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    Responses of soil microbial respiration to plantations depend on soil properties in subtropical China
    ZHANG Yan-jie, YAN Yue, FU Xiang-ping, YANG Jie, ZHANG Su-yan, XU Shan, TANG Zheng, LI Zhong-fang, LU Shun-bao
    2016, 15 (06): 1376-1384.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(15)61222-9
    Abstract1378)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
       Assessing the impact of plantation on microbial respiration (MR) is vitally important to understand the interactions between belowground metabolism and land use change. In this study, cumulative MR was determined by alkali absorption method in 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 days from the soil in a representative plantations in the subtropical region of China. The treatment of plantations contained no plant (CK), orange trees (Citrus reticulata)+Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) (GB), orange trees (C. reticulata)+Bahia grass (P. notatum)+soybean (Giycine max (L.) Merrill) (GBH). Results showed that plantation had significant effects on microbial respiration and the responses of microbial respiration to plantation from different soil layers and topographies were different: in 0–20 cm in uphill: GB>GBH>CK; in 20–40 cm in uphill: GBH>CK>GB; in 0–20 cm in downhill: GBH>CK>GB; in 20–40 cm in downhill: GB>CK>GBH. Furthermore, plantation also altered the relationships between MR and soil properties. In CK, microbial respiration was positively correlated with NH4+ and soil total N, and negatively correlated with soil moisture, pH, NO3, and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). In GB, microbial respiration under GB significantly negatively correlated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In GBH, microbial respiration under GBH was positively correlated with NH4+, MBC, total soil carbon (TC), and total soil nitrogen (TN), and negatively correlated with soil moisture (SM), pH, NO3, and DOC. The underlying mechanisms could be attributed to soil heterogeneity and the effects of plantation on soil properties. Our results also showed that plantation significantly increased soil C storage, which suggested plantation is a key measure to enhance soil C sequestration and mitigate global CO2 emission, especially for the soil with low initial soil carbon content or bared soil.  
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    Inhibitory effect of tartary buckwheat seedling extracts and associated flavonoid compounds on the polyphenol oxidase activity in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)
    LI Jun, WANG Hui, LU Yang, MAO Tang-fen, XIONG Jiang, HE Sheng-ling, LIU Hui
    2019, 18 (9): 2173-2182.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62692-4
    Abstract96)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    To improve the processing quality of potatoes, phosphate buffer extract (PBE), 50% ethanol (E50), and aqueous extract (AE) of tartary buckwheat seedlings were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the enzymatic browning of potatoes.  The results suggest that all extracts of tartary buckwheat seedlings exert significant inhibitory effects on the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in potatoes.  The relative concentrations required for a 50% reduction in the PPO activity (IC50) were 0.21, 0.28 and 0.41 mg mL–1, for PBE, E50 and AE, respectively.  The strongest inhibitory activity was observed for PBE, followed by E50 and AE.  Four flavone compounds in the PBE of tartary buckwheat seedlings (i.e., rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin, and kaempferol) were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography.  These compounds were subsequently evaluated for their roles in the inhibition of PPO from potatoes using a model system.  The results indicated that rutin exhibited the highest inhibition rate on the PPO of potato.  A synergistic inhibitory effect was observed by mixing rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin, and proteins.  The inhibitory patterns of rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and quercetin on the enzyme were noncompetitive and reversible, with inhibitory constants of 0.12, 0.31, and 0.40 mg mL–1, respectively.  Flavonoids from tartary buckwheat seedlings may exhibit a common mechanism with phenolic compounds, involving the blockage of the reaction of oxygen with PPO leading to the inhibition of the enzymes involved in browning.  Based on these results, extracts of tartary buckwheat seedlings can be used as potent natural inhibitors.
