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    Special Focus:Climate Change and Agriculture
    Editorial-Impact of Climate Change and Grazing on Temperate Steppe
    HOU Xiang-yang
    2014, 13(6): 1155-1156.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60791-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The Characteristics of Plant Communities Along East Eurasian Steppe Transect
    HAN Wen-jun, HOU Xiang-yang, OLOKHNUUD Chun-liang , Michael P Schellenberg
    2014, 13(6): 1157-1164.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60659-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The East Eurasian Steppe Transect (EEST) is the first international transect across regions of middle and high latitudes in the eastern Eurasian steppe. The EEST is an ideal platform for researching the response of Eurasian temperate steppe to global change, because of its integrated gradients of temperature and human activities on a large-scale. In this study, basic characteristics of plant communities along the EEST across a latitudinal gradient was analyzed. According to the survey of 58 sampling sites, there are 140 species belonging to 34 families and 94 genera. Of particular note was the finding of Astragalus dalaiensis which has disappeared in the grasslands of China. On the whole, Gramineae plants are dominant with Liliaceae plants in the communities significantly decreasing along the latitudinal gradient from south to north. The Shannon-Wiener index and biomass of communities all decreased along the latitudinal gradient with significant negative linear regressions. The SDR2 (summed dominance ratio based on two factors) of dominant plants in the upper layers of communities, such as Stipa and Leymus chinensis, decreased along the latitudinal gradient from south to north. Especially, the SDR2 of L. chinensis decreased significantly. The SDR2 of Cleistogenes squarrosa, Agropyron cristatum in the lower layers of communities and the indicator species for degradation were not affected. Potentilla acaulis was found mainly in the southern and northern areas. Stellera chamaejasme was found just in a few sites in the southern area of the EEST. In communities of Stipa grandis and Stipa krylovii, annual and biennial species are dominant. The ratio of annual and biennial species in the community is significantly related to the latitudinal gradient. Perennial herbaceous plants and shrubs were not affected. According to the principal component analysis (PCA), with the data from 58×140 dimensions, the first and second components had the lowest proportion, thus indicating that the species compositions and community structures are homogeneous along the EEST. There is a certain degree of spatial differentiation along the EEST due to degradation’s differences resulting from the different land uses.
    Vegetation Community Convergence of Pastoralists’ Pasture at Different Economic Levels in Desert Steppe
    YIN Yan-ting, REN Ji-zhou , HOU Xiang-yang
    2014, 13(6): 1165-1171.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60657-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Vegetation characteristics of pastoralist households’ pastures at different economic levels were quantified to compare the grassland conditions in Sunite Right Banner, Inner Mongolia, China in 2011 and 2012. The results showed that the heights of Stipa klemenzis and Cleistogenes songorica were similar among economic treatments. And the height of Allium polyrhizm had no significant differences between high-economic-level (HEL) and low-economic-level (LEL) treatments. There were no significant difference among treatments in the canopy cover of C. songorica. The densities of dominant species (S. klemenzis, C. songorica and A. polyrhizm) were significantly similar among treatments. Aboveground community biomass in reference area (CK) was higher than that in other three treatments in 2011, but their biomass showed no significant difference among three economic treatments; for 2012, biomass in HEL was higher than low-economic-level treatment (LEL), while the biomass in middle-economic-level treatment (MEL) and CK was similar to that in HEL and LEL, respectively. Aboveground biomass of S. klemenzis and C. songorica was similar among treatments in both 2011 and 2012. Biomass of A. polyrhizum had no significant difference between HEL and MEL. Households of LEL had rented out excess lands and those of HEL had leased their available lands thus resulting uniform utilization and convergence of pastoralist households’ pastures across all economic levels.
    Responses of Plant Community and Soil Properties to Inter-Annual Precipitation Variability and Grazing Durations in a Desert Steppe in Inner Mongolia
    WANG Zhen, YUN Xiang-jun, WEI Zhi-jun, Michael P Schellenberg, WANG Yun-feng, YANGXia , HOU Xiang-yang
    2014, 13(6): 1171-1182.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60660-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Grazing can dramatically affect arid grassland communities that are very vulnerable to environmental changes due to its relatively short and sparse ground coverage, low biomass, sandy soil and inter-annual precipitation found in the desert steppe. The study investigates the effects of different grazing durations on vegetation and soil properties of a desert steppe community. The experiment was conducted in Xisu Banner in Inner Mongolia with five treatments: CG (continuous grazing), 40UG (40 d ungrazed), 50UG (50 d ungrazed), 60UG (60 d ungrazed) and UG (ungrazed). The biomass of both shrub and annual-biennial plant communities were significantly decreased by CG. Continuous grazing and 40UG significantly reduced the ANPP (aboveground net primary productivity) by the end of the three year study. 60UG treatment increased soil organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen concentration (TN) and total phosphorus concentration (TP) concentrations and 50UG increased the TN and total phosphorus concentration (TK) concentrations, whereas CG, 40UG and 50UG decreased soil OC, TP and available phosphorus concentration (AP) concentrations. The perennial plant species of the desert steppe were generally tolerant for grazing. The annual-biennial plant species had large variability in ANPP because of the inter-annual precipitation. Our results highlight that inter-annual precipitation variations could strongly modify the community responses to grazing in arid ecosystems.
