Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (12): 2425-2435.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2022.12.013

• FOOD SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of Thermal Sterilization on Aroma Quality of Flat Peach Juice Based on Sensory Evaluation and GC-MS Combined with OPLS-DA

TAN FengLing(),ZHAN Ping,WANG Peng(),TIAN HongLei()   

  1. College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119
  • Received:2021-09-07 Accepted:2022-01-14 Online:2022-06-16 Published:2022-06-23
  • Contact: Peng WANG,HongLei TIAN;;


【Objective】In order to provide a theoretical basis for the quality control of flat peach juice products, the aroma quality changes and the main deterioration factors of flat peach juice after thermal sterilization were investigated.【Method】 Flat peach juice samples were prepared by using four flat peach varieties from Xinjiang province (Zaolupan, ZLP; Zaopan, ZP; Ruipan1, RP1; Ruipan18, RP18) as raw materials and treated at 85℃ for 30 min. Then, the changes of sensory characteristics and aroma composition were investigated by using E-nose, descriptive sensory evaluation (DSA), and GC-MS. Furthermore, OPLS-DA model was applied to screen the marker compounds which caused the quality changes in thermally sterilized juice.【Result】Descriptive sensory analysis and E-nose results indicated that differences existed among four fresh juices, but all of the fresh samples showed high scores in green, peach-like, floral, and fruity attributes. Whereas, the aroma quality of flat peach juice changed greatly after thermal sterilization, as reflected by the decrease of green attribute and the increase of sweet, off-flavor, and cooked flavor. Seven categories of volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS, including esters, lactones, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, and furan compounds. The concentration of aldehydes (hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal), esters (ethyl acetate, hexyl acetate) and terpenes (limonene) decreased significantly after thermal sterilization, while some compounds with off-flavor attribute (pentanal, α-terpineol, β-damascenone) increased significantly. Ten compounds, including three categories compounds (aldehydes, esters, and terpenes) and (E)-2-hexenal, hexanal, ethyl acetate, benzaldehyde, limonene, hexyl acetate and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were screened as markers that could distinguish the fresh juice and thermally sterilized juice according to S-Plot and VIP value of OPLS-DA model, so this result verified the accuracy of sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.【Conclusion】 The green attribute significantly decreased, meanwhile off-flavor and cooked flavor attributes emerged after thermal sterilization. The decrease of (E)-2-hexenal, hexanal, ethyl acetate, benzaldehyde, limonene, hexyl acetate and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and the formation of pentanal and β-damascenone were the main factors for leading to the loss of green attribute and formation of off-flavor and cooked flavor. GC-MS and sensory evaluation coupled with multivariate statistical analysis method (PCA/ OPLS-DA) could be used to accurately evaluate the effect of thermal sterilization on the aroma profile of flat peach juice, and further to trace the key factors of flavor quality deterioration of thermally sterilized juice, which provided a reference for further exploring the degeneration mechanism of thermally processed juice.

Key words: flat peach juice, thermal sterilization, descriptive sensory evaluation, GC-MS, OPLS-DA

Fig. 1

The flavor profile from E-nose (A) and PCA from E-nose (B)"

Fig. 2

The radar profile from sensory evaluation"

Fig. 3

The heat map of the content of flavor compounds and different categories of volatile compounds in flat peach juices of different cultivars before and after thermal sterilization"

Fig. 4

OPLS-DA plots of volatile compounds in flat peach juices of different cultivars before and after thermal sterilization A: PCA score plot; B: OPLS-DA score plot; C: S-plot; D: VIP values of volatile compounds"

