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    Crop Genetics · Breeding · Germplasm Resources
    Mapping resistant QTLs for rice sheath blight disease with a doubled haploid population
    ZENG Yu-xiang, XIA Ling-zhi, WEN Zhi-hua, JI Zhi-juan, ZENG Da-li, QIAN Qian, YANG Chang-deng
    2015, 14(5): 801-810.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60909-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Sheath blight (SB) disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is one of the most serious diseases causing rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield loss worldwide. A doubled haploid (DH) population was constructed from a cross between a japonica variety CJ06 and an indica variety TN1, and to analyze the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for SB resistance under three different environments (environments 1–3). Two traits were recorded to evaluate the SB resistance, namely lesion height (LH) and disease rating (DR). Based on field evaluation of SB resistance and a genetic map constructed with 214 markers, a total of eight QTLs were identified for LH and eight QTLs for DR under three environments, respectively. The QTLs for LH were anchored on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8, and explained 4.35–17.53% of the phenotypic variation. The SB resistance allele of qHNLH4 from TN1 decreased LH by 3.08 cm, and contributed to 17.53% of the variation at environment 1. The QTL for LH (qHZaLH8) detected on chromosome 8 in environment 2 explained 16.71% of the variation, and the resistance allele from CJ06 reduced LH by 4.4 cm. Eight QTLs for DR were identified on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, and 12 under three conditions with the explained variation from 2.0 to 11.27%. The QTL for DR (qHZaDR8), which explained variation of 11.27%, was located in the same interval as that of qHZaLH8, both QTLs were detected in environment 2. A total of six pairs of digenic epistatic loci for DR were detected in three conditions, but no epistatic locus was observed for LH. In addition, we detected 12 QTLs for plant height (PH) in three environments. None of the PH-QTLs were co-located with the SB-QTLs. The results facilitate our understanding of the genetic basis for SB resistance in rice.
    Genetic diversity and elite gene introgression reveal the japonica rice breeding in northern China
    LIU Dan, WANG Jia-yu, WANG Xiao-xue, YANG Xian-li, SUN Jian, CHEN Wen-fu
    2015, 14(5): 811-822.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60898-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Abundant genetic diversity and rational population structure of germplasm benefit crop breeding greatly. To investigate genetic variation among geographically diverse set of japonica germplasm, we analyzed 233 japonica rice cultivars collected from Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces of China, which were released from 1970 to 2011 by using 62 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 8 functional gene tags related to yield. A total of 195 alleles (Na) were detected with an average of 3.61 per locus, indicating a low level of genetic diversity level among all individuals. The genetic diversity of the cultivars from Jilin Province was the highest among the three geographic distribution zones. Moreover, the genetic diversity was increased slightly with the released period of cultivars from 1970 to 2011. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that genetic differentiation was more diverse within the populations than that among the populations. The neighbor-joining (NJ) tree indicated that cultivar clusters based on geographic distribution represented three independent groups, among which the cluster of cultivars from Heilongjiang is distinctly different to the cluster of cultivars from Liaoning. For the examined functional genes, two or three allelic variations for each were detected, except for IPA1 and GW2, and most of elite genes had been introgressed in modern japonica rice varieties. These results provide a valuable evaluation for genetic backgrounds of current japonica rice and will be used directly for japonica rice breeding in future.
    Magnaporthe Rab5 homologs show distinct functions in nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth and cell differentiation
    QI Yao-yao, LIANG Zhi-min, ZHOU Jie, WANG Zong-hua, LU Guo-dong, LI Guang-pu
    2015, 14(5): 823-829.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60972-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Nerve growth factor (NGF) binds to TrkA and forms a NGF/TrkA complex at the cell surface, which is then internalized into signaling endosomes and promotes neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth. The small GTPase Rab5 is reported to localize on the plasma membrane and early endosomes, regulating endosome fusion. It was reported that endogenous Rab5 function may need to be suppressed during NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and cell differentiation. Two Rab5 homologs (MoRab5A: MGG_06241 and MoRab5B:MGG_01185) were characterized from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, and MoRab5B was identified as the Rab5 ortholog promoting early endosomal fusion, while MoRab5A specialized to perform a non-redundant function in endosomal sorting. In this study, we examined whether MoRab5A and MoRab5B play different roles in NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and cell differentiation in PC12 cells (a rat pheochromocytoma cell line). Our data showed that MoRab5B is a negative regulator of NGF signaling and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, similar to human Rab5 (hRab5). MoRab5B:WT inhibits NGF signaling-dependent neurite outgrowth while the dominant-negative MoRab5B mutant (MoRab5B:DN) enhances NGF signaling and neurite outgrowth. In contrast, MoRab5A:WT and MoRab5A:DN both significantly promote NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, indicating that MoRab5B is more similar to hRab5 than MoRab5A in the regulation of NGF signal transduction.
