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    Development of Transgenic Glyphosate-Resistant Rice with G6 GeneEncoding 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase
    ZHAO Te, LIN Chao-yang , SHEN Zhi-cheng
    2011, 10(9): 1307-1312.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60123-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Glyphosate-resistant crops have been a huge economic success for genetic engineering. The creating of new glyphosateresistantplants would increase the available choices for planting and lower the price of genetically modified crop seeds.A novel G6 gene from Pseudomonas putida that encoded 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) waspreviously isolated. The G6 gene was transfected into rice via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenicrice obtained was confirmed by PCR, Southern, and Western blots. The lab experiment and field trials further confirmedthat the transgenic rice can survive glyphosate spraying at a dose of 8 g L-1. In contrast, conventional rice was killed ata weed control glyphosate spray dose of 1 g L-1. Altogether, the present study showed that the G6 gene works well in ricein vivo for glyphosate-resistance.
    Comparative Analysis of Hina Gene Sequences in Wild (Hordeum spontaneum) and Cultivated (H. vulgare) Barleys
    LI Wei-tao, JIANG Qian-tao, CHEN Guo-yue, PU Zhi-en, LIU Ya-xi, WANG Ji-rui, ZHENG You-liang, WEI Yu-ming
    2011, 10(9): 1313-1322.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60124-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The Hina gene is one of the two known Hin genes for hardness, and its RNA expression is correlated with grain hardnessand dry matter digestibility variation. In this study, only one clone of Hina gene was obtained from one barley accession.A total of 121 Hina gene sequences were isolated from 121 wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) accessions in Israel, Iran,and Turkey, and then their molecular characteristics were compared with 97 Hina gene sequences from 74 cultivatedbarley (H. vulgare) lines in Europe and 23 landrace (H. vulgare) with global distribution and other 26 Hina gene sequencesfrom cultivated barleys (H. vulgare) with unknown global distribution. Cis-acting regulatory element (CARE) searchingrevealed that there were different types of regulatory element for the Hina gene in wild and landrace/cultivated barleys.There were six consistent cis-acting binding sites in wild and landrace/cultivated barleys, whereas 8 to 16 inconsistentTATA-boxes were observed. In addition, three special elements (E2Fb, Sp1, and boxS) were only observed in wild barley,while one (AT1-motif) was only found in landrace/cultivated barley. Forty-four deduced amino acid sequences of HINAfrom wild and landrace/cultivated barleys were obtained by deleting repetitive amino acid sequences, and they wereclustered into two groups on the basis of Neighbor-Joining analysis. However, there was no obvious difference in theamino acid sequences of HINA between wild and landrace/cultivated barleys. Comparing to protein secondary structureof wheat PINA, it was indicated that HINA also existed a signal peptide. In addition, HINA was a hydrophilic protein onthe basis of the protein properties and composition.
    Yield Stability of Maize Hybrids Evaluated in National Maize Cultivar RegionalTrials in Southwestern China Using Parametric Methods
    LIU Yong-jian, WEI Bing, HU Er-liang, WU Yuan-qi , HUANG Yu-bi
    2011, 10(9): 1323-1335.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60125-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Assessment of yield stability is an important issue for maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar evaluation and recommendation. Manyparametric procedures are available for stability analysis, each of them allowing for different interpretations. The objectiveof the present study was to assess yield stability of maize hybrids evaluated in the National Maize Cultivar Regional Trialsin southwestern China using 20 parametric stability statistics proposed by various authors at different times, and toinvestigate their interrelationships. Two yield datasets were obtained from the 2003 and 2004 national maize cultivarregional trials in southwestern China. A combined analysis of variance, stability statistics, and rank correlations amongthese stability statistics were determined. Effects of location, cultivar, and cultivar by location interaction were highlysignificant (P<0.01). Different stability statistics were used to determine the stability of the studied cultivars. Cultivarmean yield (Y) was significantly correlated to the Lin and Binns stability statistic (LP, r=0.98** and 0.97** for 2003 and 2004trials, respectively) and desirability index (HD, r=0.38 and 0.84** for the 2003 and 2004 trials, respectively). The statisticsLP and HD would be useful for simultaneously selecting for high yield and stability. Based on a principal componentanalysis, the parametric stability statistics grouped as four distinct classes that corresponded to different agronomic andbiological concepts of stability.
