Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (20): 4020-4035.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2022.20.013

• HORTICULTURE • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Transcriptome Analysis During Flower Bud Differentiation of Red Globe Grape

LIU Xin1(),ZHANG YaHong2(),YUAN Miao1,DANG ShiZhuo1,ZHOU Juan1   

  1. 1College of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021
    2School of Food & Wine, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021
  • Received:2022-01-19 Accepted:2022-06-06 Online:2022-10-16 Published:2022-10-24
  • Contact: YaHong ZHANG;


【Objective】 Grape is an important fruit tree species of China, and the flower bud differentiation directly affects the quality and quantity of this grape. In this study, Red Globe grape developmental stages during flower bud differentiation under natural growth conditions were compared and analyzed, the mechanism of flower bud differentiation of this grape variant was evaluated, and the essential genes were mined, so as to provide a theoretical basis for understanding the flower bud differentiation of this grape species. 【Method】During flower bud differentiation of the Red Globe grape, the morphological observation, phytohormone determination, and transcriptome sequencing analysis were performed on the buds of four developmental stages, including S1 (undifferentiated), S2 (flower anlagen development), S3 (formation of the main cob of inflorescence), and S4 (formation of the second cob of inflorescence). 【Result】A total of 13 729 differentially expressed genes were determined during the flower bud differentiation process of the ‘Red Globe’ grape, which included 4 158, 2 050, 3 425, and 7 652 genes in S1-S2, S2-S3, S3-S4, and S1-S4, respectively. In the enrichment-regulation network of the S1-S4 differential genes, those differential genes were found to be enriched in the hormone-mediated signaling pathways, abscisic acid metabolism, acid chemical reactions, plant cell wall tissues, or biogenesis. Several genes related to auxin, gibberellin, and abscisic acid were detected in the hormone-mediated signaling pathway. The results revealed that the content of auxin was the highest in S2 and the lowest in S3 and S4. The gibberellin content decreased continuously during flower bud differentiation, 80% of that at S4 in S1; the abscisic acid content was higher in S1 and S4 and the lowest in S2. In addition, the S1-S4 differential genes belonged to the transcription factor families (MYB, ERF, bHLH, and MADS-box), indicating that these family genes were involved in the flower bud differentiation of the Red Globe grape. The further analysis of the 13 differentially expressed MADS-box genes revealed upregulated expressions of MADS8, AGL65, AGL15, AGL12, and MADS2 during flower bud differentiation. In contrast, the expressions of AGL30, LeMADS, FBP24, AGL14, and MADS3 were downregulated. These MADS-box genes were verified via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the expression trend was found to be consistent with the corresponding transcriptome. 【Conclusion】The flower bud differentiation of the Red Globe grape was a complex biological process. The plant hormone-mediated signaling pathways and the MADS-box family genes played essential roles in flower bud differentiation. These results provided information about transcription factors, genes, and hormones to help understand this complex developmental process and provided a theoretical basis for establishing a comprehensive model for flower bud differentiation in the Red Globe grape.

Key words: Red Globe grapes, flower bud differentiation, transcriptome sequencing, plant hormone, MADs-box

Table 1

Primers of qRT-PCR"

Gene name
Gene ID
Forward primer (5′-3′)
Reverse primer (5′-3′)

Fig. 1

Flower bud differentiation during different stages A: Apex; LP: Leaf primordium; IP: Inflorescence primordium; BR: Bracts; BP: Branching primordium"

Fig. 2

Differentially expressed genes"

Fig. 3

Differential gene comparison"

Fig. 4

GO functional classification of the differentially expressed genes"

Fig. 5

Gene regulatory network and enrichment analysis of biological processes of DEGs during flower bud differentiation (S1-S4)"

Fig. 6

Changes of hormone during flower bud differentiation The vertical line is mean ± SD (n=3), and different lowercase letters show significant differences (P<0.05)"

Table 3

Differential MADS-box genes in flower bud differentiation"

基因名称 Gene name 基因号 Gene ID 转录因子 TF id 蛋白质长度 Protein length (aa) 家族 Family
MADS8 VIT_14s0068g01800 GSVIVT01001437001 249 MIKC
AGL65 VIT_17s0000g06340 GSVIVT01003864001 225 MIKC
AGL30 VIT_04s0008g01980 GSVIVT01008139001 247 MIKC
AGL21 VIT_00s0211g00180 GSVIVT01009219001 241 MIKC
AGL21 VIT_18s0001g07900 GSVIVT01015641001 218 MIKC
AGL15 VIT_13s0158g00100 GSVIVT01018450001 250 MIKC
LeMADS VIT_03s0017g00360 GSVIVT01019630001 597 MIKC
FBP24 VIT_02s0025g02350 GSVIVT01025916001 199 MIKC
AGL14 VIT_15s0048g01240 GSVIVT01027579001 219 MIKC
AGL12 VIT_18s0041g02140 GSVIVT01036551001 244 MIKC
MADS3 VIT_16s0022g02330 GSVIVT01007989001 87
MADS2 VIT_14s0083g01050 GSVIVT01033067001 376
MADS2 VIT_17s0000g05000 GSVIVT01035477001 184

Fig. 7

Phylogenetic relationships among Red Globe grape type I MADS-box proteins"

Fig. 8

Phylogenetic relationships among Red Globe grape type II MADS-box proteins"

Fig. 9

Expression analysis of ‘Red Globe’ grape MADS-box genes in floral buds by qRT-PCR Column and line represent qRT-PCR and RNA-seq, respectively; r: Pearson correlation coefficient; *: P<0.05"

Table 2

Statistical table of clean data"

Clean reads
Q30 (%)
GC content (%)
Total reads
Total mapped
S1-1 56701744 93.50 46.08 56701744 51584717 (90.98%)
S1-2 57000078 93.57 46.30 57000078 52047737 (91.31%)
S1-3 53106034 93.75 46.23 53106034 48593610 (91.5%)
S2-1 57074664 93.28 45.85 57074664 52283600 (91.61%)
S2-2 48571060 93.29 45.78 48571060 44806530 (92.25%)
S2-3 52541122 93.72 45.81 52541122 48822966 (92.92%)
S3-1 44482618 93.74 45.55 44482618 41222350 (92.67%)
S3-2 44016334 93.83 45.42 44016334 40718241 (92.51%)
S3-3 43775084 93.97 45.94 43775084 40797167 (93.2%)
S4-1 43004638 93.77 46.42 43004638 33306442 (77.45%)
S4-2 48834670 93.72 45.92 48834670 45022453 (92.19%)
S4-3 51647760 93.52 46.39 51647760 46614037 (90.25%)
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