    Cloning and characterization of a novel UDP-glycosyltransferase gene induced by DON from wheat
    MA Xin, DU Xu-ye, LIU Guo-juan, YANG Zai-dong, HOU Wen-qian, WANG Hong-wei, FENG De-shun
    2015, 14(5): 830-838.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60857-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum, is a destructive disease of wheat throughout the world. However, the mechanisms of host resistance to FHB are still largely unclear. Deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by F. graminearum which enhances the pathogen to spread could be converted into inactive form D3G by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs). A DON responsive UGT gene, designated as TaUGT4, was first cloned from wheat in this study. The putative open reading frame (ORF) of TaUGT4 was 1 386 bp, encoding 461 amino acids protein. TaUGT4 was placed on chromosome 2D using a set of nulli-tetrasomic lines of wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS). When fused with eGFP at C terminal, TaUGT4 was shown to localize in cytoplasm of the transformed tobacco cells. The transcriptional analysis revealed that TaUGT4 was strongly induced by F. graminearum or DON in both of FHB-resistant cultivar Sumai 3 and susceptible cultivar Kenong 199, especially in Sumai 3 under DON treatment. Similar increase of TaUGT4 expression was observed in Sumai 3 and Kenong 199 in response to salicylic acid (SA) treatment. But interestingly, the transcripts level of TaUGT4 in Sumai 3 showed significantly higher than that in Kenong 199 after treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). According to the expression patterns, TaUGT4 might lead to different effects between FHB-resistant genotype and susceptible genotype in the process against F. graminearum inoculation. It had also been discussed in this paper that JA signaling pathway might play a significant role in the resistance against F. graminearum compared to SA signaling pathway.
    Perennial aneuploidy as a potential material for gene introgression between maize and Zea perennis
    FU Jie, YANG Xiu-yan, CHENG Ming-jun, Lü Gui-hua, WANG Pei, WU Yuan-qi, ZHENG Ming-min, ZHOU Shu-feng, RONG Ting-zhao, TANG Qi-lin
    2015, 14(5): 839-846.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60874-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Hybridization, which allows for gene flow between crops, is difficult between maize and Zea perennis. In this study, we aim to initiate and study gene flow between maize and Z. perennis via a special aneuploid plant (MDT) derived from an interspecific hybrid of the two species. The chromosome constitution and morphological characters of MDT as well as certain backcross progenies were examined. Results from genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) indicate that aneuploid MDT consisted of nine maize chromosomes and 30 Z. perennis chromosomes. The backcross progenies of MDT×maize displayed significant diversity of vegetative and ear morphology; several unusual plants with specific chromosome constitution were founded in its progenies. Some special perennial progeny with several maize chromosomes were obtained by backcrossing MDT with Z. perennis, and the first whole chromosome introgression from maize to Z. perennis was detected in this study. With this novel material and method, a number of maize-tetraploid teosinte addition or substitution lines can be generated for further study, which has great significance to maize and Z. perennis genetic research, especially for promoting introgression and transferring desirable traits.
