Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2020, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (12): 2450-2459.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2020.12.012

• HORTICULTURE • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of Wax Coating on Off-Flavor Compound Accumulation in the Pulp of Satsuma Mandarin

ZOU YunQian1,ZHANG Li1,WU FangFang1,XU RangWei1,XU Juan1,HU ShiQuan2,XIE HePing2,CHENG YunJiang1()   

  1. 1 College of Horticulture and Forestry Science, Huazhong Agricultural University/National R&D Center for Citrus Preservation, Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Biology and Germplasm Genetic Improvement (Fruit Crops), Ministry of Agriculture/Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430070;
    2 Agricultural Technology Extension Center of Yiling county, Yichang 443100, Hubei
  • Received:2019-12-10 Online:2020-06-16 Published:2020-06-25
  • Contact: YunJiang CHENG


【Background】 Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) is the most important loose-skinned citrus fruit for fresh consumption in China. After washing, coating, packaging and other postharvest commercial handlings, the fruits often undergo a rapid accumulation of off-flavor compounds in the pulp, which obviously influences the taste and flavor and further affects the consumer's choice as well as the shelf life and market competitiveness of the fruit. 【Objective】 In order to optimize its postharvest commercial handling, the influence of waxing treatment on Satsuma mandarin was investigated, so as to prolong its shelf life and increase its market competitiveness. 【Method】 ‘Praecox Tanaka’ Satsuma mandarin fruits were treated with a series of dilutions of commercial waxes. Then, the internal CO2 and O2 content, ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations and morphological changes of surface wax were monitored by GC-MS. In addition, the sensory attributes, including gloss, off-flavor, flavor, juiciness, mastication, sweetness, tartness and overall quality, were analyzed to comprehensively evaluate the effects of different treatments on fruit’s postharvest quality. 【Result】 The result showed that undiluted commercial wax T1 (402D) was able to increase the gloss of fruit surface, however, which could be detected clearly with scanning electron microscopy. The fruit surface was fully covered with artificial wax, which contributed to lower O2 and higher CO2 content. The internal content of CO2 in undiluted 402D treated Satsuma mandarin fruit was increased by 7.1% when the fruits were stored for 3 weeks, and the O2 content decreased from 1.6% to 1.4%. Compared to the control group, the content of CO2 was increased by 1.0% in treated fruits. Waxing also led to a rapid accumulation of off-flavor compounds such as ethanol and acetaldehyde in the pulp, and dilution of the mother solution could increase O2 content and decrease CO2 content at the fruit core, as well as retard the accumulation rate of off-flavor compounds. It was further found dilution of 402D with water to a proportion of 1:1 could be rather effective, as we observed that the ethanol content was 1 773.8 mg?L-1 in 402D treated fruits and the number lower to 560.5 mg?L-1in 402D/H2O (1:1) treated fruits. Also, the sensory evaluation changed from "highlighted" to "brighter", and the overall evaluation score increased significantly in 402D/H2O (1:1) treated fruits. Besides, constant cold chain (4℃) after the coating treatment could effectively inhibit off-flavor compound accumulation and prolong the shelf life. 【Conclusion】 Coating treatment was the key reason for the rapid accumulation of off-flavor compounds in Satsuma mandarin fruit. When the fruit was treated with 402D/H2O (1:1) and then stored at 4℃, the accumulation of ethanol and acetaldehyde, two typical odorous compounds, could be significantly reduced, which helped to greatly improve the taste and extend the shelf life to four weeks.

Key words: mandarin, off-flavors compound, commercial wax, sensory evaluation, postharvest storage

Fig. 1

Effects of different solid contents of waxing treatment on the surface morphology of ‘Praecox Tanaka’ satsuma mandarin fruit SEM pictures of the epidermis and stomata of A, E: T1 (solid content of 20%); B, F: T2 (solid content of 10%); C, G: T3 (solid content of 5%); D, H: T4 (solid content of 0%) coated fruits"

Fig. 2

Effects of different solid content of waxing treatments on the contents of CO2 and O2 in ‘Praecox Tanaka’ satsuma mandarins fruits A: Internal CO2 concentration of ‘Praecox Tanaka’ Satsuma mandarins stored under normal temperature; B: Low temperature and then transferred to normal temperature; C: Internal O2 concentration of ‘Praecox Tanaka’ satsuma mandarins stored under normal temperature; D: Low temperature storage and then transferred to normal temperature. Different lowercase letters represent significant differences at 5% level between different solid content of waxing treatments under the same time point, * represent statistically significant differences at 5% level at different time point"

