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Table of Content

    01 June 2012, Volume 45 Issue 11
    CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
    Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Important Chinese Maize Inbred Lines Revealed by 40 Core Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs)
    LIU Zhi-Zhai, WU Xun, LIU Hai-Li, LI Yong-Xiang, LI Qing-Chao, WANG Feng-Ge, SHI Yun-Su, SONG Yan-Chun, SONG Wei-Bin, ZHAO Jiu-Ran, LAI Jin-Sheng, LI Yu, WANG Tian-Yu
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2107-2138.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.001
    Abstract ( 999 )   PDF (507KB) ( 1643 )   Save
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    【Objective】Genetic assessment, i.e. gene diversity and population structure, of representative accessions is of great importance in the utilization of these germplasm, allele mining, and analysis of association mapping. 【Method】Forty core SSRs developed for the fingerprinting and uniformity analysis of Chinese maize varieties, covered the entire maize genome, were used to genomic scanning of a total set of 820 maize inbred lines across China by the genotyping technology based on fluorescence sequencing. The genetic diversity of these inbred lines was performed via the software PowerMarker V3.25, and the population structure of these materials was revealed by Structure V2.3.3. 【Result】Among 40 SSRs, the No. of alleles of these 820 inbred lines averaged 36.87, ranging from 10 to 72, the gene diversity averaged 0.8430, ranging from 0.46 to 0.9458, and the PIC averaged 0.83, ranging from 0.43 to 0.94. Result from the clustering analysis based on a model-based method indicated that these 820 assays could be divided into 5 groups, including Lancaster, Lüda red cob (LRC), Tang si ping tou (TSPT), Reid (PA and BSSS), and P group (or PB). The corresponding average allele no. per locus of these 5 groups was 24.23, 22, 11.8, 17.45, and 14.65, and the gene diversity was 0.8145, 0.8398, 0.7054, 0.7686, and 0.7495, respectively. 【Conclusion】Results revealed by the core SSRs showed a relatively higher abundant genetic variation and a rather high level of gene diversity, while significant difference existed among 5 groups. Diversity level of Lancaster and LRC was statistically higher than that of Reid, TSPT, and P, and groups of TSPT and P possessed relatively lower genetic diversity.
    Isolation and Functional Analysis of Resistance Gene SDR1 to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean
    FAN Su-Jie, WU Jun-Jiang, CHEN Chen, WANG Xin, JIANG Liang-Yu, WANG Jin-Sheng, LI Wen-Bin, XU Peng-Fei, ZHANG Shu-Zhen
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2139-2146.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.002
    Abstract ( 825 )   PDF (993KB) ( 1067 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The objective of this research is to obtain resistance-related genes to Phytophthora sojae in soybean, and to provide a theoretical basis for breeding of resistant soybean cultivars.【Method】In previous study, a cDNA library was constructed from the resistant soybean cultivar Suinong 10 in order to identify resistance-related genes in response to P. sojae infection in soybean. An up-regulated EST sharing high sequence similarities with the DR1 genes in other plants was identified and selected in this study. The gene was cloned from Suinong 10 by RT-PCR and constructed to the plant expression vector pCAMBIA3301/SDR1 and transformed into susceptible soybean cultivar Dongnong 50 via Agrobacterium mediated method.【Result】The full-length of this gene was 805 bp, encoding 156 amino acids, with ORF of 471 bp, defined as SDR1 in this study. Three transgenic plants overexpressing SDR1 were obtained and confirmed by real-time PCR, with an increase of gene expression levels by more than 20-fold compared to that of non-transgenic plants, and dot blot assay of DNA of the plants showed that 3 plants had positive hybridization signals. Detached leaf inoculation assay showed significantly increased resistance in the transgenic plants to P. sojae infection. 【Conclusion】The soybean SDR1 was cloned and preliminarily confirmed to confer the resistance to P. sojae by creation and pathogenicity assays of transgenic plants overexpressing the gene.
    TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY·AGRICULTURE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
    Study on Collaborating Characteristics of Grain Yield Components and Panicle Traits of Large Panicle Hybrid Japonica Rice
    GONG Jin-Long, HU Ya-Jie, LONG Hou-Yuan, CHANG Yong, LI Jie, ZHANG Hong-Cheng, MA Rong-Rong, WANG Xiao-Yan, DAI Qi-Gen, HUO Zhong-Yang, XU Ke, WEI Hai-Yan, DENG Zhang-Ze, MING Qing-Long
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2147-2158.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.003
    Abstract ( 996 )   PDF (591KB) ( 870 )   Save
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    【Objective】The objective of this study was to reveal sink components characteristics and panicle traits of large panicle hybrid japonica rice and explore approaches to increase group productivity of it. 【Method】A field experiment was conducted with eight representative large panicle hybrid japonica rice varieties (A18/F7562, A2/F7563, A20/F7501, A5/F9249, A2/F7513, A20/F7503, Yongyou 8 and Yongyou 13) and two medium panicle conventional japonica rice varieties (Wuyunjing 7 and Wujing 15) as materials. Grain yield components characteristics, total spikelets, sink and panicle traits of large panicle hybrid japonica rice were analyzed systematically. 【Result】Grain yield, total spikelets, sink, panicle length, grain density, grain weight per panicle, No. of branches of primary branches per panicle, grains per branch of primary branches, total grains of primary branches per panicle, No. of branches of secondary branches per panicle, grains per branch of secondary branches and total grains of secondary branches per panicle of large panicle hybrid japonica rice were higher than medium panicle conventional japonica rice significantly, while No. of panicles, seed-setting rate, 1000-grain-weight, seed-setting rate of primary branches and seed-setting rate of secondary branches followed an opposite tendency accordingly. With the increasing spikelets per panicle, grain yield, total spikelets, sink and seed-setting rate of secondary branches of large panicle hybrid japonica rice increased firstly and then decreased, while panicle length, grain density, grain weight per panicle, No. of branches of primary branches per panicle, grains per branch of primary branches, total grains of primary branches per panicle, No. of branches of secondary branches per panicle, grains per branch of secondary branches and total grains of secondary branches per panicle followed a growing trend and No. of panicles, seed-setting rate, 1000-grain-weight, ratio of No. of branches of primary branches to No. of branches of secondary branches, ratio of total grains of primary branches to total grains of secondary branches and seed-setting rate of primary branches did with a declining tendency accordingly. The others and spikelets per panicle were significantly correlated with the exception of grain yield, sink and seed-setting rate of secondary branches. In order to enlarge spikelets per panicle, it was almost contributed by primary branches from medium panicle to prejudiced large panicle, and secondary branches were the major factors from prejudiced large panicle to large panicle (from large panicle to extra large panicle or from extra large panicle to super large panicle). The increase of 1000-grain-weight was the key point of harvesting super high yield of large panicle hybrid japonica rice on the basis of certain No. of panicles and stabilized seed-setting rate. Increase of total spikelets was the basis of increase of grain yield, while the emphasis was to increase sink. Therefore, stable 1000-grain-weight was needed for increasing total spikelets. 【Conclusion】 Under the experimental conditions, the applicable spikelets per panicle (250 or so) was the best choice for ideal grain yield and its components with high total spikelets and sink filling for large panicle hybrid japonica rice. With the advancement of breeding and techniques, its optimum would be higher.
    Designing and Implementation of Crop Production Management Information System Based on State-Operated Farm
    DAI Jian-Guo, WANG Ke-Ru, LI Shao-Kun, LI Shuan-Ming, WANG Qiong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2159-2167.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.004
    Abstract ( 726 )   PDF (768KB) ( 1043 )   Save
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    【Objective】The purpose of the study is to research the effects, functions, designing and implementation methods of crop production management information system based on large-scale agricultural production of state-operated farm.【Method】Using a farm of the production and construction corps of Xinjiang as an example, the characteristics of crop production management information system for state-operated farm were analyzed and the roles and functions should be assigned reasonably. The system architecture is mixed by BS(Browser/Server) and CS(Client/Server), developed by object oriented programming method based on .net technology.【Result】A crop production management information system was developed by using the mixed RS and GIS technologies and running on the 130 farms of the construction corps. It involves functions such as information collection, entering, management and analysis, which could meet the requirements of crop production management of state-operated farms and made work more efficient. The service based architecture is used to envelope the data access method and support data sharing for heterogeneous systems.【Conclusion】Through designing and development of crop production management information system based on the nation conditions to elevate the managerial efficiency of state-operated farms, thus providing the data support and tentative exploration of system architecture for full use of technologies related to precision agriculture.
    PLANT PROTECTION
    Impacts of Seasonal Climate Warming on Crop Diseases and Pests in China
    HUO Zhi-Guo, LI Mao-Song, LI Na, WANG Li, HUANG Da-Peng, WANG Chun-Yan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2168-2179.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.005
    Abstract ( 1105 )   PDF (695KB) ( 1153 )   Save
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    Based on the previous research, existing facts of the impact of seasonal climate warming on crop diseases and pests and the regularities were systematically analyzed and summarized by detecting the facts of the temporal-spatial variation of crop diseases and pests in response to the seasonal climate warming. Then updated understandings of impacts of seasonal climate warming on crop diseases and pests were put forward. Additionally, directions for future research were suggested. Existing facts indicated that warm winter could delay the overwintering period of the pest and pathogen, extend pathogen infection before winter and propagation in winter, reduce overwintering pests mortality and increase the base number of pathogen source and pest source after winter, bring forward the occurrence, immigration and harm periods of diseases and pests, and also make overwintering north boundaries move northward and elevate the upper limit of overwintering altitude. Persistent warm winter could significantly increase the base number of pathogen source. Compared with the normal year, the rate of pathogen reproduction and infection in winter was more than 50% higher than that before winter. The survival rate of pests in winter was one or two times as many as in normal year, the quantity of pathogen and pest sources after winter in nationwide warm winter increased by more than one times. The base number of pest source after the persistent warm winter was more than five times as many as in normal year. The beginning occurrence period of diseases and pests was more than 5 days in advance, even more than 20 and 30 days, respectively. Rice planthoppers’ overwintering north boundary moved northward for 2-4 degrees of latitude and wheat stripe rust’s upper limit of overwintering altitude was elevated by 100-300 m. Warm spring was conductive to advance the damage period of diseases and pests, accelerate the pace of expansion and aggravate the severity. Torrid summer could elevate some pathogen’s lower limit of oversummering altitude, reduce the area and quantity, lengthen some pests developmental period and increase the mortality. Warm autumn was helpful to the residence of pests and one additional generation might occur. The temporal-spatial characteristics of impacts of the seasonal climate warming on crop diseases and pests, impacts projection of occurrence and catastrophe, risk assessment and adaptive strategies are the key issues needed to be resolved in the future.