    Superior grains determined by grain weight are not fully correlated with the flowering order in rice
    PENG Ting, Lü Qiang, ZHAO Ya-fan, SUN Hong-zheng, HAN Ying-chun, DU Yan-xiu, ZHANG Jing, LI Jun-zhou, WANG Lin-lin, ZHAO Quan-zhi
    2015, 14(5): 847-855.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60858-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Rice panicles are composed of many branches with two types of extreme grains, the superior and the inferior. Traditionally, it has been well accepted that earlier flowers result in superior grains and late flowers generate inferior grains. However, these correlations have never been strictly examined in practice. In order to determine the accurate relationship between superior and inferior grains and the flowering order, we localized all the seeds in a panicle in four distinct rice species and systematically documented the rice flowering order, flower locations and the final grain weight for their relationships. Our results demonstrated that the grain weight is more heavily determined by the position of the seeds than by the flowering order. Despite earlier flowering has a positive correlation with the grain weight in general, grains from flowers blooming on the second day after anthesis generally gained the highest weight. This suggests earlier flowers may not result in superior grains. Therefore, we concluded that superior and inferior grains, commonly determined by grain weight, are not fully correlated with the flowering order in rice. Following the order of the grain weight, the superior grains are generally localized at the middle parts of the primary branches, whereas inferior grains were mainly on the last two secondary branches of the lower half part of the panicle. In addition, the weight of inferior grains were affected by spikelet thinning and spraying with exogenous plant growth regulators, indicating that physiological incompetence might be the major reason for the occurrence of the inferior grains.
    Effects of potassium deficiency on photosynthesis and photoprotection mechanisms in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)
    WANG Xiao-guang, ZHAO Xin-hua, JIANG Chun-ji, LI Chun-hong, CONG Shan, WU Di, CHEN Yan-qiu, YU Hai-qiu, WANG Chun-yan
    2015, 14(5): 856-863.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60848-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Potassium is an important nutrient element requiring high concentration for photosynthetic metabolism. The potassium deficiency in soil could inhibit soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) photosynthesis and result in yield reduction. Research on the photosynthetic variations of the different tolerant soyben varieties should provide important information for high yield tolerant soybean breeding program. Two representative soybean varieties Tiefeng 40 (tolerance to K+ deficiency) and GD8521 (sensitive to K+ deficiency) were hydroponically grown to measure the photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and Rubisco activity under different potassium conditions. With the K-deficiency stress time extending, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of GD8521 were significantly decreased under K-deficiency condition, whereas the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was significantly increased. As a contrast, the variations of Tiefeng 40 were almost little under K-deficiency condition, which indicated tolerance to K+ deficiency variety could maintain higher efficient photosynthesis. On the 25th d after treatment, the minimal fluorescence (F0) of GD8521 was significantly increased and the maximal fluorescence (Fm), the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/ Fm), actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII), photochemical quenching (qP), and electron transport rate of PSII (ETR) were significantly decreased under K+ deficiency condition. In addition, the Rubisco content of GD8521 was significantly decreased in leaves. It is particularly noteworthy that the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and Rubisco content of Tiefeng 40 were unaffected under K+ deficiency condition. On the other hand, the non-photochemical quenching (qN) of Tiefeng 40 was significantly increased. The dry matter weight of Tiefeng 40 was little affected under K+ deficiency condition. Results indicated that Tiefeng 40 could avoid or relieve the destruction of PSII caused by exceeded absorbed solar energy under K-deficiency condition and maintain natural photosynthesis and plant growth. It was an essential physiological mechanism for low-K-tolerant soybean under K-deficiency stress.