[1] MA R, YU M, DU P, GUO H, SONG H. Evaluation of germplasm resources and breeding of flat peach. Acta Horticulturae, 2003(620): 161-167.
[2] 刘春燕, 童婷, 陈宇昂, 陈冬立. 新疆兵团第十二师桃产业发展现状与解决对策. 天津农业科学, 2020, 26(4): 29-31, 48.
LIU C Y, TONG T, CHEN Y A, CHEN D L. Development status and countermeasures of the peach industry in 12th division of production and construction corps of Xinjiang. Tianjin Agricultural Sciences, 2020, 26(4): 29-31, 48. (in Chinese)
[3] 宋方圆, 赵志永, 李冀新, 邓小蓉. 蟠桃采后保鲜果实品质的研究进展. 农产品加工, 2015(21): 58-60. doi: 10.16693/j.cnki.1671-9646(X).2015.11.018.
doi: 10.16693/j.cnki.1671-9646(X).2015.11.018
SONG F Y, ZHAO Z Y, LI J X, DENG X R. Research progress of fruit quality of peach postharvest. Farm Products Processing, 2015(21): 58-60. doi: 10.16693/j.cnki.1671-9646(X).2015.11.018. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.16693/j.cnki.1671-9646(X).2015.11.018
[4] EVRENDILEK G A, AVSAR Y K, EVRENDILEK F. Modelling stochastic variability and uncertainty in aroma active compounds of PEF-treated peach nectar as a function of physical and sensory properties, and treatment time. Food Chemistry, 2016, 190: 634-642. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.06.010.
doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.06.010
[5] WANG Y J, YANG C X, LI S H, YANG L, WANG Y N, ZHAO J B, JIANG Q. Volatile characteristics of 50 peaches and nectarines evaluated by HP-SPME with GC-MS. Food Chemistry, 2009, 116(1): 356-364.
doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.004
[6] TIAN H L, WANG P, ZHAN P, YAN H Y, ZHOU W J, ZHANG F. Effects of β-glucosidase on the aroma characteristics of flat peach juice as assessed by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography and compared by partial least squares regression. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 2017, 82: 113-120.
doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2017.04.029
[7] WANG P, ZHAN P, TIAN H L, ZHANG F, XI J P. Characterization of the influence of thermal sterilization on the volatiles in flat peach juice. Analytical Letters, 2018, 51(15): 2340-2350. doi: 10.1080/00032719.2017.1423323.
doi: 10.1080/00032719.2017.1423323
[8] 王鹏, 周文杰, 田洪磊, 张海轮, 詹萍, 张洪安, 梁霞, 张芳. 基于GC-MS结合PCA技术探究β-葡萄糖苷酶对蟠桃汁增香效果的研究. 现代食品科技, 2017, 33(2): 197-204. doi: 10.13982/j.mfst.1673-9078.2017.2.030.
doi: 10.13982/j.mfst.1673-9078.2017.2.030
WANG P, ZHOU W J, TIAN H L, ZHANG H L, ZHAN P, ZHANG H A, LIANG X, ZHANG F. Effects of β-glycosidase on the aroma enhancement of flat peach juice using GC-MS combined with PCA. Modern Food Science and Technology, 2017, 33(2): 197-204. doi: 10.13982/j.mfst.1673-9078.2017.2.030. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.13982/j.mfst.1673-9078.2017.2.030
[9] TAN F L, WANG P, ZHAN P, TIAN H L. Characterization of key aroma compounds in flat peach juice based on gas chromatography- mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O), odor activity value (OAV), aroma recombination, and omission experiments. Food Chemistry, 2022, 366: 130604. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130604.
doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130604
[10] NIU Y W, WANG R L, XIAO Z B, ZHU J C, SUN X X, WANG P P. Characterization of ester odorants of apple juice by gas chromatography- olfactometry, quantitative measurements, odour threshold, aroma intensity and electronic nose. Food Research International, 2019, 120: 92-101.
doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2019.01.064
[11] 牛丽影, 郁萌, 吴继红, 刘夫国, 刘春泉. 固相微萃取条件对橙汁主要挥发性成分GC-FID测定的影响. 食品科学, 2013, 34(22): 224-233. doi: 10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201322045.
doi: 10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201322045
