质。

Nitrogen is one of the important factors for high yield of rice.  Apart from high yield, high quality has become the current urgent demand for rice production.  Grain-filling stage is crucial for rice yield and quality formation.  However, the effect of nitrogen on grain-filling characteristics and the relationship of grain-filling characteristics and rice quality of mid-season indica rice were still unclear.  A field experiment was carried out to ascertain the critical grain-filling characteristics that contribute to rice milling quality, appearance quality and cooking and eating quality under nitrogen applications.  The results showed that nitrogen applications prolonged the duration of superior and inferior grain filling.  The mean grain-filling rate (Gmean) and the maximum grain-filling rate (Gmax) of the inferior grains were positively correlated with chalky kernel rate, chalkiness, and amylose content.  The time reaching the maximum grain-filling rate (Tmax G) of the inferior grains was positively correlated with brown rice rate, milled rice rate, and head milled rice rate.  Chalky kernel rate and chalkiness were negatively correlated with peak paste viscosity and breakdown viscosity.  Less amylose content and more crude protein content were detected in nitrogen application of Liangyoupei 9 and Y Liangyou 2 both in 2016 and 2017.  According to the correlation analysis, better cooking and eating quality of Y Liangyou 2 which had less amylose content might result from its higher Gmax and Gmean of inferior grain than that of Liangyoupei 9 in the treatments of nitrogen application.  These results indicated that the prolonging grain-filling duration and increasing grain weight at the maximum grain-filling rate of inferior grains contributed to the improvement of milling quality, appearance quality, and cooking and eating quality of mid-season indica rice under appropriate nitrogen applications.
Keywords:  mid-season indica rice        grain-filling rate        rice quality        nitrogen  
Received: 24 February 2020   Accepted:
Fund: This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFD0300505) and the Rice Industry Technology System of Henan Province, China (S2012-04-G02).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence ZHAO Quan-zhi, Tel: +86-371-56990209, E-mail:; HUANG Song, E-mail:   
About author:  ZHANG Jing, E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

ZHANG Jing, ZHANG Yan-yan, SONG Ning-yuan, CHEN Qiu-li, SUN Hong-zheng, PENG Ting, HUANG Song, ZHAO Quan-zhi. 2021. Response of grain-filling rate and grain quality of mid-season indica rice to nitrogen application. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(6): 1465-1473.

Cao X M, Sun H Y, Wang C G, Ren X J, Liu H F, Zhang Z J. 2018. Effects of late-stage nitrogen fertilizer application on the starch structure and cooking quality of rice. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98, 2332–2340.
Chen J, Cao F, Shan S, Yin X, Huang M, Zou Y. 2019. Grain filling of early-season rice cultivars grown under mechanical transplanting. PLoS ONE, 14, e0224935.
Duan Y X. 2018. Effects of fertilizer application on growth and yield of rice. MSc thesis, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin. (in Chinese)
Duy P Q, Abe A, Hirano M, Sagawa S, Kuroda E. 2004. Analysis of lodging-resistant characteristics of different rice genotypes grown under the standard and nitrogen-free basal dressing accompanied with sparse planting density practices. Plant Production Science, 7, 243–251.
Gao H, Ma Q, Li G Y, Yang X, Li X Q, Yin C Y, Li M, Zhang Q, Zhang H C, Dai Q G, Wei H Y. 2010. Effect of nitrogen application rate on cooking and eating qualities of different growth-development types of japonica rice. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 43, 4543–4552. (in Chinese)
GB/T 15683-2009. 2009. Rice-Determination of Amylose Content.General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China, Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China, China Standard Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
GB/T 17891-1999. 1999. High Quality Paddy. State Bureau of Quality Technical Supervision of the People’s Republic of China. China Standard Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
Gu J F, Chen J, Chen L, Wang Z Q, Zhang H, Yang J C. 2015. Grain quality changes and responses to nitrogen fertilizer of japonica rice cultivars released in the Yangtze River Basin from the 1950s to 2000s. The Crop Journal, 3, 285–297.
Gu S L, Zhu Q S, Yang J C, Peng S B. 2001. Analysis on grain filling characteristics for different rice types. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 27, 7–14. (in Chinese)
Hu F F, Tang S Y, Lu Q R. 2016. Effects of different granulated fertilizer application on rice quality. Agricultural Equipment and Technology, 42, 14–17.