    Impact of Climate and Grazing on Biomass Components of Eastern Russia Typical Steppe
    Ubugunov Leonid, Rupyshev Yuriy, Ubugunov Vasiliy, HOU Xiang-yang, Vishnyakova Oxana, Lavrentieva Irina, Ubugunova Vera, REN Wei-bo , DING Yong
    2014, 13(6): 1183-1192.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60658-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Spatial and structural characteristics of plant communities in the steppe ecosystems of the Baikal region, Russian Federation have been researched in connection with climate change and grazing. The present study, based on a total of 15 typical steppe sampling plots, investigated above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB), total biomass (TB) and root:shoot ratios (R:S) and their relationships with climatic factors and grazing. All biomass components varied widely depending on the climatic parameters and the degree of grazing affected transformation. A strong negative correlation between mean annual temperature (MAT) and total plant biomass was revealed for all study area. Mean annual precipitation (MAP) significantly affected communities productivity increasing only in the south of the region. Due to the large and mountainous territory, the influence of latitude and elevation (mountain) factors on the components of the biomass were studied. Although all studied plant steppe communities were transformed by uncontrolled grazing, their productivity is significantly reduced only at plots with maximum digression. Vegetation shift is an indicator of climate change, as well as providing a diagnostic tool to build predictive models. Based on the complex index of effective precipitation, it was revealed that at the end of last century in the steppes of the Baikal region the structural and production processes will be affected by an arid climate trend.
    Feeding More People on an Increasingly Fragile Planet: China’s Food and Nutrition Security in a National and Global Context
    FAN Sheng-gen , Joanna Brzeska
    2014, 13(6): 1193-1205.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60753-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Developing and developed countries alike are increasingly facing the difficult question of how to feed more people amidst a host of emerging demographic, environmental, and health challenges. At the same time, in addition to food quantity, increased attention is being given to food quality attributes, in particular nutrition and safety. This is especially evident in China, where concerns are on the rise regarding the ability of China’s food production systems to deliver nutritious and safe food to a growing, urbanizing and more affluent population. These food and nutrition concerns come at a time when China is an increasingly influential actor within the global food security network through activities such as production, consumption and trade. We argue that China has the opportunity to increase food and nutrition security both nationally and globally through a comprehensive policy agenda that focuses on institutional reforms, investments for and in agriculture, productive social safety nets, mutually beneficial trade, and the exchange of know-how and technologies among developing countries and donors. This agenda will help China adapt its food production systems to the changing face of agriculture and to play a vital role in addressing the emerging challenges facing food and nutrition security within and beyond China in the coming decades.
    Crop Genetics · Breeding · Germplasm Resources
    Wheat PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION 5 is Involved in Tolerance to Photoinhibition
    WANG Yuan-ge, HE Xue, MA Wen-ying, ZHAO Xue-qiang, LI Bin , TONG Yi-ping
    2014, 13(6): 1206-1215.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60604-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) often experiences photoinhibition due to strong light during the grain filling stage. As such, increasing the tolerance of wheat to photoinhibition is very desirable in breeding efforts focused on increasing grain yields. Previous reports have suggested that PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION 5 (PGR5) plays a central role in the generation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane (DpH) and in acclimation to high light intensity conditions. Three PGR5 homoeologues were isolated from wheat, and mapped onto chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D, respectively. The TaPGR5s shared highly similar genomic sequences and gene structures. The transcripts of TaPGR5s were found to be abundantly expressed in the flag leaves, and were transiently up-regulated by treatment with high light. High light treatment inhibited the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). Further, these inhibitions were more evident in the leaves with reduced expression of TaPGR5s achieved using virus-induced gene silencing methods. Moreover, reducing TaPGR5 expression impaired the induction of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), which caused more severe cell membrane damage and lipid peroxidation in high light. Additionally, we observed that TaPGR5s transcripts were more abundantly expressed in the wheat genotypes with higher ms-delayed light emission (ms-DLE), a value reflecting transthylakoid DpH. These results suggested that TaPGR5s play important roles in the tolerance of wheat to photoinhibition.
