Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (10): 2239-2248.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2021.10.019


Effects of High-Concentrate Diet Supplemented with Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins on Rumen fermentation, Inflammatory and Antioxidant Indicators of Rumen and Serum in Lambs

HAO XiaoYan1(),MU ChunTang1,QIAO Dong2,ZHANG XuanZi1,YANG WenJun1,ZHAO JunXing1,ZHANG ChunXiang1,ZHANG JianXin1()   

  1. 1College of Animal Science, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, Shanxi
    2Grassland Livestock Husbandry Development Center, Shuozhou 036002, Shanxi
  • Received:2020-07-26 Accepted:2020-11-27 Online:2021-05-16 Published:2021-05-24
  • Contact: JianXin ZHANG;


【Objective】This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) supplementation on growth performance, rumen fermentation, rumen and serum inflammatory factors and antioxidative activity in lambs under the condition of a high-concentrate diet, so as to provide a support for applying GSPs on ruminant. 【Method】A total of forty-eight 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 thin-tailed Han ram lambs with similar body weight (BW = 22.75±1.20 kg, mean ± SD) were randomly divided into four groups, with twelve lambs each group. Lambs were fed a 30:70 forage:concentrate diet with 0 (control), 10 (10GSPs), 20 (20GSPs), and 40 mg·kg-1 BW (40GSPs) GSPs supplemented, respectively. The feeding experiment lasted for 60 days before sampling, with the first 15 days for diet transition and adaptation. On the first day of the formal experiment period, the BW before morning feeding was weighed as the initial BW. At the end of the trial period, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and the serum was separated for the determination of antioxidant and inflammatory indicators and lipopolysaccharide content. At the same time, six lambs in each group were randomly selected to collect rumen fluid by using an oral stomach tube at 1, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours after feeding, respectively, and the rumen pH were measured immediately. The fluid samples at 3 hours after feeding were used to measured fermentation parameters and lipopolysaccharide content. The other 6 lambs in each group were slaughtered, and the samples of rumen tissue were collected to determine the antioxidation index and inflammatory factors. 【Result】The final weight of lambs in 10GSPs and 20GSPs groups were significant greater than that in control group (P<0.05), with no difference between 40GSPs and 10GSPs or 20GSPs (P>0.05). Lambs in 10GSPs and 20GSPs groups also had higher average daily gain and average daily feed intake than control and 40GSPs (P<0.05), with no significant difference between control and 40GSPs (P>0.05). The dietary GSPs supplementation had a certain regulatory effect on rumen pH. The rumen pH increased linearly with the supplementation of GSPs (P<0.05) at 3, 8 and 12 h after feeding, and tended to increased linearly at 4 h (P=0.057). The concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total volatile fatty acid in rumen fluid tended to decrease after GSPS was added (P<0.1), but there was no significant effect on propionate, isovalerate, valerate, and the ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid (P>0.05). After GSPs was supplemented, the serum lipopolysaccharide concentration was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05), but which did not affect the lipopolysaccharide concentration in the rumen fluid. The activity of GSH-Px in rumen tissue of 20GSPs and 40GSPs groups was significantly higher than that of the control group and 10GSPs group (P<0.05) , however, the content of MDA was significantly lower. The serum SOD activity of 20GSPs and 40GSPs group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the GSH-Px activity was higher than control and 10GSPs group (P<0.05). There was no significant effect was observed in rumen inflammatory factors when GSPs was supplemented, but there was a trend of decreasing IL-6 and IL-10 (P<0.1). The level of TNF-α in 20GSPs and 40GSPs group were significantly lower than that in the control group and 10 GSPs group (P<0.05). The level of IL-10 in 40GSPs group was significantly lower than control group, with no significant difference between 40GSPs and 10GSPs or 20GSPs (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】Supplementing appropriate amount of GSPs to high-concentrate diet could improve the rumen pH, and the antioxidant capacity of serum and rumen tissue of lambs, suggesting that appropriate amount of GSPs had the potential protective effect on lamb health. The optimal feeding dose was 20 mg·kg-1 BW under the condition of this experiment.

Key words: grape seed proanthocyanidins, lambs, high-concentrate diet, rumen fermentation, antioxidant capacity

Table 1

Composition and nutrient level of diets (dry matter basis, %)"

项目Items 含量Content
原料 Ingredients
玉米秸秆 Corn straw 20.0
谷秸 Millet straw 10.0
玉米 Corn 46.0
豆粕 Soybean meal 7.0
棉粕 Cottonseed meal 5.0
麦麸 Wheat bran 5.0
石粉 Limestone 0.3
碳酸氢钠 Sodium bicarbonate 1.0
盐 Salt 0.7
预混料 Premix 1 5.0
营养水平 Nutrient levels
粗蛋白 CP 16.1
粗脂肪 EE 3.5
中性洗涤纤维 NDF 32.7
酸性洗涤纤维 ADF 16.9
粗灰分 Ash 10.2
总能GE; MJ·kg-1 DM 18.8

Table 2

Effect of GSPs supplemented in high-concentrate diet on growth performance of lambs"