Jiang P, Liu M, Qin J, Xiong H, Xu F X. 2017. Effects of nitrogen application rate on yield and grain quality of super hybrid rice. China Rice, 23, 102–106. (in Chinese)
Jin Z X, Qiu T Q, Sun Y L, Zhao J M, Jin X Y. 2001. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on chalkness ratio and cooking and eating quality properties of rice. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers, 7, 31–35. (in Chinese)
Li G H , Wang H Z, Wang S H, Wang Q S, Zheng Y M, Ding Y F. 2010. Effect of nitrogen applied at rice panicle initiation stage on carbon and nitrogen metabolism and spikelets per panicle. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University, 33, 1–5. (in Chinese)
Liang Z J, Bao A L, Li H X, Cai H M. 2015. The effect of nitrogen level on rice growth, carbon nitrogen metabolism and gene expression. Biologia, 70, 1340–1350.
Liu K, He A B, Ye C, Liu S W, Lu J, Gao M T, Fan Y Z, Lu B L, Tian X H, Zhang Y B. 2018. Root morphological traits and spatial distribution under different nitrogen treatments and their relationship with grain yield in super hybrid rice. Scientific Reports, 8, 131.
Lü C G, Zou J S. 2000. Breeding and utilization of two line intersubspecific hybrid rice Liangyou peijiu. Hybrid Rice, 15, 4–5. (in Chinese)
Ning H F. 2011. The effect of nitrogen on rice quality and its physicochemical foundation. Ph D thesis, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing. (in Chinese)
Senthilvel S, Vinod KK, Malarvizhi P, Maheswaran M. 2008.  QTL and QTL×environment effects on agronomic and nitrogen acquisition traits in rice. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 50, 1108–1117.
Singh N, Pal N, Mahajan G, Singh S, Shevkani K. 2011. Rice grain and starch properties: Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86, 219–225.
Sun T, Tong L G, Zhao S Y, Wang H W, Han Y F, Zhang Z C, Jin Z X. 2018. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on starch quality, activities and gene expression levels of related enzymes in rice endosperm. Chinese Journal of Rice Science, 32, 475–484. (in Chinese)
Tanaka A. 1966. Mutual shading as a factor limiting the yield response of rice to application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Plant and Soil, 25, 201–210.
Tang Q Y, Zou Y B, Mi X C, Wang H L, Zhou M L. 2003. Grain yield construction and N fertilizer efficiency of super hybrid rice under different N applications. Hybrid Rice, 18, 44–48. (in Chinese)
Tao J, Qian X Y, Ju C X, Liu L J, Zhang H, Gu J F, Wang Z Q, Yang J C. 2016. Grain quality and its response to nitrogen fertilizer in mid-season indica rice varieties planted in different decades from 1950s to 2010s. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 42, 1352–1362. (in Chinese)
Wang C Y, Zhao L, Zhao X Z, Hou W P, Gao L W, Wang B L, Zhang W X, Yu Y B, Han L. 2016. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer amount on grain filling rate of different panicle and grain positions of rice. Journal of Agriculture, 6, 8–21. (in Chinese)
Wang Z, Gu Y J, Chen G, Xiong F, Li Y X. 2003. Rice quality and its affecting factors. Molecular Plant Breeding, 1, 231–241.
Wu J, Deng Q Y, Zhuang W, Zhou C G, Li J W. 2015. Breeding and application of the pioneer phase III super hybrid rice combination Y Liangyou 2. Hybrid Rice, 30, 14–16. (in Chinese)
Xiong F, Wang Z, Gu Y J, Chen G, Zhou P. 2008. Effects of nitrogen application time on caryopsis development and grain quality of rice variety Yangdao 6. Rice Science, 15, 57–62.
