Development of a Porcine cDNA Microarray: Analysis of Clenbuterol Responding Genes in Pig (Sus scrofa) Internal Organs
Pig (Sus scrofa) fat accumulation can be reduced by feeding with high dosages of clenbuterol, but the molecular mechanism has not yet been explained. In our study, a porcine cDNA microarray representing 3 358 pig genes was successfully developed. This microarray is the first porcine DNA microarray in China and its false positive rate is 0.98%, which means the microarray platform is reliable. The microarray can be used to study gene expression profiles in multiple pig tissues because the present genes percentage of adipose, skeletal muscle, heart, liver, lung, kidney, and spleen were all more than 60%. This microarray was used to identify the genes responding to clenbuterol stimulation in pig internal organs, including heart, liver, lung, spleen, and kidney. Many genes were identified including enzymes involved in lipids metabolism (lipoprotein lipase up-regulated in liver, heart and lung, ATP-citrate lyase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase II precursor up-regulated in liver, succinyl-CoA up-regulated in lung, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase down-regulated in spleen), and signaling pathway genes (cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway was found up-regulated in liver, heart, lung, and kidney as reported previously, while transforming growth factor was found down-regulated in heart and lung). However, no common gene responding to clenbuterol administration was found in all tissues. The expression levels of 14 genes were analyzed using real-time PCR with 82.1% of them induced to express similar magnitudes as in the microarray analyses. This work offers some understanding of how clenbuterol so effectively reduces pig adipose accumulation on the molecular level.