    Selection and Identification of a Biocontrol Bacteria Strain with Inhibitory Activity Against TMV and PVY
    DI Xi-Lun, YANG Jin-Guang, SHEN Li-Li, QIAN Yu-Mei, WANG Pan, SUN Li-Ping, WANG Hui-Qing, ZHAO Hong-Dong, WANG Yong, WANG Feng-Long
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2180-2188.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.006
    Abstract ( 836 )   PDF (715KB) ( 1079 )   Save
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    【Objective】The objective of this study is to screen a bacteria strain with significant anti-virus activity against TMV (Tobacco mosaic virus) and PVY (Potato virus Y). 【Method】The strain was isolated from the soil around the roots of healthy tobacco plants of Zhongyan100 (Nicotiana tabacum var. Zhongyan 100) grown in the high incidence of virus disease in many regions plantation of Shandong Province. The anti-TMV strain was tested by half-leaf method on hypersensitive plants (N. tabacum var. Samsun), and identified by the physiological and biochemical and molecular methods. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to test the inhibition of TMV and PVY for further verifying the anti-viral activity. Field trials were conducted with three treatments. The mixture was inoculated to tobacco NC89 (N. tabacum var. NC89) after the virus juice mixed with fermentation for 2 h (I). The fermentation was firstly sprayed on the tobacco plant, then inoculated the virus to NC89 2 h later (II). The virus was inoculated to the tobacco plant, then the fermentation was inoculated to the tobacco plant 2 h later (III). 8% of ningnanmycin and soapy water mixed with virus respectively were chosen as the positive control, and LB culture was mixed with virus as the blank control. The text result was verified through the inactivation of fermentation to the virus on the scissors.【Result】The anti-virus capacity of the strain named as 4A1 was up to 98%. Sequence analysis results showed that the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA of the strain had 99% identity with that of Pseudomonas monteiliis. The strain 4A1 was gram-negative. Enzyme, starch hydrolysis reaction such as VP and indole were negative, gelatin, liquefaction, glucose response were positive and could move. 4A1 was identified as P. monteilii based on the above physiological, biochemical and molecular test results. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to test the inhibition of TMV and PVY for further verifying the anti-viral activity. And the results showed the fermentation of 4A1 had significant inhibitory activity. The field test results showed that treatment I TMV and PVY incidence rates were 5.3% and 7.7%, and disease indexes were 0.8 and 2.9. Treatment II incidence rates were 33.3% and 36.7%, and disease indexes were 4.2 and 6.0, and treatment III tobacco incidence rates were 95.0% and 92.0% with disease indexes 24.5 and 20.1. TMV and PVY incidence rates were 99.3% and 95.4%, and the disease indexes were 38.6 and 45.1 in CK. The anti-virus effect was up to more than 95% in the treatment of fermentation spraying to the leaf-cutting tools. The effect was significantly higher than that of other treatments. 【Conclusion】The selected strain could be used as biological disinfectants and antiviral agents for planting tools in tobacco production.
    Expression of Bombyx mori Acetylcholinesterase Gene bmace in Pichia pastoris GS115 and Analysis of Its Bioactivity
    HE Yong-Sheng, CHEN Shu-Chi, WANG Hong, HAN Shuang-Yan, YANG Qiong, LIU Xi-Xia, DONG Jie-Xian, YANG Wu-Ying, SUN Yuan-Ming
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2189-2198.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.007
    Abstract ( 1025 )   PDF (1314KB) ( 657 )   Save
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    【Objective】The objective of this study is to construct a recombinant Pichia pastoris strain expressing Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase (BmAChE) and analyze its bioactivity. 【Method】cDNA encoding AChE was isolated from the silkworm, B. mori, then N-terminal signal peptide and C-termianl hydrophobic peptide were truncated by PCR and two AT-rich regions were replaced by splicing overlap extension. The modified AChE gene bmace was recombined into the pPIC9K vector and expressed in P. pastoris GS115. The recombinant BmAChE (rBmAChE) was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis. The enzyme activity was detected according to Ellman method. In addition, the bioactivity was verified by inhibition test with eserine and organophosphorus or carbamate pesticides. 【Result】The modified AChE gene bmace could be expressed in P. pastoris GS115. The resulting 70 kD recombinant protein exhibited AChE activity and the specific enzyme activity is up to 1 187 U?mg-1. An inhibition assay indicated that the AChE was strongly sensitive to eserine as well as ten kinds of organophosphorus pesticdes and five kinds of carbamate pesticides. The lowest IC50 value for methiocarb was 2.78×10-10 mol?L-1. 【Conclusion】BmAChE was expressed in P. pastoris strains GS115 successfully and possessed well bioactivity.
