Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2017, Vol. 16 Issue (04): 762-773    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(16)61450-8
Review Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Recognizing production options for pearl millet in Pakistan under changing climate scenarios
Asmat Ullah1, 2, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Tasneem Khaliq1, Javaid Akhtar3

1 Agro-climatology Laboratory, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan

2 Directorate of Agronomy, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad 38850, Pakistan

3 Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan

Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract  Climate change is making the lands a harsher environment all over the world including Pakistan.  It is expected to oppose us with three main challenges: increase in temperature up to 2–5°C (heat stress), increasing water stress and severe malnourishment due to climate change.  It has been foreseen that there will be a 10% increase of dryland areas with climate change in the world, with more variability and incidences of short periods of extreme events (drought and heat stress).  Pearl millet is a hardy, climate smart grain crop, idyllic for environments prone to drought and heat stresses.  The crop continues to produce highly nutritious grain sustainably, thereby encouraging the fight against poverty and food insecurity due to its resilience.  The crop is more responsive to good production options (planting time, planting density, inter/intra row spacing, nitrogen application and irrigation).  It has high crop growth rate, large leaf area index and high radiation use efficiency that confers its high potential yield.  In most of the cases, pearl millet is remained our agricultural answer to the climate calamity that we are facing, because it is selected as water saving, drought tolerant and climate change complaint crop.  In view of circumstances, pearl millet cultivation must be retrieved by recognizing production options in context to changing climate scenarios of Pakistan using crop modeling techniques.
Keywords:  pearl millet      production options      climate change      nitrogen use efficiency      radiation use efficiency  
Received: 29 April 2016   Accepted:
Corresponding Authors:  Asmat Ullah, Tel: +92-300-6762658, E-mail:   

Cite this article: 

Asmat Ullah, Ashfaq Ahmad, Tasneem Khaliq, Javaid Akhtar. 2017. Recognizing production options for pearl millet in Pakistan under changing climate scenarios. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 16(04): 762-773.

Ahmad A, Ashfaq M, Rasul G, Wajid S A, Khaliq T, Rasul F, Saeed U, Habib-ur-Rahman M, Hussain J, Baig I A, Naqvi S A A, Bokhari S A A, Ahmad S, Naseem W, Hoogenboom G, Valdivia R O. 2015. Impact of Climate Change on the Rice-Wheat Cropping System of Pakistan, Climate Change Impact, Adaptation and Mitigation. Imperial College Press, London. pp. 219–258.
Akponikpe P B I, Gerard B, Michels K, Beilders C. 2010. Use of APSIM model in long term simulation to support decision making regarding nitrogen management for pearl millet in Sahel. European Journal of Agronomy, 32, 144–154.
Ali E A. 2010. Grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of pearl millet as affected for plant density, nitrogen rate and splitting in sandy soil. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences, 7, 327–335. 
Ali M A M, El Tinay A H, Abdalla A H. 2003. Effect of fermentation on the in vitro protein digestibility of pearl millet. Food Chemistry, 80, 51–54.
Ali M A M, El Tinay H, Mallasy L O, Yagoub A E A. 2010. Supplementation of pearl millet flour with soybean protein: Effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility and essential amino acids composition. International Journal of Food Sciences and Technology, 45, 740–744.
Ayub M, Nadeem M A, Tanveer A, Tahir M, Khan R M A. 2007. Interactive effect of different nitrogen levels and seeding rates on fodder yield and quality of pearl millet. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 44, 592–596.
Azam A, Gregory S N, Montecito J L. 1984. Effect of planting density on water use and productivity of pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) growing on stored water. I. Growth of roots and shoots. Experimental Agriculture, 20, 203–214.
Barnabas B, Jager K, Feher A. 2008. The effect of drought and heat stress on reproductive processes in cereals. Plant Cell Environment, 31, 11–38.
Begue A, Desprat J F, Imbernon J, Baret F. 1991. Radiation use efficiency of pearl millet in the Sahelian zone. Agricultural Forest and Meteorology, 56, 93–110.
Ben Mohamed A, Van Duivenbooden N, Abdoussallam S. 2002. Impact of climate change on agricultural production in the Sahel - Part 1. Methodological approach and case study for millet in Niger. Climatic Change, 54, 327–348.