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    An optimized industry processing technology of peanut tofu and the novel prediction model for suitable peanut varieties
    CHEN Bing-yu, LI Qi-zhai, HU Hui, MENG Shi, Faisal SHAH, WANG Qiang, LIU Hong-zhi
    2020, 19 (9): 2340-2351.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63249-X
    Abstract97)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Peanut protein is easily digested and absorbed by the human body, and peanut tofu does not contain flatulence factors and beany flour.  However, at present, there is no industrial preparation process of peanut tofu, whereas the quality of tofu prepared by different peanut varieties is quite different.  This study established an industrial feasible production process of peanut tofu and optimized the key process that regulates its quality.  Compared with the existing method, the production time is reduced by 53.80%, therefore the daily production output is increased by 183.33%.  The chemical properties of 26 peanut varieties and the quality characteristics of tofu prepared from these 26 varieties were determined.  The peanut varieties were classified based on the quality characteristics of tofu using the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) method, out of which 7 varieties were screened out which were suitable for preparing peanut tofu.  An evaluation standard was founded based on peanut tofu qualities.  Six chemical trait indexes were correlated with peanut tofu qualities (P<0.05).  A logistic regressive model was developed to predict suitable peanut varieties and this prediction model was verified.  This study may help broaden the peanut protein utilization, and provide guidance for breeding experts to select certain varieties for product specific cultivation of peanut.
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    Evaluation of sugar and organic acid composition and their levels in highbush blueberries from two regions of China
    ZHANG Jia, NIE Ji-yun, LI Jing, ZHANG Hui, LI Ye, Saqib FAROOQ, Syed Asim Shah BACHA, WANG Jie
    2020, 19 (9): 2352-2361.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63236-1
    Abstract60)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Sweet and sour are the most important taste of blueberries, and they are produced by sugar and acid, respectively.  Their contributions to the taste depend not only on the levels of sugar and acid, but also on the types and relative proportions of sugar and acid.  Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the composition and levels of sugar and acid in blueberries.  Regional differences and variety diversity also affect the sugar and acid characteristics of fruits.  Therefore, this study selected two main producing regions in northern China (Weihai and Yingkou) to examine the sugar and acid characteristics of 11 common blueberry cultivars.  The indexes measured included soluble sugars, organic acids, soluble solid content and titratable acidity.  The results showed that glucose and fructose were the major sugars, and citric acid and quinic acid were the major organic acids.  Correlation analysis showed that glucose, fructose, and sucrose were positively correlated with total sugar content; the citric acid content was positively correlated with the titratable acidity and total organic acids.  Titratable acidity, glucose, fructose, sucrose, total sugar content, citric acid, shikimic acid and total acid content of the blueberries varied significantly between regions (P<0.05).  In general, compared with Weihai blueberries, Yingkou blueberries had higher sugar content and lower acid content.  The results of this study may provide useful references for the evaluation of sweet and sour flavors and cultivar selection of blueberries.
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    Phenolic extract of Morchella angusticeps peck inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in vitro by inducing the signal transduction pathway of p38/MAPK
    LI Fu-hua, ZHENG Shao-jie, ZHAO Ji-chun, LIAO Xia, WU Su-rui, MING Jian
    2020, 19 (11): 2829-2838.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63322-6
    Abstract83)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Morchella angusticeps Peck, one of the most popular edible mushrooms, has attracted great attention due to its delicious taste and healthy properties.  However, both its biological effects and the possible mechanism of action have not yet been known.  We investigated the anti-proliferative activity of the phenolic extract derived from Morchella angusticeps Peck (MPE) against HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.  Results showed that MPE at non-cytotoxicity doses significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner with inhibitory rates ranging from 18 to 90% (P<0.01).  The possible mechanism might be that MPE induced apoptosis through initiating the mitochondrial death pathway by regulating Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3.  On the other hand, MPE might trigger cell cycle arrest at G0/G1/S phases by managing p21, Cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases-4 (CDK4) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).  Additionally, MPE downregulated TRAF-2 and p-p53, while upregulated p-ASK1 and p-p38.  Therefore, it could be inferred that MPE might induce the anti-proliferative function to HepG2 cells through the p38/MAPK signal transduction pathway.