    SOIL & FERTILIZER·WATER-SAVING IRRIGATION·AGROECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT
    Effects of Glucose and Ammonium Sulfate Addition on Paddy Soil Microbial Biomass and Functional Diversity
    LI Fang-Liang, LI Zhong-Pei, LIU Ming, JIANG Chun-Yu, CHE Yu-Ping
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2199-2208.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.008
    Abstract ( 970 )   PDF (594KB) ( 841 )   Save
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    【Objective】 High nutrient concentration may have a significant impact on soil carbon and nitrogen transformation and microbial characters. Soil carbon and nitrogen transformation and microbial characters of glucose addition at high nutrient concentration of the fertilizer were determined for understanding of the transformation process of the special characteristics of nutrient conditions and for proposing scientific measures to improve nitrogen use efficiency.【Method】Paddy soils were selected in subtropical region of China. Changes of NH4+-N, NO3--N, inorganic N, microbial biomass, microbial functional diversity were measured by an incubation experiment through setting different amount of ammoniums sulfate and glucose treatments.【Result】 Compared with using ammonium sulfate treatments, adding glucose at high concentration of ammonium sulfate treatments, NH4+-N, NO3--N and inorganic N contents ranged -4.3%-10.2%, -8.0%-41.8% and -3.9%-10.4% respectively. Microbial biomass carbon was increased significantly by 89.6%-126.7%, while microbial biomass nitrogen was increased by 11.5%-109.0%. NH4+-N, NO3--N and inorganic N contents of adding glucose at moderate concentration of ammonium sulfate ranged -7.5%-5.8%, 6.1%-58.3% and -7.2%-49.4% respectively. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen also showed an increasing trend. BIOLOG analysis showed that AWCD value, Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh indices were at a low level at high and moderate concentrations of ammonium sulfate. Glucose addition alone and glucose addition with conventional concentration of ammonium sulfate, NH4+-N, NO3--N and inorganic N contents were decreased by 17.3%-29.0%, 21.4%-92.9% and 18.8%-45.9%, respectively. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen were not significantly increased. AWCD value, Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh indices were higher. There were interactive effects on microbial biomass carbon and AWCD values of adding glucose and ammonium sulfate.【Conclusion】 Adding glucose at higher concentration of ammonium sulfate increased nitrogen immobilization efficiency and reduced soil inorganic nitrogen content as the increasing soil microbial activity. Under the conditions of using inorganic nitrogen, in particular, attention should be paid especially to the joint application of organic and inorganic fertilizers so that the nitrogen transformation can be regulated, and consequently the risk of loss of nitrogen can be reduced.
    Fate and Residual Effect of Fertilizer Nitrogen Under Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Rotation in North China Plain in Meadow Cinnamon Soils
    DONG Xian-Xian, LIU Xin-Yu, REN Cui-Lian, JI Yan-Zhi, JU Xiao-Tang, ZHANG Li-Juan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2209-2216.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.009
    Abstract ( 791 )   PDF (581KB) ( 572 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The fate and residual effect of fertilizer nitrogen under winter wheat-summer maize rotation were studied using filed 15N microplot in north China. 【Method】 In the field 15N-micropolt experiments, nitrogen applied at 0, 75, 150, 225, 300 kgN•hm-2 (N0, N75, N150, N225, N300) and two wheat varieties were used under winter wheat-summer maize rotation in North China Plain.【Result】The results showed that all the late three crops could utilize the 15N-labeled residual from the first winter wheat. Along with 15N-labeled fertilizer application rates increasing, the 15N was up-taken by the after three crops increased significantly, but following the increasing of crops for rotation, the absorption amounts and absorption rate decreased significantly. Overlying N utilization efficiency of four crops was significantly higher than the N utilization efficiency of the right winter wheat. The overlying N utilization efficiency in N75, N150, N225 and N300 treatments accounted for 53.8%, 58.7%, 58.6% and 55.8% when HN822 was the first crop and 60.0%, 61.3%, 60.9% and 55.2%, respectively, when KN9204 was the first crop. After the fourth summer maize harvest, the range of soil residue in profile was 22.3-96.2 kgN•hm-2, the ratio of soil residue was from 22.1% to 32.8%. The range of total loss was 9.3-55.3 kgN•hm-2, and the loss ratio was 8.9% to 18.6%. 【Conclusion】 Two rotation systems finished. There was residual 15N in 0-200 cm soil profile after two crops rotation. With the nitrogen fertilizer application rates increasing, the nitrate and residual 15N amount increased. With the increasing of crops growth, the moving trend of nitrate and residual 15N was downward in vertical direction.
    HORTICULTURE
    Effects of Different Thinning Methods on Illumination, Photosynthetic, Growth and Fruiting in Airtight Apple Orchard
    LI Pei-Huan, WU Jun-Shuai, DONG Xiao-Ying, WANG Jin-Zheng, XUE Xiao-Min, LU Chao
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2217-2223.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.010
    Abstract ( 684 )   PDF (540KB) ( 554 )   Save
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    【Objective】The aim of this study was to study the effects of different thinning methods on illumination, photosynthetic, growth and fruiting in airtight apple orchard, and then provide a theoretical basis for the renovation of the old orchard. 【Method】The ‘Red Fuji’ apple airtight orchard was used in this study, and three different thinning methods, were interlaced thinning (A), septum strain thinning (B), every four trees cutting one in the line (C) and the control (CK), and then the related indexes of illumination, photosynthetic, growth and fruiting were determined and analyzed. 【Result】The results showed that in different treatments, except CK, despite the different levels of growth of coverage rate of crown, the a performance was in the order of CK>C>B>A, and light transmittance and intracoronal light transmittance were A>B>C>CK. In the growing season, in different treatments, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), carboxylation efficiency (CE) and water use efficiency (WUE) were A>B>C>CK, while intercellular CO2 concentration (CI) was the the contrary; In terms of yield, three different treatments were significantly lower than the control per hectare in the first year, but the yield recovered the next year, and in the third year A and B were significantly higher than C and CK. The colouring index, soluble sugars, titration acid and the rate of high quality fruits of different thinning methods were higher than CK, shown in detail as A and B were significantly higher than C and CK.【Conclusion】The suitable thinning methods can fundamentally improve orchard illumination, leaves photosynthesis of leavs, fruit tree growth, yield and quality, although the yield can be decreased in a period.