Berg A, de Noblet-Ducoudre N, Sultan B, Lengaigne M, Guimberteau M. 2013. Projections of climate change impacts on potential crop productivity over tropical regions. Agricultural Forest and Meteorology, 170, 89–102.
Bhowmik S K, Sarkar M A R, Zaman F. 2012. Effect of spacing and number of seedlings per hill on the performance of Australian rice cv. NERICA 1 under dry direct seeded rice (DDSR) system of cultivation. Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University, 10, 191–195.
Brar M S, Bijay-Singh, Bansal S K, Srinivasarao C. 2011. Role of potassium nutrition in nitrogen use efficiency in cereals.  In: Optimizing Crop Nutrition. The International Potash Institute, Switzerland.
Carberry P S, Campbell C C, Bidinger F R. 1985. The growth and development of pearl millet as affected by plant population. Field Crops Research, 11, 193–205.
Cassman K G, Dobermann A, Walters D. 2002. Agroecosystems, nitrogen-use efficiency and nitrogen management. AMBIO, 31, 132–140.
Christensen J H, Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt K B, Tignor M, Miller H L. 2007. Regional climate projections climate change 2007: The physical science basis. In: Contribution of Working Group I to the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Craufurd P Q, Bidinger F R. 1988a. Effect of the duration of the vegetative phase on crop growth, development and yield in two contrasting pearl millet hybrids. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 110, 71–79.
Craufurd P Q, Bidinger F R. 1988b. Effect of the duration of the vegetative phase on shoot growth, development and yield in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke). Journal of Experimental Botany, 39, 124–139.
Dixon J L, Stringer L C. 2015. Towards a theoretical grounding of climate resilience assessments for smallholder farming systems in sub-saharan Africa. Resources, 4, 128–154.
Van Duivenbooden N, Abdousallam S, Ben Mohamed A. 2002. Impact of climate change on agricultural production in the Sahel - Part 2. Case study for groundnut and cowpea in Niger. Climatic Change, 54, 349–368.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 1978. Agro-ecological zones. In: Methodology and Results for Africa. FAO, Rome. pp. 15–35.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 1995. Sorghum and Millets in Human Nutrition. FAO, Rome, Italy.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2015. FAOSTAT, Statistical Databases, United Nations, Rome [2015-05-19]. Database on Agriculture
Gascho G J, Menezes R S C, Hanna W W, Hubbard R K, Wilson J P. 1995. Nutrient requirements of pearl millet. In: Proceedings of the First National Grain Pearl Millet Symposium. 17–18 January. Canadian Centre of Science and Education, Georgia.
GOP (Government of Pakistan). 2015. Economic Survey of Pakistan. Ministry of Finance, Pakistan. p. 21.
Heiniger R W, Vanderlip R L, Williams J R, Welch S W. 1997. Developing guidelines for replanting grain sorghum: III.  Using a plant growth model to determine replanting options. Agronomy Journal, 89, 93–100.
Henson I E, Mahaklakshmi V. 1985. Evidence for panicle control of stomatal behavior in water-stressed plants of pearl millet. Field Crops Research, 11, 281–290.
Hoogenboom G, Jones J W, Wilkens P W, Porter C H, Boote K J, Hunt L A, Singh U, Lizaso J I, White J W, Uryasev O, Ogoshi R, Koo J, Shelia V, Tsuji G Y. 2015. Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT).  DSSAT Foundation, Prosser, Washington.
Hulse J H, Laing E M, Pearson O E. 1980. Sorghum and the Millets: Their Composition and Nutritive Value. Academic Press, New York. pp. 1–997.
ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics). 2016. Pearl millet. [2016-01-20]. 2016
Jukanti A K, Gowda C L L, Rai K N, Manga V K, Bhatt R K. 2016. Crops that feed the world 11. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.): An important source of food security, nutrition and health in the arid and semi-arid tropics. Food Security, 8, 307–329.
Keating B A, Carberry P S, Hammer G L. 2003. An overview of APSIM, a model designed for farming systems simulation. European Journal of Agronomy, 18, 267–288.
Khairwal I S, Rai K N, Diwakar B, Sharma Y K, Rajpurohit B S, Bindu N, Ranjana B. 2007. Growth and Development of Pearl Millet Plant. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics, Andhra Pradesh, India. p. 104.