Xiong J. 2011. The genetic differences in source-sink structure, rice quality and responses to nitrogen. Ph D thesis, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing. (in Chinese)
Xu D Y, Jin J, Hu S Y, Gao Y, Yang J C, Zhu Q S. 2005. Effects of N, P, K fertilizer management on grain amylose content and RVA profile parameters in rice. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 31, 921–925. (in Chinese)
Yang J C. 2010. Mechanism and regulation in the filling of inferior spikelets of rice. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 36, 2011–2019. (in Chinese)
Yang X, Bi J, Gilbert R G, Li G, Liu Z, Wang S, Ding Y. 2016. Amylopectin chain length distribution in grains of japonica rice as affected by nitrogen fertilizer and genotype. Journal of Cereal Science, 71, 230–238.
Yuan L P. 2017. Progress in super-hybrid rice breeding. The Crop Journal, 5, 100–102.
Zeng X N, Wei Z W, Ma G H. 2017. Effect of nitrogen application rate on grain-leaf ratio and yield of super hybrid rice. Crop Research, 31, 377–383.
Zhang J G, Zhang S Y, Yang C G, Guo K Z Sun Q. 2010. Studies on the effect of different nitrogen application to shape and main taste quality of rice. Journal of Jinlin Agricultural Sciences, 35, 29–33. (in Chinese)
Zhang Q F, Zhang Y D, Zhu Z, Zhao L, Zhao Q Y, Xu L, Wang C L. 2008. Inheritance analysis and QTL mapping of rice starch viscosity (rapid visco analyzer profile) characteristics. Rice Science, 15, 186–194.
Zhang Y R, Zhou X Q, Yang L L. 2009. Present situation and expectation on methods for taste evaluation of rice. Journal of the Chinese Cereals and Oils Association, 24, 155–160. (in Chinese)
Zhao Q Z, Yin C Y, Ning H F, Chen J R, Qiao J F, Liu H, Yang H X. 2007. Effects of nitrogen regulation on grain relative plumpness of rice and relationship between grain relative plumpness and yield and grain quality. Journal of Henan Agricultural University, 41, 128–133. (in Chinese)
Zhou P N, Feng W Z, Xu N X, Zhang Y J, Su Z F. 2001. Effects of nitrogen and density on yield and grain quality of rice. Jiangsu Agricultural Research, 22, 27–31. (in Chinese)
Zhou S C, Li H, Wang J S, Huang D Q, Xie Z W, Lu D C. 2002. Correlation of eating quality to cooking, apparent and milling qualities in South China late-cropping season indica rice. Hybrid Rice, 17, 397–400. (in Chinese)
Zhu D, Zhang H, Guo B, Xu K, Dai Q, Wei C, Wei H, Gao H, Hu Y, Cui P, Huo Z. 2016. Effect of nitrogen management on the structure and physicochemical properties of rice starch. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64, 8019–8025.
Zhu D, Zhang H, Guo B, Xu K, Dai Q, Wei C, Zhou G, Hou Z. 2017. Effects of nitrogen level on structure and physicochemical properties of rice starch. Food Hydrocolloids, 63, 525–532.
Zhu K Y, Zhan M F, Chen J, Wang Z Q, Yang J C, Zhao B H. 2018. Effects of irrigation regimes during grain filling under different nitrogen rates on inferior spikelets grain-filling and grain yield of rice. Chinese Journal of Rice Science, 32, 155–168. (in Chinese)
Zhu Q S, Cao X Z, Luo Y Q. 1988. Growth analysis on the process of grain filling in rice. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 14, 182–193. (in Chinese)
[1] HAN Yu-ling, GUO Dong, MA Wei, GE Jun-zhu, LI Xiang-ling, Ali Noor MEHMOOD, ZHAO Ming, ZHOU Bao-yuan. Strip deep rotary tillage combined with controlled-release urea improves the grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of maize in the North China Plain[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(9): 2559-2576.
[2] HUI Jing, LIU Zhi, DUAN Feng-ying, ZHAO Yang, LI Xue-lian, AN Xia, WU Xiang-yu, YUAN Li-xing. Ammonium-dependent regulation of ammonium transporter ZmAMT1s expression conferred by glutamine levels in roots of maize[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(8): 2413-2421.
[3] TIAN Chang, SUN Ming-xue, ZHOU Xuan, LI Juan, XIE Gui-xian, YANG Xiang-dong, PENG Jian-wei. Increase in yield and nitrogen use efficiency of double rice with long-term application of controlled-release urea[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(7): 2106-2118.