    Cloning, Subcellular Localization and Expression Analysis of Genes Related to the Synthesis of Gibberellin from Grapevine
    WANG Xi-Cheng, REN Guo-Hui, FANG Jing-Gui, LI A-Ying, LIU Hong, WU Wei-Min, ZHAO Mi-Zhen
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2224-2231.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.011
    Abstract ( 995 )   PDF (553KB) ( 963 )   Save
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    【Objective】The aim of this study was to isolate the open reading frame sequence of Vitis vinifera Ent-Kaurene oxidase gene (VvKO), Vitis vinifera GA2-oxidase genes (VvGA2ox2 and VvGA2ox4), Vitis vinifera GA3β-hydroxylase gene (VvGA3ox4) and Vitis vinifera GA20-oxidase gene (VvGA20ox1) from ‘Fujiminori’, and for some preliminary study on their functions and expression level. 【Method】Silico cloning was used to clone genes. Recombinant plasmid was introduced into onion epidermal cells by the particle bombardment method with a PDS1000/He. Green fluorescence was monitored under a laser scanning confocal microscope. The semi-quantitative and fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR methods were used to detect the spatial-temporal expression pattern of the 5 genes. 【Result】 Five genes related to the synthesis of gibberellins were successfully cloned. The expression results of the genes showed that there were some different expression levels in different tissues. VvGA2ox2 was only expressed in the fruit, VvGA2ox4 in leaf and fruit, and VvKO, VvGA3ox4 and VvGA20ox1 in flower, leaf and fruit. VvKO, VvGA2ox2, VvGA2ox4 and VvGA3ox4 combined with GFP were only located in nucleus of onion epidermal cell; however, VvGA20ox1 combined with GFP was located in both the plasma membrane and nucleus. 【Conclusion】All the 5 genes were involved in the development of both of reproductive and vegetative organs. Four of them only showed the nucleus location phenomena by combining with GFP, but the VvGA20ox1 showed a signal at nucleus and plasma membrane.
    STORAGE·FRESH-KEEPING·PROCESSING
    Evaluation of Antioxidant Factors in Peach with Three Types of Flesh Color
    SHEN Zhi-Jun, MA Rui-Juan, YU Ming-Liang, XU Jian-Lan, CAI Zhi-Xiang, NI Lin-Jian, YAN Shao-Bin
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2232-2241.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.012
    Abstract ( 853 )   PDF (599KB) ( 721 )   Save
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    【Objective】 More and more health beneficial foods with high antioxidant capacity were discovered and highlighted. Evaluation of peach germplasm with different flesh colors using antioxidant components and capacity would support the discovery and utilization of the genetic resources theoretically. 【Method】 Seventy-five accessions of peach were used as plant materials for the comparative evaluation. Total phenols and anthocyanin content, FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) and RAC (relative antiradical capacity tested by DPPH•) were tested in epicarp and mesocarp, respectively. 【Result】 Wider range of total phenols and anthocyanin content, FRAP and RAC was found among blood peach accessions comparing to white and yellow flesh types, but the ranges of all the four items was overlapping. The maximum value of the four items was all observed in blood flesh varieties. Antioxidant components of blood flesh peach were significantly higher than in white and yellow flesh types at 0.01 level. Total phenols contents of blood flesh peach were 4.1 and 4.6 times of that in white and yellow flesh types, and anthocyanin contents were 20.1 and 11.6 times of that in the later two types, respectively. Antioxidant capacity was also higher in blood flesh peach. The FRAP value was 5.8 and 6.2 times of that in white and yellow flesh types, and the RAC value was 3.8 and 4.6 times of that in the later two types, respectively. Antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with both total phenols and anthocyanin content. But, the correlation coefficient was higher between antioxidant capacity and total phenols content than that between antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. Moreover, better linear regression was found between antioxidant capacity and total phenols than that between antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. 【Conclusion】 Antioxidant components and capacity of blood flesh peach was significantly higher than white and yellow flesh types. Phenolis were found to be more important than anthocyanin contributing to antioxidant capacity in peach. ‘Beijingyixianhong’, ‘HongTao’, and other varieties were selected as germplasms with high antioxidant capacity.
    Control of Postharvest Diseases and Potentiation of Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) Fruits Treated by Sodium Silicate
    WANG Yun-Fei, BI Yang, REN Ya-Lin, WANG Yi, FAN Cun-Fei, LI Da-Qiang, YANG Zhi-Min
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2242-2248.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.013
    Abstract ( 876 )   PDF (500KB) ( 743 )   Save
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    【Objective】Dipping treatment with sodium silicate on control of postharvest diseases and potentiation of reactive oxygen species metabolism in muskmelon fruits was investigated in this paper. 【Method】Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Yujinxiang) fruits were dipped at 100 mmol•L-1 of sodium silicate for 10 min, and inoculated with Trichothecium roseum 12 h after treatment. Effect of sodium silicate treatment on postharvest diseases and reactive oxygen species metabolism in muskmelon fruits was determined. 【Result】Sodium silicate significantly decreased (P<0.05) the lesion diameter of fruits inoculated with T. roseum, and the natural incidence of fruits during storage at room temperature. Sodium silicate induced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and promoted the generation rate of superoxide anion ( ). Furthermore, sodium silicate increased the catalase (CAT) activity, but inhibited the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the earlier period. Sodium silicate promoted the accumulaition of malondiadehyde (MDA), however, decreased the cell membrane integrity in muskmelon fruits. Inoculation sodium silicate treated fruits enhanced the generation of H2O2 and   and CAT activity, and maintained SOD activity. Sodium silicon-treatment also induced higher production of MDA. 【Conclusion】Sodium silicate treatment decreased postharvest diseases of muskmelon fruits by regulating reactive oxygen species metabolism.
