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    A Non-Marker Mutagenesis Strategy to Generate Poly-hrp Gene Mutants in the Rice Pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola
    ZOU Li-fang, LI Yu-rong , CHEN Gong-you
    2011, 10(8): 1139-1150.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60104-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), the critical pathogen causing bacterial leaf streak in rice, possesses a hrp clusterthat is responsible for triggering hypersensitive response (HR) in non-host tobacco and pathogenicity in host rice, and isconsidered to be one of the model pathogens in the rice model plant. Here, we developed a high-throughput mutagenesissystem using a two-step integration mediated by a novel suicide vector pKMS1. It was used to generate single or poly-genemutants of hpa1, hpa2, hrcV, hrpE, hpaB, and hrpF gene for functional analysis. In total, five single, four double, and twotriple hrp gene mutants were constructed. The double and triple hrp gene deletion mutants triggered novel phenotypesin planta. Our data suggest that pKMS1 is a useful tool for non-marker mutagenesis of multiple genes in Xoc.
    Isolation and Characterization of NBS-LRR Class Resistance Homologous Gene from Wheat
    ZHANG Nan, WANG Shen, WANG Hai-yan, LIU Da-qun
    2011, 10(8): 1151-1158.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60105-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    One resistance gene analog fragment named RGA-CIN14 was isolated from TcLr19 wheat, which contains kinase-2,kinase-3a, and the GLPL motif of the NBS-spanning region, using degenerated primers according to the nucleotidebinding site (NBS) conserved domain. Based on the RGA-CIN14, a full-length cDNA, CIN14, which was 2 987 bpencoding 880 amino acids, was obtained by using the method of the rapid amplification cDNA ends (RACE). Bioinformaticsanalysis showed that the deduced amino acids of CIN14 protein consisted of a NB-ARC conserved domain and manyleucine-rich repeats (LRR) domains. The phylogenetic tree analysis indicated a considerable identity of the proteinencoded by CIN14 with that of wheat leaf rust resistance gene Lr1, but a lower similarity with Lr21. The expression profileof the CIN14 gene detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the CIN14 gene was not induced by Pucciniatriticina and it was a constitutive gene with low abundance in the wheat leaf tissue. The resistance homology sequencewas successfully obtained, which provides the shortcut for cloning of the resistance gene in TcLr19 wheat.
    MicroRNAs Involved in the Pathogenesis of Phytophthora Root Rot of Soybean (Glycine max)
    WANG Jing*, LIU Chun-yan*, ZHANG Li-wei, WANG Jia-lin, HU Guo-hua, DING Jun-jie , CHEN Qing-shan
    2011, 10(8): 1159-1167.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60106-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Phytophthora root rot is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, which can infect the seedlings and plants, withsubstantial negative impact on soybean yield and quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptionalregulators of gene expression during growth and development of organisms. A soybean disease-resistance varietySuinong 10 was inoculated with Phytophthora sojae race No. 1, and the specific miRNA resistant expression profile wasacquired by microarray for the first time. Different expressional miRNAs have been found after comparing the results ofthe treated sample with the control sample. Furthermore, the target genes of different expressional miRNAs were predicted.Two miRNAs, cbr-mir-241 and ath-miR854a, regulated the disease-resistance process directly through their targets, someenzymes. Another two miRNAs, gma-miR169a and ath-miR169h, participated in disease-resistance regulation as transcriptionfactors. Similarly, one miRNA, ptc-miR164f, has been reported to regulate the plant development. All of these studieswould be served as the foundation for exploring the resistance mechanism.