    Crop Genetics · Breeding · Germplasm Resources
    Key minerals influencing apple quality in Chinese orchard identified by nutritional diagnosis of leaf and soil analysis
    WANG Guo-yi, ZHANG Xin-zhong, WANG Yi, XU Xue-feng, HAN Zhen-hai
    2015, 14(5): 864-874.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60877-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    We investigated the correlation between leaf/soil minerals and fruit quality in apple trees grown in orchards, with the ultimate goal of improving the latter. Leaf mineral nutrients; soil nutrients in the 0–20, 20–40, and 40–60 cm layers; and fruit quality traits in 32 apple orchards in China were monitored for 2 years. Significant factors associated with fruit quality were identified via correlation analysis. An analysis of leaf data revealed that leaf nitrogen (N) and leaf magnesium (Mg) levels were extremely high in 75 and 89% of the orchards, respectively. In the Bohai Gulf region, 94% of the orchards showed significantly higher values than the standard. The soil pH values of the orchards in eastern China like eastern Shandong or Liaoning were lower than 7.0, while the pH values in the Loess Plateau of northwestern China like Shaanxi were much higher than 7. Soil alkali-hydrolyzable N levels in 47% of the orchards were lower than the optimal level of 70 mg kg–1. Generally, the soil alkali-hydrolyzable N levels of orchards in the Bohai Gulf region were significantly higher than those in the Loess Plateau region. The available P levels in the orchards of the Bohai Gulf region were up to three times higher than those of the Loess Plateau region. However, although the available potassium (K) in most orchards was sufficient (51.39–309.94 mg kg–1), leaf K content in 73% of the orchards was low, possibly due to fruit bagging or fruit overload. Approximately 63% of the orchards in Shandong and 29% of the orchards in Shannxi showed leaf Fe deficiencies. In the Loess Plateau, most orchards showed high leaf Ca levels, a strong correlation was observed between leaf and soil phosphorus/potassium (P/K) content and fruit organic acid content. The amounts of fruit soluble sugar or fructose were positively correlated with soil calcium/potassium (Ca/K) levels and leaf calcium/boron (Ca/B) levels in most orchards. The excessive leaf N levels caused by the extensive application of N fertilizers had a negative effect on fruit quality in most apple orchards in China. P, K, Ca, and B were key minerals associated with fruit quality.
    Effects of high CO2 treatment on green-ripening and peel senescence in banana and plantain fruits
    SONG Mu-bo, TANG Lu-ping, ZHANG Xue-lian, BAI Mei, PANG Xue-qun, ZHANG Zhao-qi
    2015, 14(5): 875-887.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60851-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Banana fruit (Musa, AAA group, cv. Brazil) peel fails to fully degreen but the pulp ripens normally at temperatures above24°C. This abnormal ripening, known as green-ripening, does not occur in plantains (Musa, ABB group, cv. Dajiao). Basedon the fact that un-completely yellowing was also observed for bananas in poorly ventilated atmospheres, in the presentstudy, the effect of high CO2 with regular O2 (21%) on banana ripening was investigated along with that on plantains at20°C. The results showed that high CO2 conferred different effects on the color changing of bananas and plantains. After6 d ripening in 20% CO2, plantains fully yellowed, while bananas retained high chlorophyll content and stayed green. Incontrast to the differentiated color changing patterns, the patterns of the softening, starch degradation and soluble sugaraccumulation in the pulp of 20% CO2 treated bananas and plantains displayed similarly as the patterns in the fruits ripeningin regular air, indicating that the pulp ripening was not inhibited by 20% CO2, and the abnormal ripening of bananas in 20%CO2 can be considered as green ripening. Similar expression levels of chlorophyll degradation related genes, SGR, NYCand PaO, were detected in the peel of the control and treated fruits, indicating that the repressed degreening in 20% CO2treated bananas was not due to the down-regulation of the chlorophyll degradation related genes. Compared to the effecton plantains, 20% CO2 Treatment delayed the decline in the chlorophyll(Fv/Fm) values and in the mRNA levelsof a gene coding small subunit of Rubisco (SSU), and postponed the disruption of the ultrastructure of chloroplast in thepeel tissue of bananas, indicating that the senescence of the green cells in the exocarp layer was delayed by 20% CO2,to more extent in bananas than in plantains. High CO2 reduced the ethylene production and the expression of the relatedbiosynthesis gene, ACS, but elevated the respiration rates in both cultivars. The up-regulation of the expression of anaerobicrespiration pathway genes, ADH and PDC, might be responsible for the subtle effect of high CO2 on the pulp ripening.Taken together, the atmosphere of high CO2 and regular O2, delayed the senescence of the green cells in the exocarp layerof the banana peel, but conferred no obvious inhibition on the pulp ripening, leading to a distinct green-ripening that wasdifferent from the phenomenon induced by high temperatures.