    ANIMAL SCIENCE·RESOURCE INSECT
    Function, Research, and Application of Antimicrobial Peptides
    DAN An-Shan, MA De-Ying, FENG Xing-Jun, MA Qing-Quan, DONG Na, WANG Liang, 吕Yin-Feng , ZHU Xin
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2249-2259.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.014
    Abstract ( 1177 )   PDF (631KB) ( 2679 )   Save
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    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) distribute widely in all organisms. As an important part of the non-specific immune functions of organisms, AMPs process the properties of various biological functions and low tendency of developing drug resistance and have a potential application prospect in many fields. This review deals with classification, biofunction and antibacterial mechanism of AMPs, particularly summurizes the research progess in the exploitation and application of AMPs in animals in recent years.
    Stability of Endogenous Reference Genes in Green-Goose Tissues During Prelaying and Laying Periods 
    JI Hong, WANG Zhong-Wei, GUO Jing-Ru, WANG Jian-Fa, HE Rong-He, YANG Huan-Min
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2260-2266.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.015
    Abstract ( 779 )   PDF (511KB) ( 593 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The mRNA expression levels of seven candidate reference genes in green-goose tissues during prelaying and laying periods were comparatively-analyzed. Finally the most appropriate reference genes and their numbers were screened in gene expression analysis of green-goose tissues.【Method】The expressions of candidate reference genes 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1, SDH and TUB in prelaying and laying green-goose liver, kidney, heart, leg muscle and ovary were detected by qRT-PCR. Gene copy number was determined using absolute quantification. Then the expression stability of these genes was analysed by geNorm software.【Result】The results showed that stability of the seven reference genes from high to low was GAPDH=HRPT1 (0.195)>TUB (0.244)>28S rRNA (0.414)>18S rRNA (0.495)>ACTB (0.541)>SDH (0.610) during prelaying period and GAPDH=28S rRNA (0.128)>TUB (0.181)>ACTB (0.192)>SDH (0.221)>HRPT1 (0.316)>18S rRNA (0.362) during laying period by geNorm analysis. And V2/3 of pairwise variance analysis of 7 candidate reference genes were separately 0.084 and 0.069 during the 2 periods. The appropriate number of reference genes was 2. 【Conclusion】 These results suggest that GAPDH and HRPT1, GAPDH and 28S rRNA are suitable reference genes and could be used to normalize mRNA levels between different samples in green-goose tissues during prelaying and laying periods.
    Dynamic Expression of TPM1 Gene During Longissimus dorsi Muscle Development in Pigs
    LIANG Ru-Yi, LI Yan, TANG Zhong-Lin, HUANG Rui-Hua, LI Kui
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2267-2272.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.016
    Abstract ( 916 )   PDF (493KB) ( 773 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The purpose of the present research was to explore whether tropomyosin (TM) has biological functions in the regulation of the Longissimus dorsi muscle growth and development of pigs.【Method】In this study, TPM1 gene expression profiles in different tissues from Tongcheng pigs and Landrace pigs were analyzed and the expression change during Longissimus dorsi muscle development (28 stages) was investigated by real-time qPCR with SYBR® Green II. 【Result】The result showed that the TPM1 gene was strongly expressed in the Longissimus dorsi muscle and heart, and both breeds were similar in the expression patterns with decreasing after increasing, but the peak occurred at different times. The expression level of TPM1 gene in embryonic period 75 d were significantly higher than those in other periods in Tongcheng pigs, and the same result was found in embryonic period 90 d in Landrace pigs.【Conclusion】Results suggested that TPM1 gene expression may be related to the Longissimus dorsi muscle growth and muscle phenotypic differences between species of pigs.
    Genotype and Gene Expression of SCD1 Gene Associated with the Content and Composition of Fatty Acid in Milk
    LI Yun-Long, YANG Zhang-Ping, WANG Xiao-Long, CHANG Ling-Ling, JI De-Jun, LIU Shan, GAN Zong-Hui
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2273-2279.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.017
    Abstract ( 633 )   PDF (550KB) ( 687 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The effect of SCD1 different genotypes on gene expression and milk fatty acid composition was studied. 【Method】 Three hundred and three Chinese Holstein cows of a dairy farm were used to detect the polymorphism of the exon 5 of SCD1 gene using PCR-SSCP, and the relative gene expression was assayed by quantitative FQ-PCR, the milk fatty acid composition was assayed using the method of gas chromatography.【Result】One SNP, C878T, was detected, defining three genotypes, CC, CT and TT, with frequencies of 0.617, 0.339 and 0.044, respectively. The allele frequencies of C and T were, respectively, 0.787 and 0.213. Only the expression of CT genotype was significantly higher than TT genotype (P<0.05). Total saturated fatty acids of TT was significantly higher than CC or CT (P<0.05). There were highly significant differences in the fatty acid C6:0, C8:0, C14:0, C15:0 and c9t11CLA (P<0.01) , and significant differences in the fatty acid C4:0, C12:0, C17:0 among these three genotypes (P<0.05).【Conclusion】The SNP C878T of SCD1 has a great genetic effect on the gene expression of SCD1 and the content of fatty acid in milk, it could be a useful genetic marker for milking trait in Chinese Holstein breeding.
