Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2024, Vol. 57 ›› Issue (2): 363-378.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2024.02.011

• FOOD SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Metabolomic Analysis of Canarium album Fresh Food Quality Differences Based on Sensory Evaluation

XIE Qian(), JIANG Lai, DING MingYue, LIU LingLing, CHEN QingXi()   

  1. College of Horticulture, Fujian Agricultural and Forest University, Fuzhou 350002
  • Received:2023-07-17 Accepted:2023-10-09 Online:2024-01-16 Published:2024-01-19
  • Contact: CHEN QingXi


【Objective】 This study aimed to identify key metabolites that influence the quality of fresh Chinese olives and to investigate the metabolic mechanisms underlying quality differences. 【Method】 Four Chinese olive varieties were selected as test materials, with Huiyuan as the topgrafting rootstock. The quality of the fruits was evaluated through sensory evaluation. Metabolite identification and analysis of the KEGG pathway were conducted using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), and the metabolic changes during the ripening process of the fruits were investigated too.【Result】 The results of sensory evaluation of four varieties (lines) of Chinese olive fruits showed significant differences in quality. Tianlan No.1 and Dongshan Changsui exhibited good quality, while Huiyuan and Ziyang No.1 had poor quality. A total of 651 metabolites belonging to 15 types were identified in the Chinese olive fruits of the four varieties (lines). Among these, 277 were primary metabolites of 6 types, and 365 were secondary metabolites of 9 types. Using variable projection and multiple differences, 26 characteristic differential metabolites that influence the quality of fresh Chinese olives were screened. These metabolites included amino acids and their derivatives (6), organic acids (2), lipids (2), and phenolic compounds (16). The phenolic compounds consisted of phenolic acids (3), flavonoids (3), flavonols (2), flavanols (3), and hydrolyzed tannins (5). A metabolic network were established based on the ripening process of Chinese olives to explain the differences in fresh food quality. Chinese olives with good fresh food quality showed a higher accumulation in the biosynthetic metabolic pathway of L-Asparagine and N, N-dimethylglycine, which influenced the taste of fresh food and its resilience. On the other hand, Chinese olives with poor fresh food quality exhibited relatively high levels of hydrolyzed tannins (digalloylchebuloylglucose, galloyl methyl gallate, heterophylliin A), flavonol [morin-3-O-xyloside, quercetin-3-O-(6′-galloyl], Flavan-3-ol [7-O-galloyltricetiflavan, catechin - (7,8-bc) -4α- (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) - dihydro-2-(3H)-one, catechin-(7,8-bc)-4β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-dihydro-2-(3h)-one] in the synthesis pathway, which influenced the taste of fresh food and contributed to its bitter taste. 【Conclusion】 The differences in fresh quality of different olives were closely related to the accumulation differences in amino acid and its derivative synthesis pathways, as well as the synthesis pathways of hydrolyzed tannins, flavanols, and flavan-3-ol during their ripening process.

Key words: Canarium album (Lour.) Rauesch., sensory evaluation, dessert quality, widely targeted metabolomics, characteristic metabolites

Table 1

Sensory evaluation criteria of Chinese olive"

Score area
边界清晰化Km Boundary clarity 评价因素Evaluation factor
Sweetness return

v1≥7 8.5 细嫩
Strong and long-
lasting sweetness
Slightly astringent
Superior mastication
Superior sweetness and aroma
4≤v2<7 5.5 易嚼
Easy chew

Moderate mastication
Moderate sweetness and aroma

v3<4 2.0 难嚼
Hard chew
No return of sweetness
Sour and bitter
Inferior mastication
Inferior aroma

Fig. 1

Morphological characteristics, physical and chemical properties and sensory evaluation score radar chart of Chinese olive fruit * indicate a significant difference at the 0.05 level"

Fig. 2

Repeatability and metabolite classification of Chinese olive samples A: PCA analysis of Chinese olive fruit samples; B: PCA loading plot of Chinese olive fruit samples; C: Hierarchical cluster analysis of Chinese olive fruit samples; D: Classification of 651 metabolites in olive fruit, red is the primary metabolite and blue is the secondary metabolite"

Fig. 3

OPLS-DA analysis of metabolites from Chinese olive fruit A-D: Pairwise comparison sample group; 1: Score map; 2: Inertia histogram; 3: Significant diagnostic map"