    Genome-Wide Expression Profile of Maize Root Response to Phosphorus Deficiency Revealed by Deep Sequencing
    SU Shun-zhong, WU Ling, LIU Dan, LU Yan-li, LIN Hai-jian, ZHANG Shu-zhi, SHEN Ya-ou, LIU Hai-lan, ZHANG Zhi-ming, RONG Ting-zhao, ZHANG Xiao, TIAN Yue-hui, NIE Zhi , GAO Shi-bin
    2014, 13(6): 1216-1229.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60614-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Phosphorus (P) is one of the three primary macronutrients that are required in large amounts for plant growth and development. To better understand molecular mechanism of maize and identify relevant genes in response to phosphorus deficiency, we used Solexa/Illumina’s digital gene expression (DGE) technology to investigate six genome-wide expression profiles of seedling roots of the low-P tolerant maize inbred line 178. DGE studies were conducted at 6, 24 and 72 h under both phosphorus deficient and sufficient conditions. Approximately 3.93 million raw reads for each sample were sequenced and 6 816 genes exhibited significant levels of differential expressions in at least one of three time points in response to P starvation. The number of genes with increased expression increased over time from 6 to 24 h, whereas genes with decreased expression were more abundant at 72 h, suggesting a gradual response process for P deficiency at different stages. Gene annotations illustrated that most of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are involved in different cellular and molecular processes such as environmental adaptation and carbohydrate metabolism. The expression of some known genes identified in other plants, such as those involved in root architecture, P metabolism and transport were found to be altered at least two folds, indicating that the mechanisms of molecular and morphological adaptation to P starvation are conserved in plants. This study provides insight into the general molecular mechanisms underlying plant adaptation to low-P stress and thus may facilitate molecular breeding for improving P utilization in maize.
    Cloning, Localization and Expression Analysis of ZmHsf-like Gene in Zea mays
    LI Hui-cong, LI Guo-liang, LIU Zi-hui, ZHANG Hong-mei, ZHANG Yan-min , GUO Xiu-lin
    2014, 13(6): 1230-1238.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60572-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Using homology cloning method, a heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) like gene, ZmHsf-like, was cloned from maize (Zea mays) leaves. Sequence analyses showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of the gene ZmHsf-like is 1404 bp long, encoding 467 amino acids. The sequence of amino acids encoded by ZmHsf-like contains the most conserved and typical DNA-binding domain of Hsf family. By bombardment into onion epidermis, we firstly found that the ZmHsf-like was subcellular-located in nucleus. NucPred analysis revealed there is a classic NLS of KKRR peptide in protein. Real-time PCR showed that ZmHsf-like gene expressed in leaves, stems and roots of maize seedlings under normal growth conditions, and the highest expression level was in roots, lower in leaves and the lowest in stems. The ZmHsf-like gene expression could be up-regulated by heat shock, PEG, ABA, and H2O2 in different degrees, among which the heat shock and ABA worked more efficiently. Obvious differences of the peak value and its corresponding time point of ZmHsf-like gene expression were observed among treatments. Experiments with inhibitor further suggested that the up-regulation ZmHsf-like gene expression of heat shock was H2O2-dependent while the induction of ZmHsf-like with PEG did not depend on the existence of H2O2. These results pointed out that ZmHsf-like gene probably regulates responsive reactions to abiotic stresses especially heat shock and drought through different signal transduction pathways.
    Analysis of MIKCC-Type MADS-Box Gene Family in Gossypium hirsutum
    JIANG Su-cheng, PANG Chao-you, SONG Mei-zhen, WEI Heng-ling, FAN Shu-li , YU Shu-xun
    2014, 13(6): 1239-1249.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60520-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    MIKCC-type MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are involved in plant developmental control and signal transduction. Few Gossypium hirsutum MADS-box genes have been reported thus far. Recently, the genome of Gossypium raimondii, considering the contributor of the D subgenome to G. hirsutum, was sequenced and provided a valuable resource to identify and analyze multiple MADS-box genes in G. hirsutum. Here we comprehensively analyzed 53 MIKCC-type MADSbox genes, including 34 newly cloned genes. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes with those from Arabidopsis and grapevine showed that the FLC and AGL12 subfamilies were absent in G. hirsutum. Proteins within a gene subfamily tended to share conserved motifs, and large differences occurred among subfamilies. Expression analysis in multiple tissues and floral organs implied differing roles for the subfamilies in G. hirsutum. At nine loci, two or three genes co-occurred, indicating that they came from different subgenomes; these groups had similar expression patterns. The identification of MIKCC-type MADSbox genes in G. hirsutum provides a valuable resource for further research into flowering time, flower development and ovule development in this important crop plant.
    Crop Genetics · Breeding · Germplasm Resources
    Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Reveals Different Responses of Two Varieties of Gossypium arboreum L. Under Apolygus lucorum Stress
    ZHANG Shuai, LI Jing, Lü Li-min, WANG Chun-yi, LUO Jun-yu , CUI Jin-jie
    2014, 13(6): 1250-1257.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60578-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Plants reshape their transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes in response to insect damage. In this study, we used suppression subtractive hybridization to investigate the transcriptomes of two cotton varieties (CCRI41 and CCRI23) under Apolygus lucorum damage. From the CCRI23 libraries we obtained 92 transcripts and from the CCRI41 libraries we obtained 96 transcripts. 26 and 63 of the transcripts from CCRI23 and CCRI41, respectively, had known functions. Using reverse transcription PCR, we detected expression profile of genes with known functions. Ultimately, we identified eight significantly regulated genes, including one downregulated and four upregulated genes from the CCRI41 libraries, and one downregulated and two upregulated genes from the CCRI23 libraries. Only the gene encoding the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is involved in plant defense against insect herbivores, and the others are related to improving tolerance to insect damage. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to study changes in expression levels during A. lucorum damage in CCRI23 and CCRI41. Significantly regulated genes from CCRI23 showed a response in CCRI23 but not response in CCRI41. Similarly, significantly regulated genes from CCRI41 showed a response in CCRI41 but not response in CCRI23. The results showed that, among transcriptomes of cotton varieties, there are different responses to A. lucorum damage.