    Plant Protection
    Identification of differentially-expressed genes of rice in overlapping responses to bacterial infection by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and nitrogen deficiency
    YU Chao, CHEN Hua-min, TIAN Fang, BI Yong-mei, Rothstein J Steven, Leach E Jan, HE Chen-yang
    2015, 14(5): 888-899.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60860-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Bacterial blight of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of high nitrogen (N) responsive diseases. Rice plants became more disease resistant with decreasing N suggesting that the crosstalk between disease resistance and N utilization pathways might exist. However, the co-regulatory components in such crosstalk have not been elucidated. Here, we comparatively analyzed the gene expression profiling of rice under Xoo inoculation, low N treatment, or a combination of both stresses, and identified the differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in overlapping responses. These DEGs were involved in different biological processes, including innate immunity and nitrogen metabolism. The randomly-selected DEGs expression was validated by quantitative real-time PCR assays. Temporal expression of six genes from different functional categories suggested that N condition was the dominant factor when both stresses were present. These DEGs identified provide novel insights into the coordinated regulatory mechanism in biotic and abiotic stress responses in rice.
    Development of a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of garlic viruses
    HU Xin-xi, LEI Yan, WANG Pei, TANG Lin-fei, HE Chang-zheng, SONG Yong, XIONG Xing-yao, NIE Xian-zhou
    2015, 14(5): 900-908.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60892-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    A preliminary screening for garlic viruses in garlic plants in Hunan, China, using existing monoplex (simplex) reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedures detected four viruses/virus groups. These viruses/virus groups were Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), Shallot latent virus (SLV) and allexiviruses (e.g., garlic viruses A, B, C, D, E, X). Sequence analysis of the projected allexivirus amplicons revealed the allexivirus in the infected garlic plants was Garlic virus D (GarV-D), which shared 92–97% sequence identities with various isolates from the world. A multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR) was therefore developed to simultaneously detect and differentiate the four viruses/virus groups. To achieve this, four primer pairs targeting allexiviruses, OYDV, LYSV and SLV were designed. The anticipated amplicon sizes are 183 bp (allexiviruses), 265 bp (OYDV), 404 bp (LYSV) and 592 bp (SLV), respectively. All primer pairs produced virus-specific fragments in both simplex and multiplex formats, thus confirming the efficacy of the newly developed mRT-PCR for detection of these viruses. The mRT-PCR further was evaluated by applying it to garlic plant samples collected in two geographic locations in Hunan. Allexiviruses, OYDV, LYSV and SLV were detected in 50.9, 40.3, 28.3 and 58.5% of leaf samples, respectively; and mixed infections with two or more viruses accounted for 54% of the garlic samples. The results obtained by mRT-PCR were confirmed by simplex RT-PCR assays. In conclusion, this newly developed mRT-PCR provides a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for the detection and identification of major garlic viruses.
    Investigating the mechanisms of glyphosate resistance in goosegrass (Eleusine indica) population from South China
    ZHANG Chun, FENG Li, HE Ting-ting, YANG Cai-hong, CHEN Guo-qi, TIAN Xing-shan
    2015, 14(5): 909-918.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60890-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Glyphosate has been used worldwide for nearly 40 years, and 30 types of resistant weeds have been reported. Glyphosate is mass-produced and widely used in China, but few studies and reports on glyphosate-resistant weeds and resistance mechanisms exist. Previous studies found a goosegrass species with high glyphosate resistance from orchards in South China and its glyphosate resistant mechanism was described in this study. The cDNA of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS, EC, the target enzyme of glyphosate, was cloned from the glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible goosegrass, respectively, and referred as EPSPS-R and EPSPS-S. The Pro106 residue was known to be involved in the glyphosate resistance in most goosegrass populations. However, sequence analysis did not find the mutation at the Pro106 residue in the R biotype EPSPS amino acid sequence. The residue 133 and 382 was mutated in the R biotype EPSPS amino acid sequence instead, but it did not affect the EPSPS-S and EPSPS-R genes sensitivities to glyphosate. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses suggested that EPSPS mRNA and protein are mainly present in the shoot tissues both in the R and S goosegrass biotypes. The EPSPS-R rapidly responds to the glyphosate in R-biotype goosegrass and the induced expression was detected at 12 h post glyphosate treatment. The mRNA and protein expression of EPSPS-R increased constantly as the increasing concentration of glyphosate. However, the expression of the EPSPS-S was not induced significantly by glyphosate in the S goosegrass biotype. Quantification of real-time PCR results showed that the copy number of the EPSPS in R-biotype goosegrass was 4.7 times higher than that in the S goosegrass biotype. All the results implied that EPSPS gene amplification might mainly caused the glyphosate resistance of a goosegrass population collected from orchards in South China.