[4] WU Xiao-li, LIU Miao, LI Chao-su, Allen David (Jack) MCHUGH, LI Ming, XIONG Tao, LIU Yu-bin, TANG Yong-lu. Source–sink relations and responses to sink–source manipulations during grain filling in wheat[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(6): 1593-1605.
[5] Muhammad QASWAR, LI Dong-chu, HUANG Jing, HAN Tian-fu, Waqas AHMED, Sehrish ALI, Muhammad Numan KHAN, Zulqarnain Haider KHAN, XU Yong-mei, LI Qian, ZHANG Hui-min, WANG Bo-ren, Ahmad TAUQEER. Dynamics of organic carbon and nitrogen in deep soil profile and crop yields under long-term fertilization in wheat-maize cropping system[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(3): 826-839.
[6] Muhammad Amjad BASHIR, ZHAI Li-mei, WANG Hong-yuan, LIU Jian, Qurat-Ul-Ain RAZA, GENG Yu-cong, Abdur REHIM, LIU Hong-bin. Apparent variations in nitrogen runoff and its uptake in paddy rice under straw incorporation[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(11): 3356-3367.
[7] HUANG Li-ying, Li Xiao-xiao, ZHANG Yun-bo, Shah FAHAD, WANG Fei. dep1 improves rice grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency simultaneously by enhancing nitrogen and dry matter translocation[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(11): 3185-3198.
[8] YU Hai-xia, DUAN Xi-xian, SUN Ai-qing, SUN Xiao-xiao, ZHANG Jing-juan, SUN Hua-qing, SUN Yan-yan, NING Tang-yuan, TIAN Ji-chun, WANG Dong-xue, LI Hao, FAN Ke-xin, WANG Ai-ping, MA Wu-jun, CHEN Jian-sheng. Genetic dissection of the grain filling rate and related traits through linkage analysis and genome-wide association study in bread wheat[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(10): 2805-2817.
[9] DU Qing-guo, YANG Juan, Shah SYED MUHAMMAD SADIQ, YANG Rong-xin, YU Jing-juan, LI Wen-xue. Comparative transcriptome analysis of different nitrogen responses in low-nitrogen sensitive and tolerant maize genotypes[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(8): 2043-2055.
[10] SHAO Ze-qiang, ZHENG Cong-cong, Johannes A. POSTMA, LU Wen-long, GAO Qiang, GAO Ying-zhi, ZHANG Jin-jing. Nitrogen acquisition, fixation and transfer in maize/alfalfa intercrops are increased through root contact and morphological responses to interspecies competition[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(8): 2240-2254.
[11] CHEN Yuan, LIU Zhen-yu, HENG Li, Leila I. M. TAMBEL, CHEN De-hua. High plant density increases seed Bt endotoxin content in Bt transgenic cotton[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(7): 1796-1806.
[12] TIAN Qing-lan, HE Lian-hua, LIAO Shuang, LI Wu, DENG Fei, ZHOU Wei, ZHONG Xiao-yuan, REN Wan-jun. Indica rice restorer lines with large sink potential exhibit improved nutrient transportation to the panicle, which enhances both yield and nitrogen-use efficiency[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(6): 1438-1456.
[13] WANG Yue-chao, LI Xiu-fen, Lee Tarpley, PENG Shao-bing, DOU Fu-gen. Effects of nitrogen management on the ratoon crop yield and head rice yield in South USA[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(6): 1457-1464.
[14] YAO Bo, HE Hai-bing, XU Hao-cong, ZHU Tie-zhong, LIU Tao, KE Jian, YOU Cui-cui, ZHU De-quan, WU Li-quan. Determining nitrogen status and quantifying nitrogen fertilizer requirement using a critical nitrogen dilution curve for hybrid indica rice under mechanical pot-seedling transplanting pattern[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(6): 1474-1486.
[15] ZHAO Can, HUANG Heng, QIAN Zi-hui, JIANG Heng-xin, LIU Guang-ming, XU Ke, HU Ya-jie, DAI Qi-gen, HUO Zhong-yang. Effect of side deep placement of nitrogen on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of single season late japonica rice[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(6): 1487-1502.
No Suggested Reading articles found!