NIU L Y, YU M, WU J H, LIU F G, LIU C Q. Effect of SPME conditions on the determination of volatile compounds in orange juice using GC-FID method. Food Science, 2013, 34(22): 224-233. doi: 10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201322045. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201322045
[12] 张芳, 未志胜, 王鹏, 李凯旋, 詹萍, 田洪磊. 基于BP神经网络和遗传算法的库尔勒香梨挥发性物质萃取条件的优化. 中国农业科学, 2018, 51(23): 4535-4547. doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.23.012.
doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.23.012
ZHANG F, WEI Z S, WANG P, LI K X, ZHAN P, TIAN H L. Using neural network coupled genetic algorithm to optimize the SPME conditions of volatile compounds in Korla pear. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2018, 51(23): 4535-4547. doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.23.012. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.23.012
[13] 李国卫, 索彩仙, 吴文平, 潘礼业, 胡绮萍, 何嘉莹, 孙冬梅. 基于多元统计分析的不同诃子属药材多指标成分研究. 天然产物研究与开发, 2021, 33(1): 23-33. doi: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2021.1.004.
doi: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2021.1.004
LI G W, SUO C X, WU W P, PAN L Y, HU Q P, HE J Y, SUN D M. Multi-indicative component analysis of different species of Terminalia L. based on multivariate statistical analysis. Natural Product Research and Development, 2021, 33(1): 23-33. doi: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2021.1.004. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.16333/j.1001-6880.2021.1.004
[14] JIA H J. Studies on peach quality affected by orchard practices[D]. Okayama: Okayama University, 2002.
[15] ZHAO Y, WANG P, ZHAN P, TIAN H L, LU C, TIAN P. Aroma characteristics of cloudy kiwifruit juices treated with high hydrostatic pressure and representative thermal processes. Food Research International, 2021, 139: 109841. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109841.
doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109841
[16] 魏利军, 王菊侠, 侯丽芳, 李琴梅. 西瓜汁热变性的研究及其解决方法探讨. 食品工程, 2013(2): 40-42, 52. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-6044.2013.02.014.
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-6044.2013.02.014
WEI L J, WANG J X, HOU L F, LI Q M. Research on thermal denaturation of watermelon juice and the solution. Food Engineering, 2013(2): 40-42, 52. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-6044.2013.02.014. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-6044.2013.02.014
[17] 李宝丽, 邓建玲, 蔡欣, 刘睿, 谭军, 王红. 顶空固相微萃取-气质联用结合主成分分析研究纯葡萄汁的香气成分. 中国食品学报, 2016, 16(4): 258-270. doi: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2016.04.035.
doi: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2016.04.035
LI B L, DENG J L, CAI X, LIU R, TAN J, WANG H. Studies on aroma components in pure grape juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS coupled with PCA. Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology, 2016, 16(4): 258-270. doi: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2016.04.035. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2016.04.035
[18] 姬云云, 詹萍, 田洪磊. 炖煮时间对羊肉汤风味品质的影响. 中国食品学报, 2020, 20(12): 256-267. doi: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2020.12.031.
doi: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2020.12.031
JI Y Y, ZHAN P, TIAN H L. Effects of different stewed times on sensory quality of mutton soup. Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology, 2020, 20(12): 256-267. doi: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2020.12.031. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.16429/j.1009-7848.2020.12.031
[19] 于爱梅, 徐岩, 王栋, 王立平, 刘扬岷, 费新伟. 发酵原料对苹果酒挥发性香气物质影响的分析. 中国农业科学, 2006, 39(4): 786-791. doi: 10.3321/j.issn:0578-1752.2006.04.020.
doi: 10.3321/j.issn:0578-1752.2006.04.020
YU A M, XU Y, WANG D, WANG L P, LIU Y M, FEI X W. Analysis of influence on different raw materials on volatile aroma compounds of ciders. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2006, 39(4): 786-791. doi: 10.3321/j.issn:0578-1752.2006.04.020. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.3321/j.issn:0578-1752.2006.04.020