Fig. 3

Effects of different solid content of waxing treatments on the contents of alcohol in ‘Praecox Tanaka’ satsuma mandarins A: Ethanol contents in the juice under different treatments stored at room temperature; B: Ethanol content of fruits treated with T1 (solid content of 20%) and control in cold storage; C: Ethanol content of fruits treated with T2 (solid content of 10%) and control in cold storage; D: Ethanol content of fruits treated with T3 (solid content of 5%) and control in cold storage. Different lowercase letters indicate significant difference among different treatments at the same time (P<0.05). The same as below"

Fig. 4

Effects of different solid content of waxing treatments on the contents of alcohol in ‘Praecox Tanaka’ Satsuma mandarins fruits A: Acetaldehyde contents in the juice under different treatments and storage at room temperature; the higher the solid content is, the higher the acetaldehyde content in fruit will be; B: acetaldehyde content of fruits treated with T1 (The solid content is 20%) and control in cold storage; C: Acetaldehydel contents of fruits treated with T2 (The solid content is 10%) and control in cold storage; D: Acetaldehyde contents of fruits treated with T3 (The solid content is 5%) and control in cold storage"

Fig. 5

Sensory attributes of wax-coated and -uncoated ‘Praecox Tanaka’ satsuma mandarins after three weeks of storage at room temperature"

Table 1

Sensory attributes of wax-coated and -uncoated ‘Praecox Tanaka’ satsuma mandarins"

Overall quality
4℃* 20℃** 4℃ 20℃ 4℃ 20℃ 4℃ 20℃ 4℃ 20℃ 4℃ 20℃ 4℃ 20℃ 4℃ 20℃
T1 0 d 2.31c 2.47c 3.81d 3.20d 1.81a 2.53c 1.88a 1.60a 2.25a 2.27a 1.13a 1.20a 2.63a 1.87a 3.45b 1.42b
T1 1 d 1.81b 2.40c 3.81d 3.07d 2.13b 2.40c 1.88a 2.00b 2.19a 2.27a 1.38a 1.73b 2.50a 1.87a 3.23ab 1.47b
T1 2 d 2.06b 3.60d 3.00c 2.33b 1.56a 2.60c 2.44c 1.33a 2.44a 2.27a 1.25a 1.07a 2.44a 2.07ab 3.12b 1.33b
T1 4 d 1.50ab 2.53c 2.50b 2.27b 1.88b 1.60a 2.19a 2.00b 2.63b 2.27a 1.69ab 1.40ab 2.44a 2.13b 2.78a 1.06a
T2 0 d 1.38a 1.93b 2.50b 2.27b 2.25b 2.13b 1.94a 1.93b 2.63b 2.33a 2.00bc 1.53ab 2.31a 1.93a 4.11c 3.58d
T2 1 d 2.06b 1.40a 2.81b 2.67c 1.75a 1.53a 2.25b 2.20b 2.19a 2.60b 1.25a 1.60b 2.38a 2.20b 3.56b 3.28cd
T2 2 d 1.50ab 1.93b 2.56b 2.53c 1.94b 1.67a 1.94a 2.33b 2.25a 2.40ab 1.75b 1.67b 2.25a 2.13ab 3.53b 2.76c
T2 4 d 1.38a 2.26c 1.56a 1.80a 1.69a 1.67a 2.50c 2.33b 2.63b 2.53b 2.25c 1.47ab 2.25a 2.20b 3.14ab 2.33bc
T3 0 d 1.31a 1.53ab 2.50b 2.60c 1.94b 2.20a 2.06ab 2.13b 2.69b 2.53b 1.81a 1.87b 2.38a 2.27b 3.78bc 3.13cd
T3 1 d 1.56ab 1.47a 2.44b 2.60c 1.69a 2.00b 2.13ab 2.00b 2.31a 2.60b 1.56ab 1.80b 2.38a 2.40c 3.88bc 3.14cd
T3 2 d 1.06a 1.33a 2.38b 2.33b 2.13b 2.07b 2.25b 2.27b 2.63b 2.53b 2.19c 2.13bc 2.38a 2.00ab 3.57b 2.38bc
T3 4 d 1.56ab 1.33a 2.38b 2.00ab 1.69a 2.00b 1.88a 2.33b 2.31a 2.20b 1.31a 1.93b 2.31a 2.20b 3.23ab 2.16bc
T4 1.19a 1.00a 1.50a 1.67a 2.13b 1.67a 2.06ab 3.00c 2.63b 2.73c 2.13c 2.40c 2.25a 2.27bc 3.87bc 2.33bc
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