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    Comprehensive characterization of yam tuber nutrition and medicinal quality of Dioscorea opposita and D. alata from different geographic groups in China
    SHAN Nan, WANG Pu-tao, ZHU Qiang-long, SUN Jing-yu, ZHANG Hong-yu, LIU Xing-yue, CAO Tian-xu, CHEN Xin, HUANG Ying-jin, ZHOU Qing-hong
    2020, 19 (11): 2839-2848.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63270-1
    Abstract83)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    China is an important domestication center of yams, and two main yam species of Dioscorea opposita and D. alata are commonly cultivated in China.  However, the differences of nutritional and medicinal characteristics between the two species and their subgroups remain unclear, which would greatly affect the resource conservation and commercial utilization of yams.  In this study, typical yam resources including the species of D. opposita (wild and cultivated Ruichang yam from southern China, and Tiegun yam from northern China) and two landraces of D. alata (Longyan yam and Anyuan yam from southern China) were selected as materials.  Nutritional traits and medicinal characteristics were determined and analyzed respectively.  The results showed that there was no significant differences in the content of most nutrients between D. opposita and D. alata, but most cultivated Ruichang yam of D. opposita showed higher levels of starch, soluble sugar, sucrose, and ascorbate in tuber than that in yam from D. alata.  Moreover, an UPLC-MS method was developed for identification and determination of medicinal characteristics in the two species.  The results showed that allantoin can be detected in all selected samples.  Cultivated Ruichang yam of D. opposita possessed the highest allantoin content among the tested materials, and was significantly different with that in Tiegun yam and D. alata. Dioscin was not detected in D. alata. Overall, there was little difference in nutritional composition between D. opposita and D. alata, but the medicinal quality of D. opposita was better than that of D. alata.  Due to the outstanding comprehensive quality, the local variety of cultivated Ruichang yam can be further developed and utilized.
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    Use of two-stage dough mixing process in improving water distribution of dough and qualities of bread made from wheat–potato flour
    YIN Jian, CHENG Li, HONG Yan, LI Zhao-feng, LI Cai-ming, BAN Xiao-feng, GU Zheng-biao
    2021, 20 (1): 300-310.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63433-5
    Abstract82)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The two-stage dough mixing process was innovated to improve the qualities of bread made from potato flour (PF) and wheat flour at a ratio of 1:1 (w/w).  The final dough was first prepared from wheat flour before being added with PF.  The effects of the method on enhancing the dough qualities were verified, and the distribution of water in gluten-gelatinized starch matrix of the doughs was investigated.  We observed that the bread qualities were improved, as reflected by the increase of specific volume from 2.26 to 2.96 mL g–1 and the decrease of crumb hardness from 417.93 to 255.57 g.  The results from rheofermentometric measurements showed that the dough mixed using the developed mixing method had higher maximum dough height value, time of dough porosity appearance, and gas retention coefficient, as well as enhanced gluten matrix formation compared to that mixed by the traditional mixing method.  The results from low-field nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed that the competitive water absorption between gluten and gelatinized starch could restrict the formation of gluten network in the dough mixed using the traditional mixing process.  Using the novel mixing method, gluten could be sufficiently hydrated in stage 1, which could then weaken the competitive water absorption caused by gelatinized starch in stage 2; this could also be indicated by the greater mobility of proton in PF and better development of gluten network during mixing.
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    ATP regulates the phosphorylation and degradation of myofibrillar proteins in ground ovine muscle
    REN Chi, HOU Cheng-li, ZHANG De-quan, LI Xin, XIAO Xiong, BAI Yu-qiang
    2021, 20 (1): 311-318.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63361-5
    Abstract61)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Phosphorylation post-translational modification plays an important role in postmortem muscle quality traits.  Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an energy source and a key substrate of phosphorylation which provides the phosphatase groups to proteins in the presence of protein kinases.  However, in postmortem muscle, the effects of ATP content on phosphorylation are poorly studied.  The study investigated the effect of ATP on protein phosphorylation and degradation in postmortem ovine muscle.  The ground muscle with/without additional ATP were treated/control groups and stored at 25 and 4°C, respectively.  The ATP content led to different changes of pH value between the ATP-treated and control groups.  The phosphorylation level of myofibrillar proteins was higher (P<0.05) in ATP-treated group compared to the control group at both temperatures, which suggested that ATP played a vital role in postmortem protein phosphorylation.  A slower degradation rate of μ-calpain, desmin and troponin T was observed in the ATP-treated group which showed that there was a negative relationship between ATP level and the degradation of proteins.  These observations clearly highlighted the role of ATP on the development of meat quality by regulating the phosphorylation and degradation of myofibrillar proteins in postmortem ovine muscle.