    Characterization of glyphosate-resistant goosegrass (Eleusine indica) populations in China
    CHEN Jing-chao, HUANG Hong-juan, WEI Shou-hui, ZHANG Chao-xian, HUANG Zhao-feng
    2015, 14(5): 919-925.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60910-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Goosegrass is a worst grass weed in orchards and turf. The increased use of glyphosate for goosegrass control has led to the occurrence of many resistant populations. Although glyphosate has been used to control weeds for the past 30 years in China, few reports are available on glyphosate-resistant (GR) googegrass. In this study, we determined the GR level of 14 goosegrass populations from Chengdu and Guangzhou, China. Glyphosate only controlled 3.1 and 25.0% of the populations SL5 and SL1, respectively, at the dose of 1 680 g acid equivalent (ae) ha–1 at 14 days after treatment (DAT). In contrast, the susceptible population (XD1) was completely (100%) controlled. The resistant index (RI) of SL5 and SL1 were 5.1 and 4.5, and the RI for SL2, SL3 and ZC1 were 4.2, 3.2 and 2.6, respectively. The RI for other populations was range from 1.8 to 2.5. Under the dose of glyphosate at 1 640 g ae ha–1 at 10 DAT, shikimate accumulation in susceptible population XD1 was 17.6 and 16.4 times higher than SL5 and SL1, respectively. And the chlorophyll content in the plant leaf of populations SL1, SL2 and SL5 were decreased slightly ranging from 22.6 to 28.0. These results confirmed that the SL1, SL2, SL3, ZC1 and SL5 populations had evolved moderate resistance to glyphosate. This is the first report for the GR goosegrass populations confirmed in Chengdu, China.
    Animal Science · Veterinary Science
    RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis of porcine cloned and in vitro fertilized blastocysts
    XU Wei-hua, LI Zi-cong, OUYANG Zhi-ping, YU Bo, SHI Jun-song, LIU De-wu, WU Zhen-fang
    2015, 14(5): 926-938.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60866-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Somatic nuclear transfer technology has become increasingly promising in biomedicine and agriculture. Whereas the approach remains inefficient and underlying mechanisms remain ambiguous. Although cloned embryos have similar in vitro developmental capacity as in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos before implantation, they appeared to have much lower full-term developmental efficiency in pig and cattle, and thus it would be reasonable to postulate that profound distinction at the molecular level should exist between them. Herein, RNA sequencing technique was used to screen differentially expressed genes in cloned and IVF blastocysts, and in total 628 differentially expressed transcripts were obtained, among which, 280 transcripts are up-regulated and 348 transcripts are down-regulated in cloned blastocysts. Moreover, one statistically significant pathway associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein processing was enriched, and some ER-stress markers such as ATF4, ATF6, PDIA3, HSPA1B, HSP40 and HSP90 between cloned and IVF blastocysts were suggested. Additionally, some developmentally important genes such as lipid metabolism related genes (MGLL, DDHD2 and FADS2) and epigenetic modification genes (DNMT1, KDM5C and MBD3L5) were found differentially expressed between cloned and IVF embryos.
    Study on the role of JAK/STAT signaling pathway during chicken spermatogonial stem cells generation based on RNA-Seq
    ZHANG Lei, ZUO Qi-sheng, LI Dong, LIAN Chao, Kamel E Ahmed, TANG Bei-bei, SONG Jiu-zhou, ZHANG Ya-ni, LI Bi-chun
    2015, 14(5): 939-948.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60938-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) form the foundation for spermatogenesis and sustain male fertility. To explore the regulatory mechanisms of chicken SSCs generation, we obtained highly purified chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs), primordial germ cells (PGCs) and SSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). High-throughput analysis methods (RNA-Seq) were used to sequence the transcriptome level of these cells. Gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment were used to analyze RNA-Seq results. BMP4 was used to induce chicken ESCs differentiation to SSCs-like cells in vitro. The quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR was used to detect the expression changes of the key genes. The results showed that 22 relevant critical pathways were found by RNA-Seq, one of them was the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. Total of 103 related genes were detected in this pathway. Protein-protein interactions analysis found that 87 proteins were significantly related to 19 key proteins in this pathway. These 87 proteins were enriched in 21 biological processes and 18 signaling pathways. Moreover, during the differentiation of chicken ESCs to SSCs-like cells induced by BMP4 in vitro, JAK2 and STAT3 were activated. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression trends of JAK2 and STAT3 were basically the same as in vivo. We concluded that JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays an important role in the process of chicken SSCs generation both in vivo and in vitro; it may achieve its function through multiple biological processes and other related pathways.