    Brassinosteroids and Auxin Down-Regulate DELLA Genes in Fiber Initiation and Elongation of Cotton
    HU Ming-yu, LUO Ming, XIAO Yue-hua, LI Xian-bi, TAN Kun-ling, HOU Lei, DONG Jing, LI De-mou, SONG Shui-qing, ZHAO Juan, ZANG Zhen-le, LI Bao-li , PEI Yan
    2011, 10(8): 1168-1176.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60107-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Plant hormones play important roles in cotton fiber growth and development. However, the interaction of phytohormonesis largely unknown in fiber cells up to now. DELLA proteins are critical component in GA (gibberellic acid) signaltransduction, which are also regulated by other phytohormones, such as auxin and ethylene. To understand the regulationof DELLA genes in cotton fiber growth and development, we cloned four DELLA genes from upland cotton fibers(Gossypium hirsutum L.), named GhGAI1, GhGAI2, GhGAI3, and GhGAI4. Alignment of the four predicted proteins withother reported DELLA proteins in various species displayed that they shared conserved domains and high homology.Expression profiles of the four GhGAIs in various tissues and organs as well as cotton fibers in different stages displayedthat GhGAI1 has higher transcriptional levels than other GhGAIs in all detected samples. Furthermore, the expressionlevel of GhGAI1 was significantly reduced in 0 dpa (day post anthesis) ovules by addition of IAA and epi-BL, andexogenous epi-BL decreased GhGAI1 level in 7 dpa fiber. Similarly, the levels of the other three GhGAIs in 0 dpa ovulesand 7 dpa fibers were also regulated by applied phytohormones. In addition, the levels of GhGAI1 were higher inXuzhou142 fl mutant (fuzzless-lintless) than in FL (Gossypium hirsutum vs. Xuzhou 142) from -1 to 3 dpa ovules, suggestingthat GhGAI1 engaged in cotton fiber cell initiation. These results indicated that DELLA genes are involved in the processof fiber cell initiation and elongation regulated by different phytohormones.
    YAO Chun-guang, SONG Bo-tao, LIU Jun, WU Cheng-jin, CHENG Qun, LI Da-chun and XIE Conghua
    2011, 10(8): 1177-1187.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60108-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Cultivated potato with high level of horizontal resistance against late blight is one of the most important goals of potatobreeding. The recurrent selection has been adopted to increase the level of potato horizontal resistance and a B3C1population without R1-R11 dominant genes has been released by the International Potato Center at the short-day conditionof Peru. The present research was carried out to further improve the resistance and the agronomic traits of B3C1population under long-day condition of Hubei, China, with maximized retention of its genetic diversity. Twenty-sevenindividual clones of B3C1 were used to generate population B3C2 by in-population crossing with the bulk pollens aimingto elevate the frequency of late blight resistance genotypes and to improve the adaptation to local long-day conditions.The late blight resistance and the main agronomic traits including the maturity, the plant characters and the tuber traitswere evaluated for the foreground selection in three years, by which 130 pedigrees were maintained as the basic populationof B3C2 for further selection. A total of 312 polymorphic loci detected by 9 AFLP marker combinations were used tomonitor the genetic diversity of the populations for the background selection. The B3C2 population of 51 clones wasfinally selected, of which the frequency of resistant genotypes increased by 23.8% points and the genetic diversity wasmaintained by about 96% as referred to B3C1. Our results strongly suggested that combination of the foregroundselection for target traits and the background selection for the genetic diversity is an efficient strategy in the recurrentselection of tetraploid potato to improve quantitative traits.