    In silico Detection of Novel MicroRNAs Genes in Soybean Genome
    LIU Yong-xin, CHANG Wei, HAN Ying-peng, ZOU Quan, GUO Mao-zu , LI Wen-bin
    2011, 10(9): 1336-1345.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60126-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) at the post-transcriptional regulation level has recently been recognized in bothanimals and plants. In this study, the simple and most effective method of comparative genomic approach was used. Firstknown plants miRNAs BLAST against the soybean genome, and then the located candidates were searched for novelmiRNAs by RNA folding method in the vicinity (±400 nt) of the candidates. The results showed that a total of 521 novelsoybean miRNA genes, including 236 mature miRNAs, were identified. All these mature miRNAs were grouped into 58families, of which 21 of them were novel family in soybean. The upstream 2 000 nt of potential pre-miRNAs was used forpromoter prediction, in order to investigate prediction of miRNAs and detect transcript unit and clustering. In this study,miRNA genes less tend to be present as clusters in soybean. Only 9 clusters, containing 21 miRNA genes (accounted for4.0% of the total), were observed as part of polycistronic transcripts. Detailed analysis of sequence characteristics ofnovel miRNAs in soybean and all previous known plants miRNAs, were carried out. These results of this study providea reference point for further study on miRNAs identification in plants, and improve the understanding of genome insoybean.
    A Genetic Linkage Map of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Based on SRAP,ISSR and RAPD Markers
    ZHANGGuang-qing , QIJian-min , ZHANGXiao-chen , FNAGPing-ping , SUJian-guang , TAOAi-fen , LANTao , WUWei-ren , LIUAi-min
    2011, 10(9): 1346-1353.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60127-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the most economically important crops for non-wood fiber production. The
    objective of this study was to establish a genetic linkage map of kenaf with higher density of molecular markers. A semiwild
    variety Ga42 and a cultivar Alain kenaf were used as parents to construct an F2 population consisting of 155 plants.
    The genetic linkage map comprising 134 marker loci was constructed, including 65 sequence-related amplified
    polymorphism (SRAP), 56 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and 13 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
    markers. This map spans 2 108.9 cM and contains 20 linkage groups with an average marker density of 15.7 cM between
    the adjacent markers.Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the most economically important crops for non-wood fiber production. Theobjective of this study was to establish a genetic linkage map of kenaf with higher density of molecular markers. A semiwildvariety Ga42 and a cultivar Alain kenaf were used as parents to construct an F2 population consisting of 155 plants.The genetic linkage map comprising 134 marker loci was constructed, including 65 sequence-related amplifiedpolymorphism (SRAP), 56 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and 13 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)markers. This map spans 2 108.9 cM and contains 20 linkage groups with an average marker density of 15.7 cM betweenthe adjacent markers.
    Characteristics of the Mesophyllous Cells in the Sheaths of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
    GUO Zhao-wu, DENG Hua-feng, LI Shu-yuan, XIAO Lang-tao, HUANG Zhi-yuan, HE Qiang, HUANG Zhi-gang, LI He-song , WANG Ruo-zhong
    2011, 10(9): 1354-1364.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60128-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The photosynthesis of rice sheath plays a significant role to furnish rice yield, and it is accounted for 10 to 20% of the final yield. But, limited studies have been done to address this phenomenon and to characterize the mesophyllous cells of rice sheath and how it may attribute to the rice yield. In this paper, super hybrid rice Liangyoupeijiu, its parents Wumang 9311 and Peiai 64S, and hybrid rice Shanyou 63 were studied as the experimental materials, and the characteristics of the mesophyllous cells of rice sheaths were examined by microscopic and super-microscopic observation as well as chlorophyll absorption spectrums. The results showed that rice sheath was rich in the intact mesophyllous cells full of chloroplasts, grana and thylakoids, which were much the same as those of rice blade. The absorption spectrum curves of the Chl. a and b of the sheaths were similar to those of the blades. The stomatal density in the outer epidermises of the sheaths was comparable to those in the up- and down-epidermises of the blades. The significant tests proved that the amount of chloroplast per mesophyllous cell of the sheaths was almost the same as those of the blades, and the mesophyllous cells in the sheaths were also rich in chlorophylls. The chlorophyll content of rice sheath reached about 50% of the chlorophyll content of rice blade, and the Pn of the sheath/the blade ranged from 13.60 to 34.57%. Therefore, rice sheath was also full of the intact photosynthetic apparatus similar to those in rice blade, and had capabilities of photosynthesis. The statistical analysis revealed that the physiological senescence of the photosynthetic apparatus in both the sheath and the blade of Liangyoupeijiu was significantly slower than those of the other varieties at the late stages. The profuse grain-filling stage was an inflexion point of the physiological senescence of the chloroplasts and the chlorophylls of both the blades and the sheaths.