组别 Groups SEM P
CON 10GSPs 20GSPs 40GSPs 线性Linear 二次方Quadratic
初始体重Initial BW(kg) 28.39 29.10 28.64 29.32 0.82 0.532 0.985
终末体重Final BW(kg) 41.57b 43.85a 43.51a 42.64ab 0.70 0.375 0.039
平均日增重ADG(g·d-1) 280.37b 314.05a 315.90a 283.56b 10.21 0.806 0.005
平均日采食量ADFI(g·d-1) 1885.14b 2010.61a 1993.99a 1874.60b 31.74 0.737 0.001
料重比ADFI/ADG 6.76 6.42 6.31 6.65 0.210 0.639 0.123

Table 3

Effect of GSPs supplemented in high-concentrate diet on rumen fluid pH of lambs"

组别 Groups SEM P
CON 10GSPs 20GSPs 40GSPs 线性Linear 二次方Quadratic
1 h 6.04 6.05 6.09 6.11 0.03 0.101 0.805
3 h 5.80b 5.79b 5.93a 5.94a 0.05 0.018 0.664
4 h 5.92 5.93 5.97 6.05 0.04 0.057 0.389
6 h 6.05 6.14 6.10 6.15 0.07 0.155 0.883
8 h 6.19b 6.21b 6.34a 6.30a 0.03 0.031 0.141
12 h 6.24b 6.23b 6.33a 6.35a 0.03 0.009 0.420

Table 4

Effect of GSPs supplemented in high-concentrate diet on rumen VFA after feeding 3 hours of lambs"

组别 Groups SEM P
CON 10GSPs 20GSPs 40GSPs 线性Linear 二次方Quadratic
乙酸 Acetate (mmol·L-1) 59.61 59.01 54.11 55.18 1.95 0.058 0.672
丙酸Propionate (mmol·L-1) 25.08 24.93 21.56 22.83 1.64 0.182 0.667
异丁酸 Isobutyrate (mmol·L-1) 0.50b 0.49b 0.55ab 0.63a 0.032 0.004 0.153
丁酸 Butyrate (mmol·L-1) 11.93 10.82 10.92 9.51 0.78 0.064 0.850
异戊酸 Isovalerate (mmol·L-1) 0.85 0.92 0.95 0.91 0.041 0.291 0.224
戊酸 Valerate (mmol·L-1) 1.21 1.21 1.10 1.19 0.069 0.584 0.464
总挥发性脂肪酸TVFA (mmol·L-1) 99.18 97.36 89.18 90.27 3.13 0.062 0.648
乙酸/丙酸Acetate/propionate 2.45 2.41 2.55 2.45 0.16 0.854 0.856

Table 5

Effect of GSPs supplemented in high-concentrate diet on rumen LPS content after feeding 3 hours of lambs"

组别 Groups SEM P
CON 10GSPs 20GSPs 40GSPs 线性Linear 二次方Quadratic
瘤胃液LPS (EU·mL-1) 42595 34449 27116 31267 4168 0.058 0.099
血清LPS (EU·mL-1) 0.31a 0.29a 0.16b 0.17b 0.02 <0.0001 0.221

Table 6

Effect of GSPs supplemented in high-concentrate diet on rumen and serum antioxidant indicators of lambs"

组别 Groups SEM P
CON 10GSPs 20GSPs 40GSPs 线性Linear 二次方Quadratic
T-AOC (U·mg-1) 1.13 1.22 1.28 1.23 0.08 0.282 0.370
CAT (U·mg-1) 4.41 4.54 4.08 4.37 0.47 0.787 0.861
SOD (U·mg-1) 6.8 6.85 7.46 7.28 0.53 0.394 0.830
GSH-Px (U·mg-1) 66.30b 69.18b 90.55a 82.99a 3.70 0.0003 0.173
MDA, nmol·mg-1 0.693a 0.62ab 0.52b 0.53b 0.05 0.019 0.481
T-AOC (U·mL-1) 1.60 1.62 1.83 1.78 0.07 0.056 0.590
CAT (U·mL-1) 6.6 6.66 6.52 6.79 0.52 0.855 0.839
SOD (U·mL-1) 69.28b 72.58ab 82.9a 83.43a 4.16 0.010 0.743
GSH-PX (U·mL-1) 85.74b 87.92b 102.60a 104.35a 4.85 0.004 0.963
MDA (nmol·mL-1) 4.49 4.34 3.52 3.59 0.33 0.060 0.764

Table 7

Effect of GSPs supplemented in high-concentrate diet on rumen and serum inflammatory factors of lambs"

组别 groups SEM P
CON 10GSPs 20GSPs 40GSPs 线性Linear 二次方Quadratic
TNF-α (pg·mg-1) 4.48 4.45 4.25 4.30 0.23 0.497 0.871
IL-6 (pg·mg-1) 12.05 12.06 10.16 10.73 0.66 0.061 0.676
IFN-γ(pg·mg-1) 4.96 4.51 4.50 4.78 0.28 0.664 0.208
IL-10 (pg·mg-1) 1.46 1.44 1.28 1.30 0.06 0.062 0.729
TNF-α(pg·mL-1) 48.74a 50.52a 38.52b 39.6b 2.99 0.008 0.908
IL-6 (pg·mL-1) 142.18 133.33 127.5 128.72 5.47 0.074 0.368
IFN-γ (pg·mL-1) 39.13 40.44 39.86 37.09 2.21 0.506 0.365
IL-10 (pg·mL-1) 19.86a 17.79ab 17.83ab 16.19b 0.93 0.015 0.814
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