    Alleviation of Chromium Toxicity by Silicon Addition in Rice Plants
    ZENG Fan-rong, ZHAO Fu-sheng, QIU Bo-yin, OUYANG You-nan, WU Fei-bo, ZHANG Guo-ping
    2011, 10(8): 1188-1196.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60109-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The alleviatory effect of silicon (Si) on chromium (Cr) toxicity to rice plants was investigated using a hydroponic experimentwith two Cr levels (0 and 100 μmol L-1), three Si levels (0, 1.25, and 2.5 mmol L-1) and two rice genotypes, differing in grainCr accumulation (Dan K5, high accumulation and Xiushui 113, low accumulation). The results showed that 100 μmol L-1 Crtreatment caused a marked reduction of seedling height, dry biomass, soluble protein content, and root antioxidantenzyme activity, whereas significantly increased Cr concentration and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances)content. However, the reductions of seedling height, dry biomass, and soluble content were greatly alleviated due to Siaddition to the culture solution. Compared with the plants treated with Cr alone, Si addition markedly reduced Cr uptakeand translocation in rice plants. No significant differences were observed between the two Si treatments (1.25 and 2.5 mmolL-1) in shoot Cr concentration and Cr translocation factor. Under the treatment of 100 μmol L-1 Cr+2.5 mmol L-1 Si, higherroot Cr concentration but lower shoot Cr concentration and Cr translocation factor were observed in Dan K5 than thosein Xiushui 113, indicating that the beneficial effect of Si on inhibiting Cr translocation was more pronounced in Dan K5than in Xiushui 113. Si addition also alleviated the reduction of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) andascorbate peroxidase (APX) in leaves; catalase (CAT) and APX in roots) and the increase of TBARS content in the Crstressedplants. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of Si on activities of antioxidative enzymes under Cr stress weregenotype-dependent. The highest activities of SOD, POD (guaiacol peroxidase), CAT, and APX in leaves occurred in thetreatment of 100 μmol L-1 Cr+2.5 mmol L-1 Si for Xiushui 113 and in the treatment of 100 μmol L-1 Cr+1.25 mmol L-1 Si for DanK5. The beneficial effect of Si on alleviating oxidative stress was much more pronounced in Dan K5 than in Xiushui 113.It may be concluded that Si alleviates Cr toxicity mainly through inhibiting the uptake and translocation of Cr andenhancing the capacity of defense against oxidative stress induced by Cr toxicity.
    Identification of Organic Substances Associated with Tissue Senescence in Upland Cotton (Gossypium spp. L.) Based on GC-MS Analysis
    XU Zhen-long, GUO Cheng-jin, GU Jun-tao, LU Wen-jing, LI Xiao-juan, XIAO Kai
    2011, 10(8): 1197-1205.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60110-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Premature senescence in crop production, especially occurred at the late growth stage, generally results in a reduction inyield and quality. Therefore, it is beneficial for yield and quality to properly delay senescence of plant tissues during thelate developmental stage. In this study, it was observed that the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate weregradually decreased along leaf growth progression, and the rates of reduction were promoted by drought. Based on gaschromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, total eight, five, seven, and five kinds of organic compounds thatputatively associated with the tissue senescent progression were identified in leaves, fruit branches, petals, and sepals,respectively. It was found that the identified organic compound, such as α-pinene, β-pinene, and pentadecane werepresent in different tissues. Among the total ten organic substances identified to be related with the leaf senescence, halfwere specifically detected in the drought treatment. These results suggest some biochemical pathways associated withthe leaf senescence are distinctly regulated by drought. The identified organic compounds in the tested tissues showedthree types on the performance pattern based on the contents along with the senescent progression, including graduallyincreasing, decreasing, and a curve with one single peak. Thus, during the senescence process in tissues, a subset ofmetabolic substances occur modifications on the quantities, reflecting a complicate biochemical reactions are initiated viathe senescence signals. Further analysis of the important organic substances will be helpful for elucidation of the tissuesenescence mechanism at the biochemical level and provide a new insight of the senescence signaling transductions incotton.
    Proteomic Comparison Between Leaves from a Red-Flesh Mutant and Its Wild-Type in Sweet Orange
    PAN Zhi-yong, DENG Xiu-xin
    2011, 10(8): 1206-1212.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60111-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The red-flesh mutant Hong Anliu sweet orange is of high nutritional value due to its lycopene accumulation. Our previous studieson this mutant fruits suggested that photosynthesis and oxidative stress could promote the formation of mutation trait. However,leaf rather than fruit is the major part for some important biological processes such as photosynthesis. In this study, we analyzedthe proteomic alteration in leaves of the red-flesh mutant Hong Anliu vs. its wild type (WT). Ten differentially expressed proteinswere identified, of which two were involved in photosynthesis, three in oxidative stress, two in defense, and three in metabolism.The high up-regulation of photosynthetic proteins proved the hypothesis that enhanced photosynthesis could provide andtransport more substrates into mutant fruits for carotenoid biosynthesis. Similar to the previous results in fruits, anti-oxidativeproteins were highly up-regulated in leaves, suggesting the whole plant of Hong Anliu suffered from enhanced oxidative stressProteins involved in defense and metabolism were also identified, and their possible roles in the mutation were discussed.