Knox J, Hess T, Daccache A, Wheeler T. 2012. Climate change impacts on crop productivity in Africa and South Asia. Research Letters, 7, 34–32.
Kroes J G, van Dam J C, Huygen J, Vervoort R W. 1999. Simulation of Water Flow, Solute Transport and Plant Growth in the Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant Environment, Technical Document 53. DLOW in and Staring Centre, Wageningen.
Legwaila G M, Mathowa T, Makopola P, Mpofu C, Mojeremane W. 2014. The growth and development of two pearl millet landraces as affected by intra-row spacing. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3, 505–515.
Maas A L, Hanna W W, Mullinix B G. 2007. Planting date and row spacing affects grain yield and height of pearl millet Tifgrain 102 in the Southeastern coastal plain of the United States. Journal of SAT Agricultural Research, 5, 1–4.
Magen H, Nosov V. 2008. Putting potassium in the picture: Achieving improved nitrogen use efficiency. In: IPI-BFA-BRRI International Workshop on Balanced Fertilization for Increasing and Sustaining Productivity. 30 March–1 April 2008. Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Maman N, Lyon D J, Mason S C, Galusha T D, Higgins R. 2003. Pearl millet and grain sorghum yield response to water supply in Nebraska. Agronomy Journal, 95, 1618–1624.
Maman N, Mason S C, Galusha T D, Clegg M D. 1999. Hybrid and nitrogen influence on pearl millet production in Nebraska: Yield, growth, and nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency. Agronomy Journal, 91, 737–743.
Mangant B K, Maiti R K, Khairwal I S.1999. Pearl millet biology. In: Khairwal I S, Rai K N, Andrews D J, Harinarayana G, eds., Pearl Millet Breeding New Delhi. Oxford & IBH Publishing, India. pp. 1–2.
Miah M H N, Karim M A, Islam M S. 1990. Performance of Nizer sail mutants under different row spacings. Bangladesh Journal of Training and Development, 3, 31–34.
MNI (Millet Network of India). 2016. Millet in India. [2016-03-24].
Muchow R C. 1985. An analysis of effects of water deficits on grain grown in a semi-arid tropical environment in terms of radiation interception and its efficiency of use. Field Crops Research, 11, 309–323.
Muchow R C. 1989. Comparative productivity of maize, sorghum and pearl millet in semi-arid tropical environment. I. Yield potential. Field Crops Research, 20, 191–205.
Nagaz K, Toumi I, Mahjoub I, Masmoudi M M, Mechlia N B. 2009. Yield and water-use efficiency of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) under deficit irrigation with saline water in arid conditions of Southern Tunisia. Research Journal of Agronomy, 3, 9–17.
Ndiku M H, Jara E, Sabate J. 2014. Formative research on acceptability of pearl millet in rural eastern Kenya - A pilot study. Sustainable Agriculture Research, 3, 1–8.
Nedumaran S, Abinaya P, Bantilan M C S. 2013. Sorghum and Millets Futures in Asia Under Changing Socio-Economic and Climatic Scenarios. ICRISAT Socio-Economic Discussion Paper Series. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics, Patancheru, India. p. 20.
Obeng E, Cebert E, Singh B P, Ward R, Nyochembeng L M, Mays D A. 2012. Growth and grain yield of pearl millet genotypes at different levels of nitrogen fertilization in the southern east United States. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4, 155–163.
O’Leary G J, Joshi N L, van Oosterom E J. 2008. A simulation study of the response of plant-type and nitrogen fertilization on the grain yield of pearl millet. Annals of Arid Zone, 47, 121–137.
Ong C K, Monteith J L. 1985. Response of pearl millet to light and temperature. Field Crops Research, 11, 141–160.
Van Oosterom E J, O’Leary G J, Carberry P S, Craufurd P Q. 2002. Simulation growth, development and and yield of tillering pearl millet. III. Biomass accumulation and partitioning. Field Crops Research, 79, 85–106.
Van Oosterom E J, Whitaker M L, Weltzien R E. 1996. Integrating genotype by environment interaction analysis, characterization of drought patterns, and farmer preferences to identify adaptive plant traits in pearl millet. In: Cooper M, Hammer G L, eds., Plant Adaptation and Crop Improvement. CAB International, Wallingford. pp. 383–402.