    Diversity of Antioxidant Content and Its Relationship to Grain Color and Morphological Characteristics in Winter Wheat Grains
    MA Dong-yun, SUN De-xiang, ZUO Yi, WANG Chen-yang, ZHU Yun-ji , GUO Tian-cai
    2014, 13(6): 1258-1267.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60573-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The current interest in the health benefits of whole wheat grain has prompted breeders to further increase the concentration of antioxidants in wheat. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation in antioxidant content among Chinese wheat grains and the relationship between antioxidants and grain color and morphological characteristics. A wide variation was observed in the total phenolic, carotenoid and flavonoid contents, as well as the antioxidant activity (AOA), of Chinese wheat varieties. Black wheat had the highest mean total phenolic, carotenoid and flavonoid contents and the highest AOA, followed by red and white wheats. The grain color parameters were significantly negatively correlated with total phenolic, carotenoid and flavonoid contents and AOA among all of the wheat varieties examined, and grain weight was also significantly negatively correlated with these traits. The same correlation between grain weight and antioxidant traits was also observed within individual groups of wheat, which indicates that grain weight may be used as an index for selecting wheat varieties with high AOA. Landraces had significantly higher flavonoid content than commercial wheat varieties. The results of this study may be useful for breeding nutrient-rich wheat varieties.
    Effect of Partial Root-Zone Irrigating Deuterium Oxide on the Properties of Water Transportation and Distribution in Young Apple Trees
    LIU Song-zhong, ZHANG Qiang, LIU Jun, SUN Jian , WEI Qin-ping
    2014, 13(6): 1268-1275.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60623-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) has been proved to be an optimal water-saving irrigation technology, however, few studies were done on water transportation and distribution under PRI. The present study was performed to investigate the water transportation and distribution among the wet and dry root-zones and the shoot using deuterium water (D2O) in 1/4 root-zone PRI experiment. It also aimed to determine and analyze the D2O relative abundance within different types of roots and shoots. The results indicated that water could be transported from roots in wet root-zone to roots in dry root-zone and shoots within 2 h after irrigation. Water transportation in roots of wet-zone was carried out by absorbing root, 1-2 mm root, 2-5 mm root, and >5 mm root progressively, while through a reverse process in three dry root-zones. In shoots, water was transported to trunk, central trunk, annual branches, shoot and leaf progressively. Thus in the young apple trees subjected to PRI, water was distributed first in the roots, including the roots in the wet and dry root-zones, to satisfy the water need of roots itself, and then transported to the shoot within hours of irrigation.
    Effects of NaCl and Iso-Osmotic Polyethylene Glycol Stress on Na+/H+ Antiport Activity of Three Malus species with Different Salt Tolerance
    YANG Hong-bing, DONG Chun-hai, XU Xue-feng, WANG Yi , HAN Zhen-hai
    2014, 13(6): 1276-1283.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60627-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Salt stress contains osmotic and ionic stress, while iso-osmotic polyethylene glycol (PEG) has only osmotic stress. This study aimed to compare the different effects on the activity of H+-ATPase, proton pump and Na+/H+ antiport in Malus seedlings between osmotic and ionic stress. Species of salt tolerant Malus zumi, middle salt tolerant Malus xiaojinensis and salt sensitive Malus baccata were used as experimental materials. Malus seedlings were treated with NaCl and iso-osmotic PEG stress. The activity of H+-ATPase, proton pump and Na+/H+ antiport of plasmolemma and tonoplast in Malus seedlings were obviously increased under salt stress, and those in salt-tolerant species increased more. Under the same NaCl concentration, the activity of H+- ATPase, proton pump and Na+/H+ antiport of plasmolemma and tonoplast in salt-tolerant species were all obviously higher than those in salt-sensitive one. Higher Na+/H+ antiport activity of plasmolemma and tonoplast in salt-tolerant species could help to extrude and compartmentalize sodium in roots under salt stress. The ascent rate of activity of H+-ATPase, proton pump and Na+/ H+ antiport in Malus seedlings under the three salt concentration stress was all obviously higher than that under the iso-osmotic PEG stress. It indicated that the sodium ion effect had more stimulation on the activity of H+-ATPase, proton pump and Na+/H+ antiport in salt-tolerant species, and salt-tolerant species has higher capability of sodium extrusion and compartmentalization in roots and is therefore more salt tolerant.