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    Can harvest outsourcing services reduce field harvest losses of rice in China?
    QU Xue, Daizo KOJIMA, Yukinaga NISHIHARA, WU La-ping, Mitsuyoshi ANDO
    2021, 20 (5): 1396-1406.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63263-4
    Abstract103)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The purpose of this study is to quantify the rice harvest losses in China and to evaluate the impacts of machinery and harvest outsourcing services on these losses, given the background of high-speed mechanization and outsourcing services.  Data were collected from a national survey conducted in 2016 by the research team in conjunction with the Research Center for the Rural Economy of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China.  A non-parametric method was used to test whether combine harvesting and outsourcing services could significantly reduce harvest losses.  Next, quantile regression was used to estimate the real effects of machinery and outsourcing services on harvest losses.  The analysis yielded four main study outcomes.  First, the harvest loss rate of rice in China was 3.65%.  Second, mechanical reaping and winnowing caused greater losses than manual methods, while the opposite was true of field transportation.  Third, combine harvesting increased the losses.  Fourth, the effects of an outsourcing service on losses differed among the different harvesting methods.  Outsourcing services increased losses in segmented harvesting but they reduced losses in combine harvesting.
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    Molecular characteristics and structure–activity relationships of food-derived bioactive peptides
    YANG Fu-jia, CHEN Xu, HUANG Mu-chen, YANG Qian, CAI Xi-xi, CHEN Xuan, DU Ming, HUANG Jian-lian, WANG Shao-yun
    2021, 20 (9): 2313-2332.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63463-3
    Abstract86)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Peptides are functional active fragments of proteins which can provide nutrients needed for human growth and development, and they also have unique physiological activity characteristics relative to proteins.  Bioactive peptides contain a great deal of development potential.  More specifically, food-derived bioactive peptides have the advantages of a wide variety of sources, unique structures, high efficiency and safety, so they have broad development prospects.  This review provides an overview of the current advances regarding the preparation, functional characteristics, and structure–activity relationships of food-derived bioactive peptides.  Moreover, the prospects for the future development and application of food-derived bioactive peptides are discussed.  This review may provide a better understanding of food-derived bioactive peptides, and some constructive inspirations for further research and applications in the food industry.
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    Melatonin treatment induces chilling tolerance by regulating the contents of polyamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and proline in cucumber fruit
    Miilion P MADEBO, LUO Si-ming, WANG Li, ZHENG Yong-hua, JIN Peng
    2021, 20 (11): 3060-3074.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63485-2
    Abstract102)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The mechanism of melatonin (MT) induced chilling tolerance in harvested cucumber fruit was investigated at commercial maturity.  In this study, cucumber fruits were treated with 100 μmol L–1 MT at 4°C and 90% relative humidity for 15 d of storage.  In comparison with the control, cucumber treatment with MT resulted in reduced chilling injury (CI), decreased electrolyte leakage and enhanced firmness.  The fruits treated with MT showed higher chlorophyll contents in storage conditions with suppressed chlorophyllase enzyme activity.  MT treatment increased arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) enzyme activities.  Moreover, enhanced expression of the Cucumis sativus ADC (CsADC) and C. sativus ODC (CsODC) genes resulted in the accumulation of polyamine contents.  Similarly, proline levels exhibited higher levels among treated fruits.  Meanwhile, the proline synthesizing enzymes △1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate syntheses (P5CS) and ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) were significantly increased, while a catabolic enzyme of proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was inhibited by treatment.  In addition, MT induced expression of C. sativus OAT (CsOAT) and C. sativus P5CS (CsP5CS) genes.  Cucumber fruits treated with MT also exhibited higher γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content by enhanced GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) enzyme activities and a higher C. sativus GAD (CsGAD) gene expression.  To sum up, the results show that MT treatment enhanced chilling tolerance, which was associated with the regulation of polyamines, as well as proline and γ-aminobutyric acid.