    Flower Development and Anatomy of Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton
    ZHANG Di, SHEN Xiao-hui , ZHUO Li-huan
    2011, 10(9): 1365-1373.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60129-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Floral buds of Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis were observed under dissecting and optical microscope to characterizefloral organs development and to study relationships between anther development and microsporogenesis. Floral organsdifferentiation was comprised of 6 distinct stages including nought differentiation, inflorescence bud differentiation,floret primordia differentiation, tepal primordia differentiation, stamen primordia differentiation, and pistil primordiadifferentiation. Six tepals differentiated almost simultaneously which cross arranged in space and appeared in hexagonaldistribution pattern. Six stamens were differentiated inside the tepals at the same time. Finally, 3 carpel primordiadifferentiated and formed syncarpous pistil. The whole process of floral bud differentiation took approximately 40 d withthe first 3 stages developing more slowly than the later 3 stages. Morphology and color of the anther underwent obviouschanges during the period between stamen primordia differentiation and anther maturation. Microspores also underwentsignificant development during this same interval. The relationship between the process of microsporogenesis andanther development has already been made clear by the squash technique.
    Effects of Consecutively Monocultured Rehmannia glutinosa L. on Diversity of Fungal Community in Rhizospheric Soil
    ZHANG Zhong-yi, LIN Wen-xiong, YANG Yan-hui, CHEN Hui, CHEN Xin-jian
    2011, 10(9): 1374-1384.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60130-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Continuous monoculture problems, or replanting diseases, are one of the key factors affecting productivity and quality ofChinese medicinal plants. The underlying mechanism is still being explored. Most of the studies on continuous monocultureof Rehmannia glutinosa L. are focused on plant nutritional physiology, root exudate, and its autotoxicity. However, thechanges in the diversity of microflora in the rhizosphere mediated by the continuous monoculture pattern have beenremained unknown. In this study, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) technique was used forfingerprinting fungal diversity in the rhizosphere soil sampled from the fields of R. glutinosa monocultured for 1 and 2 yr. Theresults showed that the structure of fungal community in consecutively moncultured rhizosphere soil was different fromthat in control soil (no cropping soil), and varied with the consecutive monoculture years (1 and 2 yr). The comprehensiveevaluation index (D) of fungal community estimated by principal component analysis of fragment number, peak area,Shannon-Weiner index, and Margalef index was higher in 1 yr monoculture soil than that in 2 yr monoculture soil,suggesting that consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa could be a causative agent to decrease the diversity of fungalcommunity in the rhizosphere soil.
    Functional Characterization of a NEM1-Like Gene in Magnaporthe oryzae
    WANG Ying, JIAO Tian-lei, LIU Xiao-hong, LIN Fu-cheng , WU Wei-ren
    2011, 10(9): 1385-1390.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60131-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Magnaporthe oryzae, a filamentous ascomycete fungus, is well known as the causal agent of rice blast. With thetechnology of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), it was previously found that MGG_06001 (or named MoNEM1),a gene of M. oryzae homologous to the NEM1 (nuclear envelope morphology protein 1) gene of baker’s yeast(Saccharomyces cerevisiae), is differentially expressed between the mature appressium and the conidium and mycelium.This study aimed to characterize the function of MoNEM1 gene by knocking it out using the method of target genereplacement. The ΔMonem1 mutants exhibited reduced mycelial growth and conidiation. However, disruption of MoNEM1gene does not affect the pathogenicity of M. oryzae on barley and rice.