    Utilizing the γ-Irradiated Sodium Alginate as a Plant Growth Promoter for Enhancing the Growth, Physiological Activities, and Alkaloids Production in Catharanthus roseus L.
    Mohd Idrees, Mohd Naeem, Masidur Alam, Tariq Aftab, Nadeem Hashmi, Mohd Masroor Akhtar Khan, Moinuddin , Lalit Varshney
    2011, 10(8): 1213-1221.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60112-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Sodium alginate is a polysaccharide that is largely obtained from the brown algae (Sargassum sp.). It has been used as awonderful growth promoting substance in its depolymerized form for various plants. The aim of this study was to find outthe effects of various concentrations of ?-irradiated sodium alginate (ISA), viz., deionized water (control, T0), 20 (T1),40 (T2), 60 (T3), 80 (T4), and 100 ppm (T5) on the agricultural performance of Catharanthus roseus L. (Rosea) in terms ofgrowth attributes, photosynthesis, physiological activities, and alkaloid production. The present work revealed that ISAapplied as leaf-sprays at concentrations from 20 to 100 ppm might improve growth, photosynthesis, physiological activities,and alkaloid production in C. roseus L. significantly. Of the various ISA concentrations, 80 ppm proved to be the best onecompared to other concentrations applied.
    Comparative Analysis on Chemical Components and Sensory Quality of Aging Flue-Cured Tobacco from Four Main Tobacco Areas of China
    SUN Jing-guo, HE Jie-wang, WU Feng-guang, TU Shu-xing, YAN Tie-jun , SI Hui, XIE Hao
    2011, 10(8): 1222-1231.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60113-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Complicated changes are happening during the aging process of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) and understanding of thechanging components is of great significance in improving the quality, shortening aging time, and enhancing productionand economic efficiency in tobacco industry. The aging samples of FCT from four main producing areas of China, i.e.,Yunnan, Sichuan, Hubei, and Dongbei, were used to study the changing rule of the components such as alkali, acid, andcarbohydrate as well as the aroma and their relationship with sensory quality; and based on the correlation among thecomponents and the sensory quality index, multivariable models were established to predict the aging quality. The resultsshowed that the sensory quality of FCT increased steadily during the aging time, and at the same time, the acidiccomponents (total organic acids, volatile acids) increased gradually, while the alkaline substances (nicotine, volatilealkali), carbohydrate (total sugars, reducing sugar) and pH values showed a downward trend. Correlation analysis foundthat the sensory quality and pH values were negatively correlated (P<0.05), while the sensory quality with total organicacids and aroma were positively correlated. The optimal model for predicting the quality of FCT was y=56.75-0.63x12+50.09x2-13.27x22, (y: sensory quality; x1: pH; x2: total organic acids). The average predicating error was 1.04% with maximumpredicating error of 2.89% and the accuracy rate of above 97%.
    Effect of Host Plants on Development, Fecundity and Enzyme Activity of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    ZHANG Bin, LIU Huai, Helen Hull-Sanders, WANG Jin-jun
    2011, 10(8): 1232-1240.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60114-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest of crops worldwide,attacking plants from over 20 families including trans-continental agricultural cotton, corn and citrus crops. In this study,performance and subsequent enzyme activity of beet armyworm reared on host plants from five families were investigated.Significant differences were found in development, fecundity and enzyme activity on different host plants. Survival ratewas the highest (42.8%) on asparagus lettuce (Lactuca sativar var. asparagina) and the lowest (17.0%) on sweet pepper(Capsicum annuum). Larval duration was the shortest on asparagus lettuce (12.0 d), and was 43.4% longer on sweetpeppers (21.2 d). The activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase (CarE) in 3rd instar larvae, andsoluble carbohydrate and crude protein contents in different host plants were determined. AChE activity was the highestin the larvae feeding on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), but declined by nearly 60% on maize (Zea mays) seedlings. Theratio of soluble carbohydrate content to crude protein content in host plants was found to have a positive effect onoviposition and a negative correlation with larval duration and life time (from larval to adult stages) of the insect.