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    Application of methyl jasmonate postharvest maintains the quality of Nanguo pears by regulating mitochondrial energy metabolism
    LI Can-ying, CHENG Yuan, HOU Jia-bao, ZHU Jie, SUN Lei, GE Yong-hong
    2021, 20 (11): 3075-3083.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63611-0
    Abstract105)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) dipping treatment on mitochondrial energy metabolism and quality parameters of Nanguo pears during room temperature storage.  The results showed that MeJA treatment suppressed the respiration rate and weight loss, and maintained the flesh firmness of Nanguo pears.  MeJA also effectively maintained the content of ascorbic acid and titratable acidity in the fruit.  Furthermore, the activities of H+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) of the MeJA-treated fruit were significantly higher than those of the untreated fruit.  The contents of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and the energy charge were also enhanced by MeJA treatment.  These results suggest that postharvest MeJA treatment could maintain the quality of Nanguo pears, in part by modulating mitochondrial energy metabolism during room temperature storage.
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    Transcriptome and phytochemical analyses reveal roles of characteristic metabolites in the taste formation of white tea during withering process
    ZHOU Cheng-zhe, ZHU Chen, LI Xiao-zhen, CHEN Lan, XIE Si-yi, CHEN Guang-wu, ZHANG Huan, LAI Zhong-xiong, LIN Yu-ling, GUO Yu-qiong
    2022, 21 (3): 862-877.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63785-1
    Abstract156)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    In the postharvest processing of tea leaves, withering is the first indispensable manufacturing process which produces the mellow, umami and sweet taste of white tea.  In this study, we aimed to determine the dynamic changes of the main metabolites and clarify the key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in forming the characteristic taste of white tea during withering.  Phytochemical analyses revealed that the contents of total catechins and starch decreased continuously, whereas the contents of theaflavin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), maltose, and soluble sugars increased significantly during withering (from 0–48 h).  Meanwhile, the elevation of α-amylase (AMY), β-amylase (BAM), total amylase, and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activities may be correlated with the accumulation of GABA and maltose.  By transcriptome sequencing, we detected 9 707, 15 921, 17 353, and 17 538 DEGs at 12, 24, 36, and 48 h of the withering process, respectively, compared with 0 h sample (fresh leaves).  The transcript levels of most of the DEGs involved in catechin biosynthesis were significantly inhibited, whereas those involved in catechin oxidation were significantly up-regulated, which could be correlated to a decrease in catechin content and an increase in theaflavin content.  The DEGs involved in GABA biosynthesis were considerably up-regulated, and the down-regulation of SPMS could reduce the competition for converting spermidine to GABA.  The up-regulation of the AMY and BAM genes could trigger starch degradation, resulting in the increase of soluble sugar content.  These results provide new insights into the importance of the withering process to the characteristic taste of white tea.
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    Polypropylene crisper and 1-MCP delay the softening, lignification and transcription levels of related enzyme genes of golden needle mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes)
    WANG Wen-jun, LI Yao, LI Fu-hua, ZENG Kai-fang, MING Jian
    2022, 21 (1): 249-260.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63764-4
    Abstract75)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The fresh postharvest golden needle mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) sporocarp has a high moisture content and crisp texture, but it still has high physiological activity and respiration, leading to senescence and quality deterioration.  Treatments with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polypropylene (PP) crispers were used to study the changes of lignification and softening of F. velutipes during storage.  The main findings were as follows: the crisper packaging could effectively prolong the storage time of F. velutipes; either the 1-MCP treatment, crisper packaging or the combination of the two treatments could significantly inhibit the accumulation of lignin and the decreases in the contents of cellulose and pectin, and had certain inhibitory effects on the activities of enzymes involved in lignification and softening including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), cellulase (Cx), pectin methylesterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG).  Among them, the inhibitory effect of the crisper packaging was higher than the 1-MCP treatment, while the combination of the two treatments was the best.  The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the crisper packaging in combination with the 1-MCP treatment could effectively maintain the integrity and stability of the F. velutipes cellular structure and inhibit the emergence of plasmolysis to prevent cell membrane rupture.  The transcription levels showed that the crisper packaging and the combination of the 1-MCP treatment and crisper packing could effectively affect the expression of genes for enzymes related to lignification and softening of Fvelutipes.  In conclusion, 1-MCP and PP crispers could delay the lignification and softening of F. velutipes during storage.