    Identification and Expression of a β-actin Gene from Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae)
    JIANG Hong-bo1, SHEN Guang-mao1, DOU Wei1, TANG Pei-an1, 2 , LIU Yong-hua1, ZHOU An-wei1, WANG Jin-jun1
    2011, 10(9): 1391-1401.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60132-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    A β-actin gene, Libβ-actin1, from the psocid, Liposcelis bostrychophila, was isolated, sequenced, and expressed inEscherichia coli. The cDNA sequence was 1 281 bp in length and contained an open reading frame of 1 131 bp encoding376 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 41.82 kDa. According to a BlastN search, the coding region sharedthe highest identity (97%) with Pediculus humanus actin 5C, while the deduced amino acid sequence was completelyidentical to a mutant of Drosophila melanogaster actin 5C. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acidsequences confirmed the high similarity between Libβ-actin1 and homologs in other insect species. The 3´ untranslatedregion (3´ UTR) of the Libβ-actin1 mRNA had a high A+U content (approximately 75%) and contained three repeats of theAUUUUUA and AUUUA motifs, which may play a role in regulating mRNA decay. The expression of Libβ-actin1 wasfurther analyzed in insecticide induced and control psocids. The results indicated that there was no significant differencein expression of Libβ-actin1 between the induced and control groups, suggesting that Libβ-actin1 may be an appropriateinternal control for the gene expression profiling in this insect. Furthermore, Libβ-actin1 was also heterologouslyexpressed in Escherichia coli, which provided a basis to investigate the physiological functions of actin genes in thepsocid.
    Insecticidal Constructure and Bioactivities of Compounds from Ficus sarmentosa var. henryi
    WANG Xue-gui, WEI Xiao-yi, HUANG Xing-yan, SHEN Li-tao, TIAN Yong-qing , XU Han-hong
    2011, 10(9): 1402-1409.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60133-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Insecticidal activities of the petroleum ether-, chloroform-, ethyl acetate-, and water-soluble fractions of the methanolicextract of Ficus sarmentosa var. henryi were assayed against Musca domestica adults. The chloroform- and ethyl acetatesolublefractions were the most active with 92.6 and 88.9% mortalities (24 h after treatment) respectively. Therefore, thetwo fractions were combined and four compounds, isolated from the fractions by activity-guided fractionation, wereelucidated as 7-hydroxycoumarin, apigenin, eriodictyol, and quercetin by spectroscopic method and displayed excellentinsecticidal activities against adults of M. domestica and 4th instar larva of Aedes albopictus. Among those, 7-hydroxycoumarin showed the strongest insecticidal activities with lethal concentrations (LC50) values of 72.13 μg g-1sugar and 4.87 μg mL-1 (48 h after treatment) against the test insects respectively. The cytoxicities of these compounds onBTI-Tn-5B1-4 cell were also investigated for the insecticidal mechanism and found that quercetin represented superiorinhibitory activity with MTT assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) against BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cell, but slightly weaker thanthat of the positive control (azadirachtin) and significantly greater than the negative control (DMSO only). Meanwhile,eriodictyol demonstrated the strongest effect on the mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMP). In conclusion, based ontheir comparative toxicities to commercial insecticides and their cytotoxic effects, some of the compounds from theF. sarmentosa have potential as botanical insecticides.