[20] 徐增慧, 贾建会, 吕晓莲, 彭义交, 田旭, 郭宏. 高静压和热杀菌对桃汁香气成分的影响. 食品科学, 2012, 33(5): 25-28.
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1968.tb00877.x
XU Z H, JIA J H, LÜ X L, PENG Y J, TIAN X, GUO H. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure and heat sterilization on volatile components in peach juice. Food Science, 2012, 33(5): 25-28. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1968.tb00877.x
[21] YANG F, LIU Y, WANG B, SONG H L, ZOU T T. Screening of the volatile compounds in fresh and thermally treated watermelon juice via headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-olfactory-mass spectrometry analysis. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 2021, 137: 110478.
doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110478
[22] HASHIZUME M, GORDON M H, MOTTRAM D S. Light-induced off-flavor development in cloudy apple juice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2007, 55(22): 9177-9182. doi: 10.1021/jf0715727.
doi: 10.1021/jf0715727
[23] BEZYSOV A, DUBOVA H, ROGOVA N. New methods of plant selection for food aroma recovery aided by oxidation processes. Acta Universitatis Cinbinesis Series E: Food Technology, 2015, 19(2): 15-26.
[24] CLARK J B, CHANBLEE T S. Acid-catalyzed reactions of citrus oils and other terpene-containing flavors. Developments in Food Science, 1992, 28: 229-285.
[25] PÉREZ-LÓPEZ A J, SAURA D, LORENTE J, CARBONELL- BARRACHINA Á A . Limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen- 4-ol as quality control parameters in mandarin juice processing. European Food Research and Technology, 2006, 222(3/4): 281-285. doi: 10.1007/s00217-005-0055-5.
doi: 10.1007/s00217-005-0055-5
[26] WINTERHALTER P, ROUSEFF R L. Carotenoid-derived aroma compounds: An introduction. America: American Chemical Society, 2002: 89-101.
[27] DERAIL C, HOFMANN T, SCHIEBERL P. Differences in key odorants of handmade juice of yellow-flesh peaches (Prunus persica L.) induced by the workup procedure. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1999, 47(11): 4742-4745.
doi: 10.1021/jf990459g
[28] BALDERMANN S, NAIM M, FLEISCHMANN P. Enzymatic carotenoid degradation and aroma formation in nectarines (Prunus persica). Food Research International, 2005, 38(8/9): 833-836.
doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2005.02.009
[29] SUNTHONVIT N, SRZEDNICKI G, CRASKE J. Effects of drying treatments on the composition of volatile compounds in dried nectarines. Drying Technology, 2007, 25(5): 877-881. doi: 10.1080/07373930701370274.
doi: 10.1080/07373930701370274
[30] YUAN J P, CHEN F. Degradation of ascorbic acid in aqueous solution. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1998, 46(12): 5078-5082. doi: 10.1021/jf9805404.
doi: 10.1021/jf9805404
[31] SHINODA Y, KOMURA H, HOMMA S, MURATA M. Browning of model orange juice solution: factors affecting the formation of decomposition products. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 2005, 69(11): 2129-2137. doi: 10.1271/bbb.69.2129.
doi: 10.1271/bbb.69.2129
[32] 李俊南, 侯艳, 孙凤宇, 李康. OPLS方法的原理及其在代谢组学数据判别分析中的应用. 中国卫生统计, 2014, 31(5): 765-769.
LI J N, HOU Y, SUN F Y, LI K. The theoretical properties of orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) and its application in metabolomics data analysis. Chinese Journal of Health Statistics, 2014, 31(5): 765-769. (in Chinese)
[33] 邓红, 雷佳蕾, 杨天歌, 刘旻昊, 孟永宏, 郭玉蓉, 薛佳. 超高压和高温短时杀菌对NFC苹果汁贮藏期品质的影响. 中国农业科学, 2019, 52(21): 3903-3923. doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.21.018.
doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.21.018