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    Effect of harvest time on the chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of Gannan navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck ‘Newhall’) juice
    ZHANG Jun, ZHANG Jing-yi, SHAN You-xia, GUO Can, HE Lian, ZHANG Lin-yan, LING Wei, LIANG Yan, ZHONG Ba-lian
    2022, 21 (1): 261-272.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63395-0
    Abstract111)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The present study investigates the chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of juice from the Gannan navel orange, which is harvested at one- to two-week intervals during the ripening period.  The total soluble solid (TSS), total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), sucrose and hesperidin contents gradually increase with the ripening of the fruit, followed by slight declines at the late maturity stage.  Contrary to these observations, the contents of titratable acid (TA), vitamin C (Vc), and limonin trend downward throughout the ripening period.  However, the contents of fructose, glucose, and narirutin fluctuate throughout the harvest time.  Three in vitro antioxidant assays consistently indicate that the harvest time exerts no significant influence (P>0.01) on the antioxidant capacity.  Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson’s correlation test are performed to provide an overview of the complete dataset. This study provides valuable information for evaluating the fruit quality and determining when to harvest the fruit in order to meet the preferences of consumers.  Meanwhile, our observations suggest that the fruits subjected to juice processing should be harvested at the late maturity stage to alleviate the “delayed bitterness” problem without compromising the antioxidant capacity and the flavonoid content in the juice.
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    Protective effect of high-oleic acid peanut oil and extra-virgin olive oil in rats with diet-induced metabolic syndrome by regulating branched-chain amino acids metabolism
    ZHAO Zhi-hao, SHI Ai-min, GUO Rui, LIU Hong-zhi, HU Hui, WANG Qiang
    2022, 21 (3): 878-891.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63851-0
    Abstract92)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    High-oleic acid peanut oil (HOPO) and extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) have been reported previously to have an attenuating effect on metabolic syndrome (MS).  This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic effect of HOPO and EVOO supplementation in attenuating MS and the role of gut microbiota in regulating the metabolic profile.  Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously fed with a normal diet, high-fructose and high-fat (HFHF) diet, HFHF diet containing HOPO, or a HFHF diet containing EVOO for 12 weeks.  The metabolomics profiles of feces and serum samples were compared using untargeted metabolomics based on UPLC-Q/TOF-MS.  Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify the potential fecal and serum biomarkers from different groups.  Correlation between gut microbiota and biomarkers was assessed, and pathway analysis of serum biomarkers was conducted.  Differences in metabolic patterns in feces and serum were observed among different groups.  There were 8 and 12 potential biomarkers in feces and 15 and 6 potential biomarkers in serum of HOPO group and EVOO group, respectively, suggesting that HOPO and EVOO supplementation mainly altered amino acids, peptides, and their analogs in feces and serum.  The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) biosynthesis pathway was identified as a major pathway regulated by HOPO or EVOO.  This study suggests that HOPO and EVOO supplementation ameliorate diet-induced MS, mainly via modulation of the BCAAs biosynthesis pathway.