    Differences in Organic C Mineralization Between Aerobic and SubmergedConditions in Paddy Soils of Southern Jiangsu Province, China
    HAO Rui-jun , LI Zhong-pei , CHE Yu-ping
    2011, 10(9): 1410-1418.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60134-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Moisture regime plays a crucial role in the mineralization of soil organic carbon (SOC). In this paper, the dynamics of SOCmineralization in typical paddy soils of Changshu, Jiangsu Province, China, was investigated by incubation test inlaboratory. The differences in SOC mineralization under aerobic and submerged conditions of paddy soils were alsostudied. Results showed that the daily mineralization of SOC under different moisture regimes was significantly differentin the whole incubation period, at the beginning of the incubation, it decreased quickly under aerobic condition, butincreased rapidly under submerged condition, and both remained constant after 10 d of incubation. The differences inSOC mineralization were found to be mainly at the beginning period of the incubation and decreased along with theincubation time. Thus, the difference was not significantly different at the later incubation period. The respirationintensity, daily and cumulative mineralization of SOC under aerobic condition was 2.26-19.11, 0.96-2.41, and 0.96-2.41 timesthan those under submerged condition, respectively. Statistic analyses showed that the higher the contents of microbialbiomass carbon and nitrogen, the more significant difference in respiration intensity between aerobic and submergedconditions, but the higher the contents of microbial biomass nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon, the more significantdifference in daily mineralization of SOC between the two conditions. The decrease in soil microbial activity undersubmerged condition was the main reason leading to the decrease in respiration intensity, but the decrease in SOCmineralization was also correlated with the changes in dissolved organic carbon over the whole incubation period.
    Assessment of L and Suitability Potentials for Selecting Winter Wheat Cultivation Areas in Beijing, China, Using RS and GIS
    WANG Da-cheng, LI Cun-jun, SONG Xiao-yu, WANG Ji-hua, YANG Xiao-dong, HUANG Wen-jiang
    2011, 10(9): 1419-1430.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60135-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    It is very important to provide reference basis for winter wheat quality regionalization of cultivation area. The aim of this article was based on factors affecting wheat quality and setting realistic spatial models in each part of the land for assessment of land suitability potentials in Beijing, China. The study employed artificial neural network (ANN) analysis to select factors and evaluate the relative importance of selected environment factors on wheat grain quality. The spatial models were developed and demonstrated their use in selecting the most suitable areas for the winter wheat cultivation. The strategy overcomes the non-accurate traditional statistical methods. Satellite images, toposheet, and ancillary data of the study area were used to find tillable land. These categories were formed by integrating the various layers with corresponding weights in geographical information system (GIS). An integrated land suitability potential (LSP) index was computed considering the contribution of various parameters of land suitability. The study demonstrated that the tillable land could be categorized into spatially distributed agriculture potential zones based on soil nutrient and assembled weather factors using RS and GIS as not suitable, marginally suitable, moderately suitable, suitable, and highly suitable by adopting the logical criteria. The sort of land distribution map made by the factors with their weights showed more truthfulness.
    NDVI-Based Lacunarity Texture for Improving Identification of Torreya Using Object-Oriented Method
    HAN Ning, WU Jing, Amir Reza Shah Tahmassebi, XU Hong-wei , WANG Ke
    2011, 10(9): 1431-1444.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60136-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a very useful feature for differentiating vegetation and non-vegetationin remote sensed imagery. In the light of the function of NDVI and the spatial patterns of the vegetation landscapes, weproposed the lacunarity texture derived from NDVI to characterize the spatial patterns of vegetation landscapes concerningthe “gappiness” or “emptiness” characteristics. The NDVI-based lacunarity texture was incorporated into object-orientedclassification for improving the identification of vegetation categories, especially Torreya which was the targeted treespecies in the present research. A three-level hierarchical network of image objects was defined and the proposed texturewas integrated as potential sources of information in the rules base. A knowledge base of rules created by classifierC5.0 indicated that the texture could potentially be applied in object-oriented classification. It was found that the additionof such texture improved the identification of every vegetation category. The results demonstrated that the texture couldcharacterize the spatial patterns of vegetation structures, which could be a promising approach for vegetation identification.