DENG H, LEI J L, YANG T G, LIU M H, MENG Y H, GUO Y R, XUE J. Effect of ultra-high pressure and high temperature short-time sterilization on the quality of NFC apple juice during storage. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2019, 52(21): 3903-3923. doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.21.018. (in Chinese)
doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.21.018
[1] ZHANG GuiYun,ZHU JingWen,SUN MingFa,YAN GuoHong,LIU Kai,WAN BaiJie,DAI JinYing,ZHU GuoYong. Analysis of Differential Metabolites in Grains of Rice Cultivar Changbai 10 Under Salt Stress [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2021, 54(4): 675-683.
[2] LIU Qiang,LIU JiWei,TIAN Tian,YAN Wei,LIU Bing,ZHAO SiQi,HU QiuHui,DING Chao. Dynamic Analysis for the Characteristics of Flavor Fingerprints for Brown Rice in Short-Term Storage Under High Temperature Stress [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2021, 54(2): 379-391.
[3] SUN YongBo,WANG Ya,SA RENNA,ZHANG HongFu. Effects of Chronic Ammonia Stress on Serum Metabolites of Broilers Based on GC-MS [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2020, 53(8): 1688-1698.
[4] ZHAO XuSheng,QI YongZhi,YAN CuiMei,ZHEN WenChao. Allelopathy of Six Organic Acids on Wheat Sheath Blight in the Soil of Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Double Cropping Straw Returning System [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2020, 53(15): 3095-3107.
[5] LIU ShiYao,RAN Hui,MAO YunZhi,CHEN XinYu. Identification of the Fruit Characteristic Organic Acids of Chaenomeles speciosa from Qijiang, Chongqing by GC-MS and Their Dynamic Change Researching During Its Fruit Developing Period [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2019, 52(1): 111-128.
[6] Jing WANG, JianMin CAO, DeXin CHEN, Jun QIU, XiaoQiang WANG, Chao FENG, WenJing WANG. Antimicrobial Effect and Components Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds from Bacillus pumilus AR03 [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2018, 51(10): 1908-1919.
[7] CAO Jun, LIU Xin, CHEN WenRuo, DAI BingYe, DONG Wen, CHEN YinJi. The Volatile Compositions from Rice Stored with Dynamic Temperature and Humidity Based on SPME-GC/MS and  Electronic Nose (e-nose) Technics [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2017, 50(1): 142-160.
[8] XIE Yue-jie, HE Zhi-fei, LI Hong-jun. The Odor of Rabbit Meat Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2016, 49(16): 3208-3218.
[9] WANG Jin-qiu, HE Yi-zhong, XU Kun-yang, LUO Yi, SHENG Ling, LUO Tao, LIU Huan, CHENG Yun-jiang. Characterization of Mature Fruit Surface Waxes of Three Cultivated Citrus Species [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2016, 49(10): 1936-1945.
[10] LIU Qian, SUN Guo-feng, ZHANG Jin-zheng, LI Xiao-dong. Study on Floral Scent of the Genus Hosta [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2015, 48(21): 4323-4334.
[11] DING Yan-1, LI Li-Qian-1, CAO Rong-2, TANG Gen-Sheng-2, GU Zhen-Xin-1, HAN Yong-Bin-1. Effect of Enzymolysis Conditions on Glucosinolates in Rapeseed Meal and Identification of Their Degradation Products [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2014, 47(2): 383-393.
[12] LIU Shu-Zhen, HAN Jing-Wen, YUN Ze, WANG Jin-Qiu, XU Juan, ZHANG Hong-Yan, DENG Xiu-Xin, CHENG Yun-Jiang. Changes of Polar Metabolites in Guoqing No.1 Satsuma Mandarine During Fruit Ripening [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2012, 45(21): 4437-4446.
[13] WU Feng-Zhi, ZHOU Xin-Gang, BAO Jing. Effects of NaCl Stress on Root Exudates of Cucumber Cultivars [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2012, 45(21): 4415-4427.
[14] . Analysis of Off-odor Volatiles of Irradiated Vacuum-packaged Refrigerated Pork [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2008, 41(3): 918-924 .
[15] . Changes of Aroma Components in‘Hongdeng’Sweet Cherry [J]. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2007, 40(6): 1222-1228 .
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!