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    Comparison of structural and physicochemical properties of potato protein and potato flour modified with tyrosinase
    ZHU Yu, YUAN Yu-han, MEI Li-ping, DING Shuang-kun, GAO Yu-chen, DU Xian-feng, GUO Li
    2022, 21 (5): 1513-1524.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63852-2
    Abstract94)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The present study modified potato protein and flour with tyrosinase to promote the diversification of potato staple foods.  The results indicated that tyrosinase treatment markedly altered the secondary structure of proteins.  After tyrosinase treatment, the maximum decomposition temperature of potato protein and flour increased from 322.32 to 332.40°C and from 294.24 to 299.61°C, respectively.  Tyrosinase treatment remarkably reduced the pasting viscosity of potato flour, that is, the peak viscosity, through reducing viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and setback by 32.50, 60.98, 13.04, 68.24, and 74.31%, respectively.  In contrast, tyrosinase treatment increased the shear resistance and hardness of the protein and flour gels; the maximum stress values of the protein and flour gels increased from 1.48 to 10.1% and from 6.87 to 14.8%, respectively.  Furthermore, tyrosinase treatment promoted viscoelastic properties and structural stability of potato protein and flour.  These results may provide an important foundation for the development of novel potato staple foods.

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    Sodium dehydroacetate treatment prolongs the shelf-life of ‘Kyoho’ grape by regulating oxidative stress and DNA methylation
    GUO Da-long, LIU Hai-nan, WANG Zhen-guang, GUO Li-li, ZHANG Guo-hai
    2022, 21 (5): 1525-1533.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63765-6
    Abstract91)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    In this study, we tested the ability of sodium dehydroacetate (SD) to extend the shelf-life of ‘Kyoho’ grape.  Among the different concentrations of SD tested (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mmol L–1), 0.01 mmol L–1 SD was the most effective in prolonging the shelf-life of ‘Kyoho’ grape.  Compared with the control, the weight loss rate, browning index and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde contents were significantly lower in the 0.01 mmol L–1 SD treatment, whereas the healthy berry rate, berry firmness, total soluble solids (TSS) content, ascorbic acid content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were significantly higher.  In addition, an analysis of ‘Kyoho’ grape DNA using methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) markers showed that the average DNA methylation level was significantly higher in the 0.01 mmol L–1 SD treatment than in the control.  Together, these results indicate that 0.01 mmol L–1 SD could be used to extend the shelf-life of ‘Kyoho’ grape.  Moreover, a strong connection between reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and DNA methylation change during storage was revealed.
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    Identification of peanut oil origins based on Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis methods
    ZHU Peng-fei, YANG Qing-li, ZHAO Hai-yan
    2022, 21 (9): 2777-2785.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.026
    Abstract124)      PDF in ScienceDirect      

    This study aimed to use Raman spectroscopy to identify the producing areas of peanut oil and build a robust discriminant model to further screen out the characteristic spectra closely related to the origin.  Raman spectra of 159 peanut oil samples from different provinces and different cities of the same province were collected.  The obtained data were analyzed by stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA), k-nearest neighbor analysis (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM) and multi-way analysis of variance.  The results showed that the overall recognition rate of samples based on full spectra was higher than 90%.  The producing origin, variety and their interaction influenced Raman spectra of peanut oil significantly, and 1 400–1 500 cm–1 and 1 600–1 700 cm–1 were selected as the characteristic spectra of origin and less affected by variety.  The best classification model established by SLDA combined with characteristic spectra could rapidly and accurately identify peanut oil’s origin.

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    Plant-based meat substitutes by high-moisture extrusion: Visualizing the whole process in data systematically from raw material to the products
    ZHANG Jin-chuang, MENG Zhen, CHENG Qiong-ling, LI Qi-zhai, ZHANG Yu-jie, LIU Li, SHI Ai-min, WANG Qiang
    2022, 21 (8): 2435-2444.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63892-3
    Abstract94)      PDF in ScienceDirect      

    High-moisture extrusion technology should be considered one of the best choices for producing plant-based meat substitutes with the rich fibrous structure offered by real animal meat products.  Unfortunately, the extrusion process has been seen as a “black box” with limited information about what occurs inside, causing serious obstacles in developing meat substitutes.  This study designed a high-moisture extrusion process and developed 10 new plant-based meat substitutes comparable to the fibrous structure of real animal meat.  The study used the Feature-Augmented Principal Component Analysis (FA-PCA) method to visualize and understand the whole extrusion process in three ways systematically and accurately.  It established six sets of mathematical models of the high-moisture extrusion process based on 8 000 pieces of data, including five types of parameters.  The FA-PCA method improved the R2 values significantly compared with the PCA method.  The Way 3 was the best to predict product quality (Z), demonstrating that the gradually molecular conformational changes (Yn´) were critical in controlling the final quality of the plant-based meat substitutes.  Moreover, the first visualization platform software for the high-moisture extrusion process has been established to clearly show the “black box” by combining the virtual simulation technology.  Through the software, some practice work such as equipment installation, parameter adjustment, equipment disassembly, and data prediction can be easily achieved.