Fig. 4

Statistics on the number of differential metabolites of different varieties (lines) of Chinese olive mature fruit in pairs A: The number of differential metabolites; B: The number of differential metabolite categories. Down/Up indicated that the content of low phenolic Chinese olive (DQ, TQ) was down/up-regulated compared with high phenolic Chinese olive (HP, SP)"

Fig. 5

KEGG annotation and enrichment analysis of differential metabolism in paired comparison of different varieties (lines) of Chinese olive (top 20) Each bubble in the figure represents a metabolic pathway, and its abscissa and bubble size together represent the size of the influencing factors of the pathway. The larger the enrichment factor in the figure, the greater the degree of enrichment; the larger the dot, the more the number of metabolites enriched in the pathway; the bubble color represents the P value of the enrichment analysis, and the deeper the color, the higher the enrichment degree"

Fig. 6

Venn of differential metabolites and classification of characteristic metabolites A: Low phenolic olive (DQ, TQ) compared with high phenolic olive (HP, SP) up-regulated metabolite Venn diagram; B: Common up-regulated metabolite category; C: Low phenolic olive (DQ, TQ) compared with high phenolic olive (HP, SP) down-regulated metabolite Venn diagram; D: Common down-regulated metabolite category"

Table 2

26 characteristic metabolites affecting the eating quality of Chinese olives"

Molecular formula
Amino acids
and derivatives
L-天冬酰胺 L-Asparagine C4H8N2O3 上调 Up C00152
L-鸟氨酸 L-Ornithine C5H12N2O2 上调 Up C00077
N,N-二甲基甘氨酸 N,N-Dimethylglycine C4H9NO2 上调 Up C01026
2,6-二氨基庚二酸 2,6-Diaminooimelic acid C7H14N2O4 上调 Up C00666
γ-氨基丁酸 γ-Aminobutyric acid C4H9NO2 上调 Up C00334
N-乙酰-L-甘氨酸 N-Acetyl-L-glycine C4H7NO3 下调 Down -
Organic acids
2,2-二甲基琥珀酸 2,2-Dimethylsuccinic acid C6H10O4 上调 Up -
乙酰氧基乙酸 Acetoxyacetic acid C4H6O4 下调 Down -
溶血磷脂酰胆碱18:3(2n异构) LysoPC 18:3 (2n isomer) C26H48NO7P 上调 Up -
溶血磷脂酰胆碱18:3 LysoPC 18:3 C26H48NO7P 上调 Up -
Phenolic acids
5-O-对香豆酰奎宁酸 5-O-p-Coumaroylquinic acid C16H18O8 上调 Up C12208
对二聚没食子酰甲酯 p-Dimeric galloyl methyl ester C15H12O9 下调 Down -
三没食子酸Trigallic acid C21H14O13 下调 Down -
芹菜素-7,4′-二甲醚 Apigenin-7,4′-dimethyl ether C17H14O5 上调 Up C10019
香叶木苷 Diosmetin-7-O-rutinoside C28H32O15 上调 Up C10039
Luteolin (3′,4′,5,7-Tetrahydroxyflavone)
C15H10O6 下调 Down C01514
桑色素-3-O-木糖苷 Morin-3-O-xyloside C20H18O11 下调 Down -
C28H24O16 下调 Down -
C22H18O10 下调 Down -
C24H20O9 下调 Down -
C24H20O9 下调 Down -
Hydrolysable Tannins
二酰基诃子酰基葡萄糖 Digalloylchebuloylglucose C34H28O23 下调 Down -
没食子酰没食子酸甲酯 Galloyl methyl gallate C15H12O9 下调 Down -
Heterophylliin A (7,8,10-trimethoxy-4,5-dihydrophenanthro [2,3] dioxolane)
C34H26O22 下调 Down -
C20H20O13 下调 Down -
Phyllanemblinin D C27H26O20 下调 Down -

Fig. 7

Paired comparison of key metabolites related to metabolic pathway during Chinese olive maturation The relative content of the products transformed by Log2 ing different periods od low phenolic olive and hign phenolic olive (DQ/SP) was expressed by the hear map. Red and blue indicate high and low DQ content in low-phenol olives,respectively. *Denotes VIP≥1 and |Log2FC|≥1 of DQ/SP"

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