    Comparison and Analysis of Genetic Parameters of Growth Traits of Qinghai Fine-Wool Sheep Estimated by Different Models
    WANG Peng-Yu, GUAN Que-Zha-Xi, QI Quan-Qing, DE Mao, ZHANG Yan-Jun, WANG Rui-Jun, ZHANG Wen-Guang, LI Jin-Quan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2280-2287.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.018
    Abstract ( 615 )   PDF (629KB) ( 592 )   Save
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    【Objective】The effects of different animal models on estimation of genetic parameters of growth traits of Qinghai Fine-Wool sheep were investigated. 【Method】 The genetic parameters for growth traits of Qinghai Fine-Wool sheep were estimated by average information restricted maximum likelihood (AIREML) with different animal models, and the differences between different animal models were tested by likelihood ratio test. Eight models were constructed on the basis of different random effects in models. All models contain the fixed effects, direct genetic effects, and residual effects. The random effects include individual permanent environmental effects, maternal genetic effects, and maternal permanent environmental effects.【Result】The direct heritabilities were 0.1696-0.3781, 0.2520-0.3291, 0.2244-0.3506, and 0.2205-0.3981 for birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), hogget weight (HWT), respectively, and the maternal heritability were 0.0001-0.0900, 0.0002-0.0759, 0.0001-0.0918, and 0.0000-0.0006 for BWT, WWT, YWT, HWT, respectively. Compared with model 1, both model 3 and model 8 were significant (P<0.01) for BWT, and model 3 was significant (P<0.01) for WWT, other models were not significant (P>0.05) for YWT and HWT by likelihood ratio test. Compared with model 2, model 8 was significant (P<0.01) for BWT, model 6 was significant (P<0.01) for YWT, both model 5 and model 8 were significant (P<0.01) for HWT, by likelihood ratio test. Compared with model 3, models 5, 6, 7, 8 were not significant (P>0.05) for all growth traits by likelihood ratio test. Compared with model 4, both models 5 and model 8 were significant (P<0.01) for BWT; model 6 was significant (P<0.01) for YWT, by likelihood ratio test.【Conclusion】Model 3 is fit for birth weight, weaning weight, and model 1 is fit for yearling weight, hogget weight. The maternal effects are important determinants of estimating the genetic parameters of birth weight and weaning weight. The direct heritabilities are 0.1995, 0.2552, 0.3438, and 0.2205 for BWT, WWT , YWT, HWT , respectively.
    VETERINARY SCIENCE
    Eukaryotic Expression and Antigencity Analysis of Avian Hepatitis E Virus ORF3 Protein from China Isolate
    HU Shou-Bin, ZHAO Qin, ZHAO Fei-Fei, XIAO Yi-Hong, ZHOU 恩Min
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2288-2294.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.019
    Abstract ( 662 )   PDF (636KB) ( 609 )   Save
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    【Objective】The objective of the study is to obtain recombinant protein of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) ORF3 of China isolate (CaHEV) and analyze its antigencity. 【Method】Total RNA was extracted from CaHEV and ORF3 gene was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into pFastBac-HT. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into DH10Bac and transfected into sf9 insect cells to express the recombinant ORF3 protein. The recombinant ORF3 protein was identified by SDS-PAGE, Western bolt and IFA methods. The purified ORF3 protein was used to immunize Balb/c mice to produce polyclonal antibodies and then to analyze the epitopes in ORF3 using 3 truncated ORF3 proteins 【Result】The results showed that ORF3 protein was expressed with the highest expression level at 4 days post inoculation. The titer of anti-ORF3 polyclonal antibodies was 104 determined with the ELISA method. The dominant epitopes of ORF3 were located between amino acids 74 and 88 in C-terminal region.【Conclusion】 Recombinant ORF3 protein from avian HEV China isolate was expressed successfully and the dominant epitopes were located between amino acids 74 and 88 in C-terminal region. These results paved a way for future study of the structure and function of ORF3 protein.
    Gene Cloning and Distribution of Neuropeptide W and Its Receptor 1 in Rabbit
    SUN Xiao-Xuan, LEI Zhi-Hai, YANG Gui-Hong, LIU Xin-Yi, YE Ping
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2295-2305.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.020
    Abstract ( 752 )   PDF (866KB) ( 737 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study was carried out to obtain sequence of NPW and NPWR1 (GPR7) gene, and reveal the expression of NPW and NPWR1 mRNA in rabbit organs. 【Method】 The partial coding sequences of NPW and NPWR1 were obtained from rabbit brain using the approach of gene cloning. The expressions of NPW and NPWR1 mRNA in rabbit brain were studied by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. 【Result】 The length of NPW and NPWR1 was 234 bp and 508 bp, respectively. The sequences of the products were confirmed to be those of NPW and NPWR1 in rabbit and enrolled in GenBank (accession numbers: HQ596517 and HQ596518). Phylogenetic analysis showed that amino sequence of rabbit NPS precursor had high homology compared with other animals. The expression of NPW and NPWR1 mRNA was extensive in rabbit organs, with majority of NPWR1 mRNA in the hippocampus, cerebellum, hypothalamus and medulla oblongata in the central nervous system. 【Conclusion】 NPW and its receptor gene in rabbit were conservative, and the expression of NPW and NPWR1 mRNA in rabbit organs were extensive, suggesting that they are involved in regulations of various physiological functions.