Parameswaran K, Sadasivam S. 1994. Changes in the carbohydrates and nitrogenous components during germination of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum). Plant Foods and Human Nutrition, 45, 97–102.
Payne W A. 1997. Managing yield and soil water use of pearl millet in the Sahel. Agronomy Journal, 89, 481–490.
Payne W A, Wendt C W, Lascano R J. 1990. Root zone water balances of three low-input millet fields in Niger, West Africa. Agronomy Journal, 82, 813–819.
Ragaee S, Abdel-Aal E M, Noaman M. 2006. Antioxidant activity and nutrient composition of selected cereals for food use. Food Chemistry, 98, 32–38.
Ram N, Sheoran K, Sastry C V S. 1999. Radiation efficiency and its efficiency in dry biomass production of pearl millet cultivars. Annals of Agricultural Research, 20, 286–291.
Reddy M S, Willey R W. 1981. Growth and resource use studies in an intercrop of pearl millet/groundnut. Field Crops Research, 4, 13–24.
Resilience Alliance. 2015. Assessing resilience in social-ecological systems: Workbook for practitioners. ver. 2.0. [2015-01-27].
Rezaei E E, Gaiser T, Siebert S, Sultan B, Ewert F. 2014. Combined effect of climate and nutrient fertilization on yields of pearl millet in Niger. European Journal of Agronomy, 55, 77–88.
Rijsberman F. 2014. Global alliance for climate smart agriculture. [2016-02-26].
Ritchie J T, Alagarswamy G. 1989. Simulation of sorghum and pearl millet phenology. In: Virmani S M, Tandon H L S, Alagarswamy G, eds., Modeling the Growth and Development of Sorghum and Pearl Millet Research Bulletin No. 12. ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics), Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India. pp. 24–26.
Ritchie J T, Singh U, Godwin D C, Bowen W T. 1998. Cereal growth, development and yield. In: Tsuji G Y, Hoogenboom G, Thornton P K, eds., Understanding Options for Agricultural Production. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherland. pp. 79–98.
Saleh A S M, Qing Z, Jing C, Qun S. 2013. Millet grains: nutritional quality, processing and potential health benefits. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 12, 281–295.
Samra J S, Sharma P D. 2011. Food security - Indian scenario. In: Brar M S, Mukhopadhyaya S S, eds., Potassium Role and Benefits in Improving Nutrient Management for Food Production, Quality and Reduced Environmental Damages. The International Potash Institute, Orissa, India. pp. 15–43.
Sanon M, Hoogenboom G, Traoré S B, Sarr B, Garcia A, Some L, Roncoli C. 2014. Photoperiod sensitivity of local pearl millet and sorghum varieties in West Africa. NJAS-Wegeningen Journal of Life Sciences, 68, 29–39.
Schmidhuber J, Tubiello F N. 2007. Global food security under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 19703–19708.
Shaw S, van de Westelaken T, Sorrenson I, Searle B, Hederley D. 2008. Effects of plant population and planting date on growth and development of kumara cultivar Owairaka Red. Agronomy New Zealand, 38, 61–68.
Sinclair T R, Muchow R C. 1999. Radiation use efficiency. Advances in Agronomy, 65, 215–265.
Singh B R, Singh D P. 1995. Agronomic and physiological responses of sorghum, maize and pearl millet to irrigation. Field Crops Research, 42, 57–67.
Singh K P, Mishra A, Mishra H N. 2012. Fuzzy analysis of sensory attributes of bread prepared from millet-based composite flours. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 48, 276–282.
Singh P, Raghuvanshi R S. 2012. Finger millet for food and nutritional security. African Journal of Food Sciences, 6, 77–84.
Singh R, Singh D P, Tyagi P K. 2003. Effect of azotobacter, farmyard manure and nitrogen fertilization on productivity of pearl millet hybrids (Pennisetum glaucum) in semi-arid tropical environment. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 49, 21–24.
Sneider J L, Raper R L, Schwab E B. 2012. The effect of row spacing and seeding rate on biomass production and plant stand characteristics of non-irrigated photoperiod sensitive sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Industrial Crops and Products, 37, 527–535.
SNRC/NAS (United States National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences). 1982. United States-Canadian Tables of Feed Composition. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
Soler C M T, Maman N, Zhang X, Mason S C, Hoogenboom G. 2008. Determining optimum planting dates for pearl millet for two contrasting environments using a modelling approach. Journal of Agricultural Science, 146, 445–459.