    Effect of steam-flaking on chemical compositions, starch gelatinization, in vitro fermentability, and energetic values of maize, wheat and rice
    QIAO Fu-qiang, WANG Fei, REN Li-ping, ZHOU Zhen-ming, MENG Qing-xiang, BAO Yu-hong
    2015, 14(5): 949-955.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60913-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Intact and steam-flaked grains of maize, wheat and rice (with whole hulls) were analyzed for chemical composition, starch gelatinization degree (SGD) and in vitro fermentation characteristics to investigate the influence of cereal type and steam-flaking (SF) processing on their nutritive values. The treatments were arranged in a 3×2 factorial design. Obvious differences (P<0.001) in chemical composition and energetic values were observed among the different cereal types. SGD and gas production (GP) rate was significantly increased (P<0.001) by SF processing. SF processing also increased (P<0.01) the proportion of propionic acid and decreased the acetic:propionic acid ratio in vitro. Steam-flaking also increased organic matter digestibility and the energetic value of the cereal grains, especially rice. Based on these results, rice probably is more amendable to SF processing than maize and wheat. In conclusion, it is feasible to partially substitute maize grain with wheat or rice in ruminant diets, and steam-flaking can significantly improve the nutritional value of wheat and rice grains.
    Type I strain of Toxoplasma gondii from chicken induced different immune responses with that from human, cat and swine in chicken
    Zhao Guang-wei, WanG Shuai, WanG Wang, ZhanG Zhen-chao, XIe Qing, ZhanG Meng, I a hassan, Yan Ruo-feng, SonG Xiao-kai, Xu Li-xin, LI Xiang-rui
    2015, 14(5): 956-965.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60861-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    In this study, four strains of Toxoplasma gondii with the same genetic type (Type I) originated from chicken, human, cat and swine were used to compare the immune responses in resistant chicken host to investigate the relationships between the parasite origins and the pathogenicity in certain host. A total of 300, 10-day-old chickens were allocated randomly into five groups which named JS (from chicken), CAT (from cat), CN (from swine), RH (from human) and a negative control group (–Ve) with 60 birds in each group. Tachyzoites of four different T. gondii strains (JS, CAT, CN and RH) were inoculated intraperitoneally with the dose of 1×107 in the four designed groups, respectively. The negative control (–Ve) group was mockly inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) alone. Blood and spleen samples were obtained on the day of inoculation (day 0) and at days 4, 11, 25, 39 and 53 post-infection to screen the immunopathological changes. The results demonstrated some different immune characters of T. gondii infected chickens with that of mice or swine previous reported. These differences included up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules in the early stage of infection, early peak expressions of interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12) and -10 (IL-10) and long keep of IL-17. These might partially contribute to the resistance of chicken to T. gondii infection. Comparisons to chickens infected with strains from human, cat and swine, chickens infected with strain from chicken showed significant high levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), IL-12 and IL-10. It suggested that the strain from chicken had different ability to stimulate cellular immunity in chicken.