    Expression of Eph-Ephrin A Molecules in Endometrium During Swine Embryo Implantation Examined Using Real-Time RT-PCR
    FU Yan-feng, FU Jin-luan, YANG Lu, TIAN Ming-ming, CHEN Wen-cheng , WANG Ai-guo
    2011, 10(9): 1445-1451.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60137-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor and its membrane-bound ligands (Eph-Ephrin) system could regulatesome mammalian blastocyst attachment and spreading. In order to investigate the involvement of the Eph-Ephrin systemin swine embryo attachment, mRNA expression of Eph-Ephrin molecules in endometrium was examined by real-time RTPCRduring embryo implantation in pigs. The results indicated that mRNA expressions of Eph A5, A7 and Ephrin A5 allcontinually increased from pregnancy day 13 to 24. Ephrin A3 mRNA expression significantly increased from day 13 to 18and decreased from day 18 to 24, and the expression was the lowest on pregnancy day 13 and the highest on day 18.However, Ephrin A4 mRNA expression was the lowest on pregnancy day 18 and the highest on day 24, and the expressiondecreased from day 13 to 18 and increased from day 18 to 24. Furthermore, mRNA expressions of Eph A5 and A7 were bothfound in other tissues, such as brain, muscle, intestine, stomach, etc. These findings suggest that the Eph-Ephrin systemmay play an important role in regulating the contact between blastocysts and endometrium during swine embryoimplantation.
    Molecular Characterization and Expression Pattern of Rheb Gene in Inner Mongolia Cashmere Goat (Capra hircus) 
    ZHENG Xu, YANG Jiao-fu, WANG Xiao-jing, LIANG Yan, WU Man-lin, SHI Jie-jun, ZHANG Tao, QIN Yin, LI Shu-yu, HAO Xi-yan, WANG Zhi-gang , LIU Dong-jun
    2011, 10(9): 1452-1458.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60138-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    As one member of the Ras super family, Rheb is an upstream regulator of mTOR signaling pathway, which regulates the process of cell-growth, proliferation and differentiation. In order to study the relationship between Rheb and mTOR in Inner Mongolian Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) cells, Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) gene cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR. It is 555 bp in length and includes the complete ORF encoding 184 amino acids (GenBank accession no. HM569224). The full cDNA nucleotide sequence has a 99% identity with that of sheep, 98% with cattle and 93% with human while their amino acids sequence shares identity with 98, 97 and 97% of them, correspondingly. The bioinformatics analysis showed that Rheb has a Ras family domain, two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, two ATP/GTP-binding sites motif A (P-loop), a prenyl group binding site (CAAX box). Tissue-specific expression analysis performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. The Rheb gene was expressed in all the tested tissues and the highest level of mRNA accumulation was detected in brain, suggesting that Rheb played an important role in goat cells.
    Raising on Water Stocking Density Reduces Geese ReproductivePerformances via Water Bacteria and Lipopolysaccharide Contaminationsin “Geese-Fish” Production System
    JIANGDan-li , LIULi , WANG Cong-li, CHEN Fang, SUN Ai-dong , SHI Zhen-dan
    2011, 10(9): 1459-1466.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60139-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    This study was carried out to unravel the mechanism of reductions in production performances in high stocking densitygeese flocks during summer months in “geese-fish” production system. Experiment 1 observed the water bacterialgrowth, lipopolysaccharde concentrations in water and geese blood, and geese reproductive performances from summerto winter, in two flocks with varying on water stocking densities. Results showed that counts of total bacteria, Escherichiacoli and Salmonella in water, as well as water and geese plasma LPS concentrations, exhibited a tendency decreasing fromthe highest levels in summer, to intermediate levels in autumn, and to the lowest values in winter. Such seasonaldecreases in bacteria and LPS concentrations were associated with similar seasonal decreases in embryo mortality duringincubation. In addition, embryos dead or showing development retardation by day 25 of incubation contained copiousLPS in allantoic fluid, in contrast to the negligible amount in normal developing embryos. Raising on water stockingdensity elevated bacteria counts, LPS concentrations in water and geese plasma, and decreased egg fertility but increasedembryo mortality during incubation. In experiment 2, exogenous LPS treatment to the geese depressed egg laying,reduced egg hatchability, caused sickness behavior in the goslings hatched. In experiment 3, exogenous LPS directlyadministered to day 8 and 18 embryos during incubation dose dependently increased mortality and decreased hatchability,and caused sickness behavior in the goslings hatched. It is concluded that the raising on water geese stocking densitystimulates pathogenic bacteria growth in water, which via LPS contamination impaires embryo development in incubationand therefore reduces geese reproductive performance and gosling quality during the hot summer months.