    Development of a Vehicle-Mounted Crop Detection System
    ZHONG Zhen-jiang, SUN Hong, LI Min-zan, ZHANG Feng , LI Xiu-hua
    2014, 13(6): 1284-1292.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60617-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    In order to monitor plant chlorophyll content in real-time, a new vehicle-mounted detection system was developed to measure crop canopy spectral characteristics. It was designed to work as a wireless sensor network with one control unit and one measuring unit. The control unit included a personal digital assistant (PDA) device with a ZigBee wireless network coordinator. As the coordinator of the whole wireless network, the control unit was used to receive, display and store all the data sent from sensor nodes. The measuring unit consisted of several optical sensor nodes. All the sensor nodes were mounted on an on-board mechanical structure so that the measuring unit could collect the canopy spectral data while moving. Each sensor node contained four optical channels to measure the light radiation at the wavebands of 550, 650, 766, and 850 nm. The calibration tests verified a good performance in terms of the wireless transmission ability and the sensor measurement precision. Both stationary and moving field experiments were also conducted in a winter wheat experimental field. There was a high correlation between chlorophyll content and vegetation index, and several estimation models of the chlorophyll content were established. The highest R2 of the estimation models was 0.718. The results showed that the vehicle-mounted crop detection system has potential for field application.
    Plant Protection
    Pathotypes and Genetic Diversity of Chinese Collections of Elsinoë fawcettii Causing Citrus Scab
    HOU Xin, HUANG Feng, ZHANG Tian-yuan, XU Jian-guo, Hyde D Kevin , LI Hong-ye
    2014, 13(6): 1293-1302.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60522-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Two scab diseases are currently recognized on citrus: citrus scab, caused by Elsinoë fawcettii, and sweet orange scab, caused by E. australis. Although these pathogens are economically important, there is no molecular data on these species in China. Here we use internal transcribed spacer sequence data to report on host-specificity and genetic relationships among 46 isolates collected from the main citrus varieties grown across China. All strains isolated were E. fawcettii. Based on pathogenicity testing on 9 different citrus species, isolates were divided into 11 pathotypes (SM, FBHR, SJCR, SPOJCR, SR, SOJG, SPOJC, SRGC, Lemon and two unnamed pathotypes). SM is a new pathotype, and two isolates did not fit into any of the known pathotypes of E. fawcettii. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR-PCR) assays separated the E. fawcettii isolates into 10 subgroups; the groupings basically corresponded to the pathogenicity test.
    Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis of a New Acid Phosphatase Gene (Ha-acp1) from Heterodera avenae
    LIU Yan-ke, HUANG Wen-kun, LONG Hai-bo, PENG Huan, HE Wen-ting , PENG De-liang
    2014, 13(6): 1303-1310.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60536-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    For sedentary endo-parasitic nematodes, parasitism genes encoding secretory protein expressed in the subventral glands cells always play an important role during the early parasitic process. A new acid phosphatase gene (Ha-acp1) expressed in the subventral glands of the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) was cloned and the characteristics of the gene were analyzed. Results showed that the gene had a putative signal peptide for secretion and in situ hybridization showed that the transcripts of Ha-acp1 accumulated specifically in the subventral gland cells of H. avenae. Southern blot analysis suggested that Ha-acp1 belonged to a multigene family. RT-PCR analysis indicated that this transcription was strong at the pre-parasitic juveniles. Knocking down Ha-acp1 using RNA interference technology could reduce nematode infectivity by 50%, and suppress the development of cyst. Results indicated that Ha-acp1 could play an important role in destroying the defense system of host plants.
    Effects of Various Degrees of Antennal Ablation on Mating and Oviposition Preferences of the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella L.
    YAN Xi-zhong, DENG Cai-ping, SUN Xue-jun, HAO Chi
    2014, 13(6): 1311-1319.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(14)60762-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Using scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the distribution of the trichoid, basiconic, and coeloconic sensilla on the antennae of the diamondback moth (DBM; Plutella xylostella). The trichoid sensilla were the most abundant sensory organ, and the male moth antennae host significantly more trichoid sensilla than female moth antennae. Conversely, basiconic and coeloconic sensilla were found more frequently on female than on male antennae. We performed experiments with various degrees of antennal ablation and demonstrated that DBM antennae played a key role in the control of mating and oviposition. We found that neither oviposition preference nor mating behaviors changed significantly when less than 1/4 of both antennae were removed. However, there was a significant behavioral change when the antennae were ablated by more than half. As the length of the antenna was shortened, the successful mating rate decreased and mating peak was delayed. An otherwise consistent host preference for oviposition was eliminated when both antennae were completely removed. Furthermore, we found that the number of trichoid sensilla was positively correlated with mating rate and oviposition preference. However, the numbers of basiconic and coeloconic sensilla were not correlated with mating rate and mating peak, but highly correlated with oviposition preference. Taken together, our results indicate that antennal sensory information plays a critical role in the mating and oviposition behaviors of this economically important pest.
    Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Novel Camptothecin Derivatives Containing Analogs of Chrysanthemic Acid Moieties
    DENG Li, ZHANG Lan, CAO Li-dong, XIE Ru-liang, ZHANG Yan-ning, HE Wei-zhi , JIANG Hong-yun
    2014, 13(6): 1320-1330.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60612-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Creating high-efficient and environment-friendly pesticides is very important to produce the pollution free agriculture food and maintain the balance of the survival environmental of the human being. According to reports, camptothecin (CPT) and its derivatives are now being explored as a class of botanical insecticide in agriculture due to its novel mode of action. In order to improve the insecticidal activity of CPT, ten novel camptothecin (1) and 10-hydroxycamptothecin (2) derivatives (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e; 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e) were designed and synthesized via esterification with analogs of chrysanthemic acid, which have outstanding insecticidal activity. The results showed that compound 2a exhibited potent antifeeding effect and the best contact toxicity among the target compounds against the third-instar larvae of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner. Compound 2a was also found to be the most effective cytotoxic compound to the tested insect cell lines, IOZCAS-Spex-II, which were established from the fat bodies of S. exigua. It was proposed that the 10-hydroxyl group in the camptothecin derivatives is a key factor for the antifeeding activity of a compound. The nature of the substituents was considered the major factor in determining the insecticidal activity of these compounds.
    Animal Science · Veterinary Science
    Dynamic Expression of MicroRNA-127 During Porcine Prenatal and Postnatal Skeletal Muscle Development
    YANG Ya-lan, LI Yan, LIANG Ru-yi, ZHOU Rong, AO Hong, MU Yu-lian, YANG Shu-lin, LI Kui , TANG Zhong-lin
    2014, 13(6): 1331-1339.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60419-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), evolutionarily conserved non-coding RNAs in length 21-24 bp, play a critical role in skeletal muscle development. In this study, to explore the function of mircoRNA-127 in porcine skeletal muscle development, eight tissue samples from adult pigs and longissimus muscle samples at 26 developmental stages were collected from Tongcheng and Landrace pigs. The spatial-temporal expression profiles of miRNA-127 were carried out using step-loop quantitative real-time PCR (stem- loop RT-PCR). To explore the molecular functions of miRNA-127, we predicted its target genes and performed functional annotation using bioinformatics methods. Results suggested that miRNA-127 was abundantly expressed in heart, ovary, uterus and spleen tissues and was weakly expressed in liver, lung, kidney and small intestine in both Tongcheng and Landrace pigs. And miRNA-127 showed significant expression differences in heart, ovary, spleen and uterus tissues between these two breeds. miRNA-127 basically kept at a relatively stable high level in middle and later embryonic stages and a low expression level in early embryonic stages and postnatal stages, but the expression levels of miRNA-127 were higher in Tongcheng pigs than in Landrace at most developmental stages. miRNA-127 potentially regulated 240 candidate genes. Results of Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that these genes could be involved in many molecular functions and mechanisms, such as regulation of the force of heart contraction, regulation of transcription, regulation of T cell differentiation, MAPK signaling pathway and GnRH signaling pathway. Many significantly enriched GO terms and KEGG pathways were related to skeletal muscle development. This study will be helpful to understand the biological function for miRNA-127 and identify candidate gene associated with meat production traits in pigs.
    Comparison of Fecal Methanogenic Archaeal Community Between Erhualian and Landrace Pigs Using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Real-Time PCR Analysis
    SU Yong, Hauke Smidt , ZHU Wei-Yun
    2014, 13(6): 1340-1348.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60529-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Erhualian and Landrace breeds are typical genetically obese and lean pigs, respectively. To compare the fecal methanogenic Archaeal community between these two pig breeds, fecal samples from different growth phase pigs were collected and used for PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with two primer pairs (344fGC/519r and 519f/915rGC) and real-time PCR analysis. Results showed that a better separation and higher quality of bands pattern were obtained in DGGE profiles using primers 344fGC/519r as compared with primers 519f/915rGC. Sequencing of DGGE bands showed that the predominant methanogens in the feces of Erhualian and Landrace pigs belonged to Methanobrevibacter spp. and Methanosphaera spp. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the numbers of fecal total methanogens between Erhualian and Landrace pigs; however, pig growth phase affected the numbers of 16S rRNA genes of total methanogens and Methanobrevibacter smithii. Dissociation curves of methyl coenzyme-M reductase subunit A (mcrA) gene fragments amplified with real-time PCR showed all samples possessed a single peak at 82°C, which might be associated with M. smithii. Samples from the same growth phase of each breed showed good replicative dissociation curves. The results suggest that the growth phase (including diet factor) other than genotype of pig may affect the fecal methanogenic Archaeal community of pigs.