Sowers K E, Pan W L, Miller B C, Smith J L. 1994. Nitrogen use efficiency of split nitrogen application in soft white winter wheat. Agronomy Journal, 86, 942–948.
Squire G R. 1979. The response of the stomata of pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides S. and H.) to atmospheric humidity. Journal of Experimental Botany, 30, 925–933.
Squire G R, Gregory P J, Marhsall B, Terry A C, Monteith J L. 1984a. Response of temperature in a stand of pearl millet. VI. Light interception and dry matter production. Journal of Experimental Botany, 35, 599–610.
Squire G R, Gregory P J, Monteith J L, Russel M B, Sigh P. 1984b. Control of water use by pearl millet (Penisetum typhoides). Experimental Agriculture, 20, 135–149.
Squire G R, Marshall B, Ong C K. 1986. Development and growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoid) in response to water supply and demand. Experimental Agriculture, 22, 289–299.
Srinivasarao C. 2010. Analyzing nitrogen use efficiency in relation to potassium in long-term manurial trials in dryland agriculture. In: IPIFAI Round Table Discussion on “Analyzing Nutrient Use Efficiency in Relation to Potassium”. Fertilizer Association of India, New Delhi 9-6-2010, New Delhi.
Staggenborg S A, Fjell D L, Devlin D L, Gordon W B, Marsh B H. 1999. Grain sorghum response to row spacings and seeding rates in Kansas. Journal of Production Agriculture, 12, 390–395.
Stockle C O, Marcello D, Roger N. 2003. CropSyst, a cropping system simulation model. European Journal of Agronomy, 18, 289–307.
Sultan B, Roudier P, Quirion P, Alhassane A, Muller B, Dingkuhn M, Ciais P, Guimberteau M, Traore S, Baron C. 2013. Assessing climate change impacts on sorghum and millets yields in Sudanian and Sahelian savannas of West Africa. Environmental Research Letters, 8, 1–9.
Supit I, Hooijer A A, van Diepen C A. 1994. System description of the WOFOST 6.0 crop simulation model implemented in CGMS. In: Theory and Algorithms. vol. 1. Joint Research Centre, Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Tingem M, Rivington M. 2009. Adaptation for crop agriculture to climate change in Cameroon: Turning on the heat. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 14, 153–168.
Ullah A, Ahmad A, Hussain F, Khaliq T, Saeed U, Rahman M H, Ghaffar A, Ahmad I, Tahir G M. 2016. Optimizing planting time to sustain productivity of pearl millet hybrids under arid climate. [2016-04-05].
USDA/HNIS (United States Department of Agriculture / Human Nutrition Information Service). 1984. Composition of foods. In: Cereal Grains and Pasta. Agriculture Handbook No. 8–20. Washington, D.C.
Uppal R K, Wani S P, Garg K K, Alagarswamy G. 2015. Balance nutrition increases yield of pearl millet under drought. Field Crop Research, 177, 86–97.
Vadez V. 2014. Root hydraulics: The forgotten side of roots in drought adaptation. Field Crops Research, 165, 15–24.
Vadez V, Hash T, Bidinger F R, Kholova J. 2012. II.1.5 Phenotyping pearl millet for adaptation to drought. Frontiers in Physiology, 3, 386.
Wani S P, Zambre M A, Lee K K. 1990. Genotypic diversity in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) for nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium use efficiencies. Plant Nutrition, 41, 595–601.
Yadav A K, Arya R K, Narwal M S. 2014. Screening of pearl millet F1 hybrids for heat tolerance at early seedling stage. Journal of Advances in Agriculture, 2014, 1–17.
Yadav S B, Patel H R, Lunagaria M M, Parmar P K, Chaudhari N J, Karande B I, Pandey V. 2013. Impact assessment of projected climate change on pearl millet in Gujrat. In: National Seminar on Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources Systems. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics, India. pp. 33–38.
[1] XIAN Xiao-qing, ZHAO Hao-xiang, GUO Jian-yang, ZHANG Gui-fen, LIU Hui, LIU Wan-xue, WAN Fang-hao. Estimation of the potential geographical distribution of a new potato pest (Schrankia costaestrigalis) in China under climate change[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(8): 2441-2455.