    Soil & Fertilization · Irrigation · Agro-Ecology & Environment
    The effects of deficit irrigation on nitrogen consumption, yield, and quality in drip irrigated grafted and ungrafted watermelon
    Sel?uk ?zmen, R?za Kanber, Nebahat Sar?, Mustafa ünlü
    2015, 14(5): 966-976.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60870-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of deficit irrigation on nitrogen consumption, yield, and quality in grafted and ungrafted watermelon. The study was conducted in Çukurova region, Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey, between 2006 and 2008, and employed 3 irrigation rates (full irrigation (I100) with no stress, moderate irrigation (DI70), and low irrigation (DI50); DI70 and DI50 were considered deficit irrigation) on grafted (CTJ, Crimson Tide+Jumbo) and the ungrafted (CT, Crimson Tide) watermelon. The amount of irrigation water (IR) applied to the study plots were calculated based on cumulative pan evaporation that occurred during the irrigation intervals. Nitrogen consumption was 16% lower in CTJ plants than in CT plants. On the other hand, consumption of nitrogen was 28% higher in DI50 plants than in DI70 plants while it was 23% higher in DI50 plants than in I100 plants. By grafting, the average amount of nitrogen content in seeds, pulps and peels for CTJ was 30, 43 and 56% more than those of CT, respectively. The yield and the quality were not significantly affected by the deficit irrigation. In this respect, grafting of watermelon gave higher yield, but, it had a slight effect on fruit quality. The highest yield values of 16.90 and 19.32 kg plant–1 in 2008 were obtained with I100 and in CTJ plants, respectively. However, DI50 treatment could be taken into account for the development of reduced irrigation strategies in semiarid regions where irrigation water supplies are limited. Additionally, the yield increased by applying CTJ treatment to the watermelon production.
    Soil & Fertilization﹒Irrigation﹒Plant Nutrition﹒ Agro-Ecology & Environment
    Leaf photosynthesis and yield components of mung bean under fully open-air elevated [CO2]
    GAO Ji, HAN Xue, Saman Seneweera, LI Ping, ZONG Yu-zheng, DONG Qi, LIN Er-da, HAO Xing-yu
    2015, 14(5): 977-983.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60941-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia, and symbiotic association of soil micro flora may facilitate the photosynthesis and plant growth response to elevated [CO2]. Mung bean was grown at either ambient CO2 400 μmol mol–1 or [CO2] ((550±17) μmol mol–1) under free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experimental facility in North China. Elevated [CO2] increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), water use efficiency (WUE) and the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of upper most fully-expanded leaves, but decreased stomatal conductance (Gs), intrinsic efficiency of PSII (Fv´/Fm´), quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII) and proportion of open PSII reaction centers (qP). At elevated [CO2], the decrease of Fv´/Fm´, ΦPSII, qP at the bloom stage were smaller than that at the pod stage. On the other hand, Pn was increased at elevated [CO2] by 18.7 and 7.4% at full bloom (R2) and pod maturity stages (R4), respectively. From these findings, we concluded that as a legume despite greater nutrient supply to the carbon assimilation at elevated [CO2], photosynthetic capacity of mung bean was still suppressed under elevated [CO2] particularly at pod maturity stage but plant biomass and yield was increased by 11.6 and 14.2%, respectively. Further, these findings suggest that even under higher nutrient acquisition systems such as legumes, nutrient assimilation does not match carbon assimilation under elevated [CO2] and leads photosynthesis down-regulation to elevated [CO2].
    Short Communication
    Complete genome sequence analysis of two Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV) isolates from China
    SONG Zhen, LI Zhong-an, LIU Ke-hong, ZHOU Chang-yong
    2015, 14(5): 984-987.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60911-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    In order to understand molecular characterization of Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV) isolated from China, full-length cDNAs of CTLV-MTH and CTLV-XHC from Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis were cloned and sequenced based on whole-genome amplification by RT-PCR. The complete nucleotide sequences of CTLV-MTH and CTLV-XHC were determined to be 6 497 nucleotides in length and shared 79.9–91.0% and 78.8–98.0% nucleotide sequence identity, respectively, with other Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) or CTLV strains available in GenBank. Unexpectedly, CTLV-MTH showed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (91%) with an apple isolate of ASGV, followed by 86.5% with ASGV-HH and 85.7% with ASGV-CHN. Furthermore, CTLV-MTH and three ASGV strains were grouped to a separate cluster in the phylogenetic tree, suggesting it has a closer relationship to ASGV than to CTLV. Therefore, it can be concluded roughly that CTLV may be not a distinct strains of ASGV. We proposed that Citrus tatter leaf virus should be renamed Apple stem grooving virus.