    Milk Yield of Holstein Cows Induced into Lactation Twice Consecutively and Lactation Curve Models Fitted to Artificial Lactations
    Jesus Mellado, Edgar Sepulveda, Jose E Garcia, Alvaro Rodriguez, Maria A De Santiago, Francisco G Veliz , Miguel Mellado
    2014, 13(6): 1349-1354.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60512-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Nineteen multiparous barren Holstein cows were subjected to an induction of lactation protocol for 21 d administering estradiol cypionate (2 mg kg-1 of body weight (BW) d-1, on day 1 to 14), progesterone (0.10 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 1 to 7), flumethasone (0.03 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 18 to 20) and recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST; 500 mg per cow, on day 1, 6, 16 and 21). At the end of lactation and with a minimum of a 2-mon dry period, the same cows were again hormonally induced into lactation. Cows in both lactations were not artificially inseminated, they were milked 3 times daily and received rbST throughout lactation. Mean accumulated milk yield at 305 d in milk (DIM) did not differ between the first and second induced lactations ((9 710 ±1728) vs. (9309±2150) kg; mean±SD). Total milk yield ((12707±3406) vs. (12306±4218) kg; mean±SD) and lactation length ((405±100) vs. (410±91) d; mean±SD) were not different between the first and second induced lactations. In a second study, 15 empirical models including exponential, power law, yield-density, sigmoidal and miscellaneous models were compared for their suitability by modeling 12-mon (n=334), 18-mon (n=164) and 29-mon (n=22) lactation cycles of Holsteins cows induced into lactation and treated with rbST throughout the lactation. Hoerl (Y= ab1/xxc), Wood (Y=axb exp(cx)) and Dhanoa (Y=ax(bc)exp(cx)) models were equally suitable to describe 12-mon lactations. An exponential model with five parameters (Y=exp(a+bx+cd2+e/x)) showed the best fit for milk yield for 18-mon lactations. The rational model (Y=a+bx/1+cx+dx2) was found to produce the closest fit for 29-mon lactations. It was concluded that, with the protocol used in the present study, multiparous cows respond favorably to a second cycle of induced lactation, with milk yield similar to that experienced during the first cycle. Thus, dairy producers might be able to lengthen the productive life of infertile high producing cows with a renewal of artificial lactation, which would imply an overall reduction in voluntary culling of cows. Also, various equations used to describe the lactation curves demonstrated the potential for fitting monthly milk records of Holstein cows with prolonged lactations and induced hormonally into lactation
    Study on Hsp90 Expression in Different Tissues and Its Antibody in Serum of Chickens Infected with Marek’s Diseases
    LI Yu-bao, LI Juan, WANG Zhi-liang , LIU Si-dang
    2014, 13(6): 1355-1362.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60514-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    To investigate the dynamic change of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in the genesis and development of tumor, we successfully established tumor animal model using Marek’s disease and then determined the location of Hsp90 in the tumor tissue using immunohistochemistry method, the antibody titer level of Hsp90 in the serum and the expression level in the tissue using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Our result showed that Hsp90 location in the tumor tissue was significantly associated with the tumor cell and most in the cytoplasm of the tumor cell, and Hsp90 expression level in the tissue and the antibody titer level in the serum was most significantly increased with the development of tumor. This is the first report to show the presence of Hsp90 in tumor tissues induced by the Marek’s disease, with its expression correlated to the tumoral grading. These data may also be valuable for developing new molecular anti-cancer therapies.
    Soil & Fertilization · Irrigation · Agro-Ecology & Environment
    Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions Under Maize-Legume Intercropping System in the North China Plain
    HUANG Jian-xiong, CHEN Yuan-quan, SUI Peng, NIE Sheng-wei, GAO Wang-sheng
    2014, 13(6): 1363-1372.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60509-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Many studies have focused on various agricultural management measures to reduce agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. However, few studies have investigated soil N2O emissions in intercropping systems in the North China Plain. Thus, we conducted a field experiment to compare N2O emissions under monoculture and maize-legume intercropping systems. In 2010, five treatments, including monocultured maize (M), maize-peanut (MP), maize-alfalfa (MA), maize-soybean (MS), and maize-sweet clover (MSC) intercropping were designed to investigate this issue using the static chamber technique. In 2011, M, MP, and MS remained, and monocultured peanuts (P) and soybean (S) were added to the trial. The results showed that total production of N2O from different treatments ranged from (0.87±0.12) to (1.17±0.11) kg ha-1 in 2010, while those ranged from (3.35±0.30) to (9.10±2.09) kg ha-1 in 2011. MA and MSC had no significant effect on soil N2O production compared to that of M (P<0.05). Cumulative N2O emissions from MP in 2010 were significantly lower than those from M, but the result was the opposite in 2011 (P<0.05). MS significantly reduced soil N2O emissions by 25.55 and 48.84% in 2010 and 2011, respectively (P<0.05). Soil N2O emissions were significantly correlated with soil water content, soil temperature, nitrification potential, soil NH4 +, and soil NO3 - content (R2=0.160-0.764, P<0.01). A stepwise linear regression analysis indicated that soil N2O release was mainly controlled by the interaction between soil moisture and soil NO3 - content (R2=0.828, P<0.001). These results indicate that MS had a coincident effect on soil N2O flux and significantly reduced soil N2O production compared to that of M over two growing seasons.
    Effects of Oxytetracycline on Methane Production and the Microbial Communities During Anaerobic Digestion of Cow Manure
    KE Xin, WANG Chun-yong, LI Run-dong , ZHANG Yun
    2014, 13(6): 1373-1381.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60683-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The effects of different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (37°C) of cow manure were investigated. Before anaerobic digestion, OTC was added to digesters at concentrations of 20, 50, and 80 mg L-1, respectively. Compared with no-antibiotic control, all methane productions underwent different levels of inhibition at different concentrations of OTC. Changes in the bacterial and archaeal communities were discussed by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results showed that OTC affected the richness and diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities. The bacterial genus Flavobacterium and an uncultured bacterium (JN256083.1) were detected throughout the entire process of anaerobic digestion and seemed to be the functional bacteria. Methanobrevibacter boviskoreani and an uncultured archaeon (FJ230982.1) dominated the archaeal communities during anaerobic digestion. These microorganisms may have high resistance to OTC and may play vital roles in methane production.