    A MicroRNA Catalog of Swine Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Identified by Deep Sequencing
    DAI Chen, ZHANG Yan-ming, ZHANG Qian, WU Zong-song, DENG Wen, ZHANG Xu, GUO Kang-kang, TANG Qing-hai , HOU Bo
    2011, 10(9): 1467-1474.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60140-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous ~22 nt RNAs that play important regulatory roles in targeting mRNAs for cleavageor translational repression. Despite the discovery of increasing numbers of human and mouse miRNAs, little is knownabout miRNAs from pig. In this study, we sought to extend the repertoire of porcine small regulatory RNAs using Solexasequencing. We sequenced a library of small RNAs prepared from immortalized swine umbilical vein endothelial cells(SUVECs). We produced over 13.6 million short sequence reads, of which 8 547 658 perfectly mapped to the pig genome.A bioinformatics pipeline was used to identify authentic mature miRNA sequences. We identified 154 porcine miRNAgenes, among which 146 were conserved across species, and 8 were pig-specific miRNA genes. The 146 miRNA genesencoded 116 conserved mature miRNAs and 66 miRNA*. The 8 pig-specific miRNA genes encoded 4 mature miRNAs.Four potential novel miRNAs were identified. The secondary structures of the 154 miRNA genes were predicted; 13miRNAs have 2 structures, and miR-9 and miR-199 have 4 and 3 structures, respectively. 36 miRNAs were organized into19 compact clusters. miR-206, miR-21 and miR-378 were the relatively highly expressed miRNAs. In conclusion, Solexasequencing allowed the successful discovery of known and novel porcine miRNAs with high accuracy and efficiency.Furthermore, our results supply new data to the somewhat insufficient pig miRBase, and are useful for investigatingfeatures of the blood-brain barrier, vascular diseases and inflammation.
    The Defined siRNAs Suppress Nanog and Sox2 Expressions in Mouse ES Cells
    LEI Lei, DOU Lin , WANG Hua-yan
    2011, 10(9): 1475-1481.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60141-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2 are important transcription factors that are expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells or embryoniccarcinoma (EC) cells, but in most cases they are absent in somatic cells. These factors play a key role to maintain embryonic stemcell self-renew and pluripotency. Down-regulation of Nanog and Sox2 gene expression can change multiple gene expressionpatterns and signal transduction pathways, and will initiate ES cell differentiation. This study was designed to select theefficient small interfering RNA (siRNA) fragments that inhibit Nanog and Sox2 gene expression in mouse J1 ES cells and P19 ECcells. Among synthesized siRNAs we screened out the siRNA N301 for Nanog and siRNA S720 for Sox2, which not only downregulatedof Nanog and Sox2 gene expression, but also interfered embryoid bodies formation. Our study provided the definedsiRNA fragments that could be used to investigate the epigenetic function of Nanog and Sox2 genes.
    Antibacterial Effect of Cinnamon Oil Combined with Thyme or Clove Oil
    LU Fei , DING Yi-cheng , YE Xing-qian , DING Yu-ting
    2011, 10(9): 1482-1487.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60142-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Antibacterial effect of cinnamon oil combined with thyme or clove oil was studied in this paper. Agar dilution method wasused to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the essential oils (EOs) of cinnamon, thyme, and cloveoil against three Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus), and two Gramnegativebacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium). The results showed that cinnamon was a promisingantibacterial substance with MIC ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 μL mL-1 for the five bacterial species. Agar dilution checkerboardmethod was used to test the combined antibacterial effect of cinnamon oil with thyme or clove oil. Combination ofcinnamon and thyme oil showed an additive effect against all selected bacteria, and combination of cinnamon and cloveoil displayed an additive effect against B. subtilis, B. cereus, S. aureus, and an indifferent effect against E. coli andS. typhimurium. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurement was used to analyze thecomponents of the EOs, and the main components of cinnamon, thyme, and clove were cinnamaldehyde, thymol, carvacroland p-cymene, and eugenol, respectively.