    Tribenuron-Methyl Resistant Shepherd’s Purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.) in Hebei Province of China
    WANG Gui-qi, CUI Hai-lan, ZHANG Hong-jun, ZHANG Yan-qiu, LIU Xue, LI Xiang-ju, FAN Cuiqin
    2011, 10(8): 1241-1245.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8396
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Shepherd’s purse seeds were collected from winter wheat fields and road sides in Hebei Province, China. Their sensitivitiesto tribenuron-methyl were evaluated in a whole plant dose response assay in the greenhouse. Results revealed that HB-1, HB-2, HB-3, HB-4, HB-6, HB-7, HB-17, HB-18, HB-19, HB-20, HB-21, and HB-22 populations were susceptible to tribenuronmethylcharacterised by very low GR50 values of about 0.10 g a.i. ha-1. On the other hand, populations HB-15 and HB-16had moderate resistance to tribenuron-methyl with resistance indices (RI) ranging from 10-100 folds, whilst populationsHB-5, HB-8, HB-9, HB-10, HB-11, HB-12, HB-13, and HB-14 expressed high level of resistance to tribenuron-methyl withresistance indices over 100. The proportion of moderate resistance level was about 9.09%, and that of high resistance wasabout 36.36%.
    Cokriging of Soil Cation Exchange Capacity Using the First Principal Component Derived from Soil Physico-Chemical Properties
    LIAO Kai-hua, XU Shao-hui, WU Ji-chun, JI Shu-hua, LIN Qing
    2011, 10(8): 1246-1253.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60116-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    As soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) is a vital indicator of soil quality and pollutant sequestration capacity, a study wasconducted to evaluate cokriging of CEC with the principal components derived from soil physico-chemical properties. InQingdao, China, 107 soil samples were collected. Soil CEC was estimated by using 86 soil samples for prediction and 21soil samples for test. The first two principal components (PC1 and PC2) together explained 60.2% of the total variance ofsoil physico-chemical properties. The PC1 was highly correlated with CEC (r=0.76, P<0.01), whereas there was no significantcorrelation between CEC and PC2 (r=0.03). The PC1 was then used as an auxiliary variable for the prediction of soil CEC.Mean error (ME) and root mean square error (RMSE) of kriging for the test dataset were -1.76 and 3.67 cmolc kg-1, and MEand RMSE of cokriging for the test dataset were -1.47 and 2.95 cmolc kg-1, respectively. The cross-validation R2 for theprediction dataset was 0.24 for kriging and 0.39 for cokriging. The results show that cokriging with PC1 is more reliablethan kriging for spatial interpolation. In addition, principal components have the highest potential for cokriging predictionswhen the principal components have good correlations with the primary variables.
    A Field Study on Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization Modes on Nutrient Uptake,Crop Yield and Soil Biological Properties in Rice-Wheat Rotation System
    GUAN Guan, TU Shu-xin, YANG Jun-cheng, ZHANG Jian-feng, YANG Li
    2011, 10(8): 1254-1261.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60117-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Rational application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers is an important measure to raise N fertilizer recovery rate and reduce N loss.A two-year field experiment of rice-wheat rotation was employed to study the effects of N fertilization modes including aN fertilizer reduction and an organic manure replacement on crop yield, nutrient uptake, soil enzyme activity, and numberof microbes as well as diversity of microbes. The result showed that 20% reduction of traditional N fertilizer dose of localfarmers did not significantly change crop yield, N uptake, soil enzyme activity, and the number of microbes (bacteria,actinomycetes, and fungi). On the basis of 20% reduction of N fertilizer, 50% replacement of N fertilizer by organic manureincreased the activity of sucrose, protease, urease, and phosphatase by 46-62, 27-89, 33-46, and 35-74%, respectively, andthe number of microbes, i.e., bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi by 36-150, 11-153, and 43-56%, respectively. Further,organic fertilizer replacement had a Shannon’s diversity index (H) of 2.18, which was higher than that of other modes ofsingle N fertilizer application. The results suggested that reducing N fertilizer by 20% and applying organic manure in theexperimental areas could effectively lower the production costs and significantly improve soil fertility and biologicalproperties.
