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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2021, Vol. 20 Issue (1): 260-273    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63283-X
Special Issue: 农业生态环境-灌溉合辑Agro-ecosystem & Environment—Irrigation
Agro-ecosystem & Environment Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Optimization of water and nitrogen management for surge-root irrigated apple trees in the Loess Plateau of China
DAI Zhi-guang1, 2, FEI Liang-jun1, ZENG Jian1, HUANG De-liang1, LIU Teng1 
1 Institute of Water Resources Research, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048, P.R.China
2 School of Hydraulic and Ecological Engineering, Nanchang Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330099, P.R.China
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黄土高原是中国苹果树种植的主要区域,长期以来,缺水和肥料利用效率低下严重制约着当地苹果产业的发展。采用田间试验的方法,于2017和2018年苹果树物候期内,设置3个土壤含水率梯度:90–75%θf(θf为田间持水量)、75–60%θf和60–45%θf;5个施氮水平:0.7、0.6、0.5、0.4和0.3 kg/株,共15个处理。结果表明:在2017和2018年,苹果树叶面积指数(LAI)、产量、水分利用效率(WUE)以及氮肥偏生产力(NPFP)的水氮耦合效应明显,灌水量和施氮量对苹果树LAI、产量、WUE以及NPFP的影响均达到显著水平(P<0.05),而水氮交互作用的影响在2018年达到了显著水平(P<0.05),而在2017年影响不显著。土壤含水率相同时,随着施氮量的增加,WUE先增加后降低,NPFP逐渐下降,而施氮量对苹果树LAI的影响与土壤含水率梯度密切相关。施氮量相同时,随着灌水量的增加,苹果树LAI逐渐增加,WUE和NPFP先增加后减小,而施氮量对苹果树产量的影响与土壤含水率梯度密切相关。通过苹果树水氮效应的二次回归分析表明,苹果树产量,WUE以及NPFP并不能同时达到最大。综合考虑水氮耦合效应对苹果树产量,WUE以及NPFP影响,土壤含水率梯度为75–60%θf和施氮量为0.45 kg/株的组合可作为黄土高原地区苹果树产量、WUE和NPFP综合效益最大化的水氮管理策略。

The Loess Plateau is one of the main regions for growing apple trees in China, but a shortage of water resources and low utilization of nitrogen have restricted its agricultural development.  A 2-year field experiment was conducted which included three levels of soil water content (SWC), 90–75%, 75–60%, and 60–45% of field capacity, and five levels of nitrogen application (Napp), 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.3 kg/plant.  The treatments were arranged in a strip-plot design with complete randomized blocks with three replications.  For both years, the water and Napp had significant (P<0.05) effects on leaf area index (LAI), yield, water use efficiency (WUE) and nitrogen partial factor productivity (NPFP) while the interaction effect of water and Napp on yield, WUE and NPFP was significant (P<0.05) in 2018, and not in 2017.  For the same SWC level, WUE first increased, then decreased as Napp increased, while NPFP tended to decrease, but the trend of LAI with different Napp was closely related to SWC.  At the same Napp, the LAI increased as SWC increased, while the WUE and NPFP first increased, then decreased, but the yield showed different trends as the SWC increased.  The dualistic and quadric regression equations of water and Napp indicate that the yield, WUE and NPFP cannot reach the maximum at the same time.  Considering the coupling effects of water and Napp on yield, WUE and NPFP in 2017 and 2018, the SWC level shall be controlled in 75–60% of field capacity and the Napp is 0.45 kg/plant, which can be as the suitable strategy of water and Napp management for the maximum comprehensive benefits of yield, WUE and NPFP for apple trees in the Loess Plateau and other regions with similar environments. 
Keywords:  surge-root irrigation        yield        water use efficiency        nitrogen partial factor productivity  
Received: 14 January 2020   Accepted:
Fund: This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC0400204), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51479161 and 51279157) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province of China (20192BAB216037).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence FEI Liang-jun, Mobile: +86-13186181693, E-mail:   
About author:  DAI Zhi-guang, Mobile: +86-18146706336, E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

DAI Zhi-guang, FEI Liang-jun, ZENG Jian, HUANG De-liang, LIU Teng. 2021. Optimization of water and nitrogen management for surge-root irrigated apple trees in the Loess Plateau of China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(1): 260-273.

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