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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2023, Vol. 22 Issue (2): 400-416    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.08.064
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Increasing the appropriate seedling density for higher yield in dry direct-seeded rice sown by a multifunctional seeder after wheat-straw return
TIAN Jin-yu1, LI Shao-ping1, CHENG Shuang1, LIU Qiu-yuan2, ZHOU Lei1, TAO Yu1, XING Zhi-peng1, HU Ya-jie1, GUO Bao-wei1, WEI Hai-yan1, ZHANG Hong-cheng1#br#
1 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Physiology/Innovation Center of Rice Cultivation Technology in Yangtze Valley, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, P.R.China
2 Agricultural College, Xinyang Agriculture and Forestry University, Xinyang 464000, P.R.China
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摘要  多功能机械旱直播水稻因其高效、经济和绿色等特点受到越来越多的关注,然而这类水稻在麦秸秆还田后由于其生长受到约束会导致减产。为此于2016和2018年在典型稻麦轮作区选取代表性优质水稻品种和多功能机械开展田间试验,设置基本苗100、190、280、370和460 m−2(分别为B1、B2、B3、B4和B5)5个处理,研究基本苗对多功能机械旱直播水稻产量和光合物质生产的影响。结果表明,随着基本苗的增加,主茎成穗占有效穗的比例呈增加趋势,产量呈先增后减的趋势,以B3产量最高(9.34−9.47 t ha−1),主要是其提高了群体总颖花量和抽穗到成熟阶段的生物量积累。与低基本苗处理(B1和B2)相比,B3较高的总颖花量与其穗数的增加有关。高基本苗处理下(B4和B5)的穗数也相对增加,但拔节到抽穗阶段较低的单株生物量、叶面积和含氮量导致其较小的穗型未能高产。与其他基本苗处理相比,B3抽穗到成熟阶段具有较高的生物量积累主要由于提高了群体顶三叶的光合速率、群体生长率、净同化率和叶面积指数。B3群体还表现出较高的粒叶比、较低的茎鞘输出率和转运率。通过一元二次方程拟合得出260−290 m−2是本研究条件下水稻获得高产的最佳基本苗。因此,适当增加基本苗,提高主茎穗占有效穗的比例,通过足量的主茎穗数产出较高的群体颖花量和生物量是麦秸还田后多功能机械旱直播水稻获得高产的有效途径。

Abstract  Dry direct-seeded rice (DDR) sown using a multifunctional seeder that performs synchronous rotary tillage and sowing has received increased attention because it is highly efficient, relatively cheap, and environmentally friendly.  However, this method of rice production may produce lower yields in a rice–wheat rotation system because of its poor seedling establishment.  To address this problem, we performed field experiments to determine the rice yield at five seedling density levels (B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5=100, 190, 280, 370, and 460 seedlings m−2, respectively) and clarify the physiological basis of yield formation.  We selected a representative high-quality rice variety and a multifunctional seeder that used in a typical rice–wheat rotation area in 2016 and 2018.  The proportion of main stem panicle increased with increasing seedling density.  There was a parabolic relationship between yield and seedling density, and the maximum yield (9.34−9.47 t ha−1) was obtained under B3.  The maximum yield was associated with a higher total spikelet number m−2 and greater biomass accumulation from heading to maturity.  The higher total spikelet number m−2 under B3 was attributed to an increase in panicle number m−2 compared with B1 and B2.  Although the panicle numbers also increased under B4 and B5, these increases were insufficient to compensate for the reduced spikelet numbers per panicle.  Lower biomass, smaller leaf area, and lower N uptake per plant from the stem elongation stage to the heading stage were partially responsible for the smaller panicle size at higher seedling density levels such as B5.  The higher biomass accumulation under B3 was ascribed to the increases in the photosynthetic rate of the top three leaves m−2 of land, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, and leaf area index.  Furthermore, the B3 rice population was marked by a higher grain–leaf ratio, as well as a lower export ratio and transport ratio of biomass per stem-sheath.  A quadratic function predicted that 260−290 seedlings m−2 is the optimum seedling density for achieving maximum yield.  Together, these results suggested that appropriately increasing the seedling density, and thereby increasing the proportion of panicles formed by the main stem, is an effective approach for obtaining a higher yield in DDR sown using a multifunctional seeder in a rice–wheat rotation system.

Keywords:  seedling density        dry direct-seeded rice sown by multifunctional seeder       rice-wheat rotation system        yield       biomass        photosynthetic capacity  
Received: 27 September 2021   Accepted: 10 November 2021
Fund: We are grateful for grants from the Jiangsu Agriculture Science and Technology Innovation Fund, China (CX(20)1012), the Jiangsu Demonstration Project of Modern Agricultural Machinery Equipment and Technology, China (NJ2020-58), the Jiangsu Technical System of Rice Industry, China (JATS[2020]432), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0300503), the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-01-27), and the Yangzhou University Scientific Research and Innovation Program, China (XKYCX20_022).
About author:  TIAN Jin-yu, Mobile: +86-18252731961, E-mail:; Correspondence ZHANG Hong-cheng, E-mail:

Cite this article: 

TIAN Jin-yu, LI Shao-ping, CHENG Shuang, LIU Qiu-yuan, ZHOU Lei, TAO Yu, XING Zhi-peng, HU Ya-jie, GUO Bao-wei, WEI Hai-yan, ZHANG Hong-cheng. 2023. Increasing the appropriate seedling density for higher yield in dry direct-seeded rice sown by a multifunctional seeder after wheat-straw return. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 22(2): 400-416.

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