    Utilization of Chinese Herbal Feed Additives in Animal Production
    LIU Hua-wei, TONG Jian-ming, ZHOU Dao-wei
    2011, 10(8): 1262-1272.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60118-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The experimental knowledge on efficacy, possible modes of action and aspects of application of Chinese herbs as feedadditives for animal production are reviewed in this article. Chinese herbs commonly contain protein, carbohydrate, fat,vitamins, and mineral which are necessary nutrients to the growth of animal. Polysaccharide, organic acid, alkaloids, andessential oils involved in Chinese herbs can improve the immune function of livestock. Currently, numerous studies havedemonstrated anti-oxidative and anti-microbial efficacy and the assumption that Chinese herbs may improve the flavor ofmeat, which has been confirmed by some observations, but the mode of this action is still unclear. Moreover, severalobservations support the hypothesis that herbal feed additives may favorably affect gut functions (e.g., enzyme activity,microbial eubiosis) in vitro. Such effects may explain a considerable number of practical studies with livestock reportingimproved production performance after providing herbal feed additives. In summary, available evidence indicates thatherbal feed additives may have the potential to add to the set of non-antibiotic growth promoters for use in livestock, suchas organic acids and probiotics. However, a systematic approach toward the efficacy, mode of action and safety of herbalcompounds used as feed additives for animal production seems to be required in the future.
    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Analysis of orexin Gene 5´ Regulatory Region in Chinese Indigenous Cattle Populations
    ZHANG Ai-ling, ZHANG Li, ZHANG Liang-zhi, LAN Xian-yong, ZHANG Cun-lei, ZHANG Cun-fang, CHEN Hong
    2011, 10(8): 1273-1279.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60119-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Orexin is an important neuropeptide that influences livestock’s appetite and food intake and is closely related withlivestock’s growth and development. The variations in the orexin gene 5´ regulatory region might have an influence onthe gene expression. Based on the hypothesis, five overlapped fragments including 1 794 bp of orexin gene 5´ regulatoryregion were investigated for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing in threeindigenous cattle populations. A total of five SSCP patterns observed revealed ten SNPs in the region. Two SSCP patternsgenotypes (A and B) were exhibited in O-2 fragment and three (A, B and C) were found in O-5 fragment. O-2 contained fourSNPs, viz., -583 T>C, -479 C>T, -474 A>T, and -451 A>G. In another lous O-5, six SNPs were identified (-1 610 C>G,-1 585 G>A, -1 550 T>C, -1 548 A>C, -1 438 C>T, and -1 431 C>A). Seven SNPs were found in transcription factor bindingsites and four out of them existed in the core sequences. The SNPs at -479, -474 and -451 did not change the putativerecognition core sequences of their factors. But the mutation at -583 changed the binding sequence of EVI1 into NFA andcreated one new binding site for ZFHX simultaneously. In three populations, the frequencies of A, B and C genotypesof O-2 were 0.2367, 0.4842 and 0.2791, respectively. And the A pattern of O-5 was preponderant (0.7549) and the other Bpattern was not (0.2451). But the frequencies of different SSCP variants varied across three cattle populations. Bgenotype in O-2 had significant associations to body weight (BW) and daily weight gain (DWG) in Nanyang cattle 6- and12-mon aged and might serve as one potential candidate genetic marker for growth and development.