    Long Term Effects of Farming System on Soil Water Content and Dry Soil Layer in Deep Loess Profile of Loess Tableland in China
    CHENG Li-ping, LIU Wen-zhao
    2014, 13(6): 1382-1392.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60292-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Soil water is strongly affected by land use/cover in the Loess Plateau in China. Water stored in thick loessal soils is one of the most important resources regulating vegetation growth. However, soil water in the deep loess profile, which is critical for maintaining the function of the “soil water pool” is rarely studied because deep profile soil samples are difficult to collect. In this study, four experimental plots were established in 2005 to represent different farming systems on the Changwu Tableland: fallow land, fertilized cropland, unfertilized cropland, and continuous alfalfa. The soil water content in the 15-m-deep loess profiles was monitored continuously from 2007 to 2012 with the neutron probe technique. The results showed that temporal variations in soil water profiles differed among the four farming systems. Under fallow land, the soil water content increased gradually over time, first in the surface layers and later in the deep soil layers. In contrast, the soil water content decreased gradually under continuous alfalfa. The distributions of soil water in deep soil layers under both fertilized and unfertilized cropland were relatively stable over time. Thus farming system significantly affected soil water content. Seven years after the start of the experiment, the soil water contents in the 15-m-deep profiles averaged 23.4% under fallow land, 20.3% under fertilized cropland, 21.6% under unfertilized cropland, and 16.0% under continuous alfalfa. Compared to measurements at the start of the experiment, both fallow land and unfertilized cropland increased soil water storage in the 15-m loess profiles. In contrast, continuous alfalfa reduced soil water storage. Fertilized cropland has no significant effect on soil water storage. These results suggest that deep soil water can be replenished under the fallow and unfertilized farming systems. Dry soil layers (i.e., those which have soil water content less than the stable field water capacity) in the subsoil of the Changwu Tableland region can be classified as either temporary dry soil layers or persistent dry soil layers. Temporary dry soil layers, which typically form under annual crops, often disappear during wet years. Persistent dry soil layers generally develop under perennial vegetation. Even after removing the vegetation, persistent dry soil layers remain for several decades. This study provides information useful for the conservation and utilization of soil water resources in the Loess Tableland.
    Agricultural Economics And Management
    Research on Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Driving Factor of Agricultural Carbon Emissions in China
    TIAN Yun, ZHANG Jun-biao, HE Ya-ya
    2014, 13(6): 1393-1403.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60624-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Macroscopic grasp of agricultural carbon emissions status, spatial-temporal characteristics as well as driving factors are the basic premise in further research on China’s agricultural carbon emissions. Based on 23 kinds of major carbon emission sources including agricultural materials inputs, paddy field, soil and livestock breeding, this paper firstly calculated agricultural carbon emissions from 1995 to 2010, as well as 31 provinces and cities in 2010 in China. We then made a decomposed analysis to the driving factors of carbon emissions with logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) model. The results show: (1) The amount of agricultural carbon emissions is 291.1691 million t in 2010. Compared with 249.5239 million t in 1995, it increased by 16.69%, in which, agricultural materials inputs, paddy field, soil, enteric fermentation, and manure management accounted for 33.59, 22.03, 7.46, 17.53 and 19.39% of total agricultural carbon emissions, respectively. Although the amount exist ups and downs, it shows an overall trend of cyclical rise; (2) There is an obvious difference among regions: the amount of agricultural carbon emissions from top ten zones account for 56.68%, while 9.84 % from last 10 zones. The traditional agricultural provinces, especially the major crop production areas are the main source regions. Based on the differences of carbon emission rations, 31 provinces and cities are divided into five types, namely agricultural materials dominant type, paddy field dominant type, enteric fermentation dominant type, composite factors dominant type and balanced type. The agricultural carbon emissions intensity in west of China is the highest, followed by the central region, and the east zone is the lowest; (3) Compared with 1995, efficiency, labor and structure factors cut down carbon emissions by 65.78, 27.51 and 3.19%, respectively; while economy factor increase carbon emissions by 113.16%.
    Welfare and Market Impacts of Food Safety Measures in China: Results from Urban Consumers’ Valuation of Product Attributes
    David L. Ortega, H. Holly Wang , Nicole J. Olynk Widmar
    2014, 13(6): 1404-1411.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60676-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    This study provides an economics assessment of various food safety measures in China. A choice experiment approach is used to elicit Chinese consumer preferences for various food safety attributes using data from a 2008 urban consumer survey. An alternative welfare calculation is used to model aggregate market impacts of select food safety measures. Our results show that the largest welfare gains are found in the current government-run certification program. The implementation of a third-party certification system, a traceability network and a product label would generate significant value and would help reduce current system inefficiencies in China. This study builds on previous research and provides an alternative approach for calculating consumer valuation of safety and quality attributes that can be used to estimate aggregate economic and welfare impacts.