    Association Analysis of Three SNPs Within ANGPTL6 Gene with Growth Traits in Luxi Cattle
    LI Ai-Min, MA Yun, YANG Dong-Ying, 蓝Xian-Yong , HU Shen-Rong, LEI Chu-Chao, ZHANG Chun-Lei, CHEN Hong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2306-2314.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.021
    Abstract ( 643 )   PDF (789KB) ( 589 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The purpose of this study is to reveal the genetic variation characteristics of bovine ANGPTL6 gene and find several candidate molecular markers that related to growth traits of Luxi cattle, thus for accumulating some basic information for molecular breeding of Luxi cattle breed.【Method】As investigative materials blood samples collected from 183 Luxi cows were used and sequence variants within ANGPTL6 gene were detected by DNA pool sequencing and PCR-RFLP technology.【Result】The results showed that three novel SNPs within the intron region of ANGPTL6 gene were identified in Luxi cattle breed. χ2 test showed that three loci of the Luxi cattle population were all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). Analysis of genetic diversity indicated T2359C and G3258T loci were at intermediate polymorphic status, but C2403A locus was at low polymorphic status. Further, the linkage disequilibrium and haplotypes were analyzed among three SNPs, suggested that they are all little linked. Interestingly, haplotype of TCG (wild-type) was dominant (with frequency of 44.3%). The variance analysis showed that the different genotypes of single and combined site were all significantly or extremely significantly associated with growth traits of Luxi cattle, and the growth traits of heterozygous individuals were all higher than the homozygous individuals.【Conclusion】The three novel SNPs are all significantly related to growth traits of Luxi cattle, and the heterozygous individuals are all more superior than the homozygous individuals, which suggested these results could apply to molecular breeding industry of Luxi cattle.
    AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY & MANAGMENT
    Study on Per Capita Grain Demand Based on Chinese Reasonable Dietary Pattern
    TANG Hua-Jun, LI Zhe-Min
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2315-2327.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.022
    Abstract ( 1124 )   PDF (735KB) ( 2350 )   Save
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    【Objective】To analyze the composition of China’s per-capita grain demand, ascertain the per-capita grain consumption on the basis of rational diet patterns to realize the limited resources utility maximization and provide new supporting data for China's food security, and provide a scientific basis for developing appropriate policies to guide the consumer. All of the researches above are based on people’s nutrition and health.【Method】 The demand for per capita rations, grain for fodder and processing in the balanced diet model were calculated by applying the Prandial Balance Analysis Method. The per capita demand for seeds, industry and wastage were calculated by using the Trend Prediction Method, and the Scenarios Analysis Method was adoped to discuss different influence degrees between the two results.【Result】 The per-capita grain demand based on balanced dietary pattern is no more than 400 kg•a-1. The low program is 252.64 kg•a-1 the middle program is 322.07 kg•a-1, and the high program is 386.60 kg•a-1. In recent years, the real per-capita grain consumption in China has been fluctuating between 406.09-378.88 kg•a-1, which is greater than per-capita grain demand in the balanced dietary pattern. 【Conclusion】 If the per-capita grain demand in China reaches 322.07 kg•a-1, it will basically meet the per-capita demand for food security. If per-capita grain consumption reaches 386.60 kg•a-1, it will basically ensure the food security in China. The current residents’ irrational food consumption pattern brings about the differences between the per-capita grain demand based on the balanced dietary patterns and the real per-capita grain consumption. Therefore, the government should adjust the structure of food production, strengthen propaganda and popularization work of food consumption awareness about reasonable diet structure, and guide people to cultivate reasonable food consumption habits with the goal of nutrition and health.
    RESEARCH NOTES
    Rubber Particle Protein Analysis of Hevea brasiliensis by Two Dimensional 16-BAC/SDS-PAGE and Mass Spectrometry
    DAI Long-Jun, XIANG Qiu-Lan, LI Yu, NIE Zhi-Yi, KANG Gui-Juan, DUAN Cui-Fang, ZENG Ri-Zhong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2012, 45(11):  2328-2338.  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2012.11.023
    Abstract ( 1031 )   PDF (741KB) ( 1005 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The objective of the study is to investigate the protein composition and to identify the unknown proteins of the rubber particles in the latex of a rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.).【Method】The rubber particle proteins were separated using two dimensional 16-BAC/SDS-PAGE. The protein spots were cut from the 2-DE gel, subjected to trypsin digestion, and then analyzed using MALDI-TOF-TOF or mass spectrometry de novo sequencing after 4-sulfophenyl isothiocyanate (SPITC) derivatization of tryptic peptides. 【Result】 A total of 17 rubber particle proteins were identified through a MALDI/ TOF-TOF analysis, among which a new member of the rubber elongation factor (REF) subfamily, hbREF2, was identified using a method of SPITC based de novo amino acid sequencing, and its partial 3’ terminal sequence with 87 amino acid residues was obtained. The amino acid sequence of hbREF2 had a high degree of similarity with that of a well-known REF member (gi|38122474). In addition, the complete amino acid sequence of one member in the small rubber particle protein (SRPP) subfamily, SRPP (gi|37622210), was obtained through searching the latex transcriptome ESTs database with peptide sequences.【Conclusion】Rubber particle proteins were effectively separated by a 16-BAC/SDS-PAGE method and characterized by mass spectrometry. The data showed the relative abundances of rubber particle proteins and demonstrated that the major protein components of rubber particles are REF and SRPP isoforms. The global identification of the rubber particle proteins is essential to elucidate the biological functions of the rubber particles in the latex of rubber trees.