    Evaluation of the Pathogenicity of a Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Variant in Piglets
    WEI Tian-chao, TIAN Zhi-jun, ZHOU Yan-jun, AN Tong-qing, JIANG Yi-feng, XIAO Yan, HU Shouping, PENG Jin-mei, HAO Xiao-fang, ZHANG Shan-rui, TONG Guang-zhi
    2011, 10(8): 1280-1291.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60120-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Since May 2006, a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) variant characterizedby 30 amino acids deletion within its NSP2-coding region emerged and caused extensive economic losses to China’s pigindustry. To investigate the in vivo pathogenicity and immune responses of the newly emerging PRRSV, 3 groups of 60-d-old conventional piglets were inoculated intranasally with a representative strain of the HP-PRRSV variant HuN4 with3 different infection doses (3×103-3×105 TCID50). The results revealed that the virus variant caused severe disease inpiglets and the significant clinical characteristics consisted of persistently high fever (41.0-41.9ºC) and high morbidity andmortality (60-100%), the marked clinical signs of PRRS and severe histopathogenic damages in multiple organs. It inducedrapid and intense humoral immune responses and seroconversion was detected in most infected pigs at 7 d post-infection(DPI). The virus vigorously replicated in vivo and the highest virus average titer was 9.7 log copies mL-1 serum at 7 DPI.Elevated levels of IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokine production in serum in this study were also observed. Taken together, ourresults demonstrated that the HP-PRRSV variant HuN4 strain is highly pathogenic for piglets and suitable to be a referencestrain of highly virulent PRRSV for evaluating the efficacy of the new vaccines.
    Pharmacokinetics of Quinocetone and Its Major Metabolites in Swine After Intravenous and Oral Administration
    ZHONG Jia-lin, ZHANG Gui-jun, SHEN Xiang-guang, WANG Lin, FANG Bing-hu, DING Huan-zhong
    2011, 10(8): 1292-1300.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60121-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The pharmacokinetics of quinocetone and its major metabolites in healthy swine was investigated in this paper.Quinocetone was administered to 8 healthy cross-bread swine intravenously and orally at a dosage of 4 and 40 mg kg-1body weight respectively in a randomized crossover design test with two-week washout period. A sensitive highperformanceliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for thedetermination of quinocetone and its metabolite 1-desoxyquinocetone in plasma. Plasma concentration versus timeprofiles of quinocetone and its metabolite 1-desoxyquinocetone were analyzed by non-compartmental analysis usingWinnonlin 5.2 software. Mean maximum concentrations (Cmax) for quinocetone was found to be (0.56±0.13) μg mL-1 at 2.92 h,after oral administration of quinocetone. Mean maximum concentrations (Cmax) for 1-desoxyquinocetone after intravenousor oral administration of quinocetone were (0.0095±0.0012) μg mL-1 at 0.083 h and (0.0067±0.0053) μg mL-1 at 3.08 h. Theapparent elimination half-lives (T1/2) for quinocetone and its metabolite 1-desoxyquinocetone were (2.24±0.24) and(5.23±0.56) h after intravenous administration of quinocetone and (2.91±0.29) and (11.85±2.89) h after oral administrationof quinocetone, respectively. Mean areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0- ) for quinocetone and 1-desoxyquinocetone were (2.02±0.15) and (0.2±0.002) μg h mL-1 respectively after intravenous administration of quinocetone,and (3.5±0.79) and (0.053±0.03) μg h mL-1 after oral administration of quinocetone, respectively. Quinocetone was rapidlyabsorbed and metabolized in swine after oral and intravenous administration. The plasma concentration-time curve(AUC0- ) of 1-desoxyquinocetone were much smaller than those of quinocetone, while the elimination half-lives (T1/2) weremuch longer than those of quinocetone after intravenously (i.v.) or oral administration.
    Antioxidant Effects of Oats Avenanthramides on Human Serum
    LIU Sen, YANG Nan, HOU Zhao-hua, YAO Yang, Lü Li, ZHOU Xian-rong, REN Gui-xing
    2011, 10(8): 1301-1305.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60122-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The antioxidant ability of capsules containing oats avenanthramides on human body was evaluated in present study.Healthy people were randomized to supplementation with oats-derived avenanthramides capsules or placebo for 1 mon.Plasma lipid peroxides and antioxidant status were measured. For 8 capsules (containing 3.12 mg avenanthramides)groups, the levels of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) were significantlyincreased by 8.4 and 17.9%, respectively (P<0.05), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level significantly decreased by 28.1%.The total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were lowered by 11.1,28.1, and 15.1%, respectively (P<0.05). The high density blood lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the same treatwas increased by 13.2%. Based on our research, it can be concluded that oats extract containing avenanthramidespossessed a high antioxidative activity on humans. It indicated that oat avenanthramides could be used to preventhyperlipemic and angiocardiopathy.