[2] FAN Ting-lu, LI Shang-zhong, ZHAO Gang, WANG Shu-ying, ZHANG Jian-jun, WANG Lei, DANG Yi, CHENG Wan-li. Response of dryland crops to climate change and drought-resistant and water-suitable planting technology: A case of spring maize[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(7): 2067-2079.
[3] PAN Song, PENG De-liang, LI Ying-mei, CHEN Zhi-jie, ZHAI Ying-yan, LIU Chen, HONG Bo. Potential global distribution of the guava root-knot nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii under different climate change scenarios using MaxEnt ecological niche modeling[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(7): 2138-2150.
[4] WANG Xin-yu, YANG Guo-dong, XU Le, XIANG Hong-shun, YANG Chen, WANG Fei, PENG Shao-bing. Grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of an ultrashort-duration variety grown under different nitrogen and seeding rates in direct-seeded and double-season rice in Central China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(4): 1009-1020.
[5] Sunusi Amin ABUBAKAR, Abdoul Kader Mounkaila HAMANI, WANG Guang-shuai, LIU Hao, Faisal MEHMOOD, Abubakar Sadiq ABDULLAHI, GAO Yang, DUAN Ai-wang. Growth and nitrogen productivity of drip-irrigated winter wheat under different nitrogen fertigation strategies in the North China Plain[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(3): 908-922.
[6] ZHOU Qun, YUAN Rui, ZHANG Wei-yang, GU Jun-fei, LIU Li-jun, ZHANG Hao, WANG Zhi-qin, YANG Jian-chang. Grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and physiological performance of indica/japonica hybrid rice in response to various nitrogen rates[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(1): 63-79.
[7] Oluwaseyi Samuel OLANREWAJU, Olubukola Oluranti BABALOLA. The rhizosphere microbial complex in plant health: A review of interaction dynamics[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(8): 2168-2182.
[8] TIAN Chang, SUN Ming-xue, ZHOU Xuan, LI Juan, XIE Gui-xian, YANG Xiang-dong, PENG Jian-wei. Increase in yield and nitrogen use efficiency of double rice with long-term application of controlled-release urea[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(7): 2106-2118.
[9] ZHU Kuan-yu, YAN Jia-qian, SHEN Yong, ZHANG Wei-yang, XU Yun-ji, WANG Zhi-qin, YANG Jian-chang. Deciphering the morpho–physiological traits for high yield potential in nitrogen efficient varieties (NEVs): A japonica rice case study[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(4): 947-963.
[10] HUANG Li-ying, Li Xiao-xiao, ZHANG Yun-bo, Shah FAHAD, WANG Fei. dep1 improves rice grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency simultaneously by enhancing nitrogen and dry matter translocation[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(11): 3185-3198.
[11] ZHAO Can, HUANG Heng, QIAN Zi-hui, JIANG Heng-xin, LIU Guang-ming, XU Ke, HU Ya-jie, DAI Qi-gen, HUO Zhong-yang. Effect of side deep placement of nitrogen on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of single season late japonica rice[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(6): 1487-1502.
[12] SU Zheng-e, LIU Zhi-juan, BAI Fan, ZHANG Zhen-tao, SUN Shuang, HUANG Qiu-wan, LIU Tao, LIU Xiao-qing, YANG Xiao-guang. Cultivar selection can increase yield potential and resource use efficiency of spring maize to adapt to climate change in Northeast China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(2): 371-382.
[13] YAO Feng-mei, LI Qin-ying, ZENG Rui-yun, SHI Si-qi. Effects of different agricultural treatments on narrowing winter wheat yield gap and nitrogen use efficiency in China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(2): 383-394.
[14] LI Guang-hao, CHENG Gui-gen, LU Wei-ping, LU Da-lei. Differences of yield and nitrogen use efficiency under different applications of slow release fertilizer in spring maize[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(2): 554-564.
[15] ZHU Cong-hua, OUYANG Yu-yuan, DIAO You, YU Jun-qi, LUO Xi, ZHENG Jia-guo, LI Xu-yi. Effects of mechanized deep placement of nitrogen fertilizer rate and type on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency in Chuanxi Plain, China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(2): 581-592.
No Suggested Reading articles found!