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    Effects of grape seed extract on meat color and premature browning of meat patties in high-oxygen packaging
    YANG Xiao-yin, XU Bao-chen, LEI Hong-mei, LUO Xin, ZHU Li-xian, ZHANG Yi-min, MAO Yan-wei, LIANG Rong-rong
    2022, 21 (8): 2445-2455.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63854-6
    Abstract110)      PDF in ScienceDirect      

    This study investigated the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on fresh and cooked meat color and premature browning (PMB) in ground meat patties (85% beef and 15% pork back fat) packaged under high-oxygen modified atmospheres (HiOx-MAP).  The GSE was added to patties at concentrations of 0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 g kg–1.  This study evaluated the surface color, pH, lipid oxidation, and total viable counts (TVC) of raw patties, and the internal color and pH of patties cooked to a temperature of 66 or 71°C over 10-day storage at 4°C.  Compared with the control (0 g kg–1 GSE), GSE improved the color stability (P<0.05) and significantly inhibited the lipid and myoglobin oxidation of raw patties from day 5 to 10, but GSE had no effect (P>0.05) on TVC.  Patties containing 0.50 and 0.75 g kg–1 GSE cooked to 66°C exhibited greater (P<0.05) interior redness than the control and reduced the PMB of cooked patties in the late storage stage.  These results suggested that 0.50 and 0.75 g kg–1 GSE can improve fresh meat color and minimize PMB of HiOx-MAP patties.

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    The metabolomics variations among rice, brown rice, wet germinated brown rice, and processed wet germinated brown rice

    REN Chuan-ying, LU Shu-wen, GUAN Li-jun, HONG Bin, ZHANG Ying-lei, HUANG Wen-gong, LI Bo, LIU Wei, LU Wei-hong
    2022, 21 (9): 2767-2776.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.025
    Abstract98)      PDF in ScienceDirect      

    Germination and processing are always accompanied by significant changes in the metabolic compositions of rice.  In this study, polished rice (rice), brown rice, wet germinated brown rice (WGBR), high temperature and pressure-treated WGBR (WGBR-HTP), and low temperature-treated WGBR (WGBR-T18) were enrolled.  An untargeted metabolomics assay isolated 6 122 positive ions and 4 224 negative ions (multiple difference ≥1.2 or ≤0.8333, P<0.05, and VIP≥1) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrum.  These identified ions were mainly classified into three categories, including the compounds with biological roles, lipids, and phytochemical compounds.  In addition to WGBR-T18 vs. WGBR, massive differential positive and negative ions were revealed between rice of different forms.  Flavonoids, fatty acids, carboxylic acids, and organoxygen compounds were the dominant differential metabolites.  Based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, there 7 metabolic pathways (phenylalanine/tyrosine/tryptophan biosynthesis, histidine metabolism, betalain biosynthesis, C5-branched dibasic acid metabolism, purine metabolism, zeatin biosynthesis, and carbon metabolism) were determined between brown rice and rice.  Germination changed the metabolic pathways of porphyrin and chlorophyll, pyrimidine, and purine metabolisms in brown rice.  In addition, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and arachidonic acid metabolism were differential metabolic pathways between WGBR-HTP and WGBR-T18.  To sum up, there were obvious variations in metabolic compositions of rice, brown rice, WGBR, and WGBR-HTP.  The changes of specific metabolites, such as flavonoids contributed to the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and immunomodulatory effects of GBR.  HTP may further improve the nutrition and storage of GBR through influencing specific metabolites, such as flavonoids and fatty acids.

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