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    Crop Genetics · Breeding · Germplasm Resources
    Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Sichuan Common Wheat Landraces in China by SSR Markers
    LI Wei, BIAN Chun-mei, WEI Yu-ming, LIU An-jun, CHEN Guo-yue, PU Zhi-en, LIU Ya-xi, ZHENG You-liang
    2013, 12(9): 1501-1511.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60418-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Genetic diversity of 62 Sichuan wheat landraces accessions of China was investigated by agronomic traits and SSR markers. The landrace population showed the characters of higher tiller capability and more kernels/spike, especially tiller no./plant of six accessions was over 40 and kernels/spike of three accessions was more than 70. A total of 547 alleles in 124 polymorphic loci were detected with an average of 4.76 alleles per locus by 114 SSR markers. Parameters analysis indicated that the genetic diversity ranked as genome A> genome B > genome D, and the homoeologous groups ranked as 5>4>3>1>2>7>6 based on genetic richness (Ri). Furthermore, chromosomes 2A, 1B and 3D had more diversity than that of chromosomes 4A, 7A and 6B. The variation of SSR loci on chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2D, 3B, and 4B implied that, in the past, different selective pressures might have acted on different chromosome regions of these landraces. Our results suggested that Sichuan common wheat landraces is a useful genetic resource for genetic research and wheat improvement.
    Characterization of Quantitative Trait Loci for Grain Minerals in Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    SHI Rong-li, TONG Yi-ping, JING Rui-lian, ZHANG Fu-suo , ZOU Chun-qin
    2013, 12(9): 1512-1521.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60559-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Wheat is an important source of essential minerals for human body. Breeding wheat with high grain mineral concentration thus benefits human health. The objective of present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling grain mineral concentration and to evaluate the relation between nitrogen (N) and other essential minerals in winter wheat. Wheat grains were harvested from field experiment which conducted in China and analyzed for this purpose. Forty-three QTLs controlling grain mineral concentration and nitrogen-related traits were detected by using a double haploid (DH) population derived from winter wheat varieties Hanxuan 10 and Lumai 14. Chromosomes 4D and 5A might be very important in controlling mineral status in wheat grains. Significant positive correlations were found between grain nitrogen concentration (GNC) and nutrients Fe, Mn, Cu, Mg concentrations (FeGC, MnGC, CuGC, MgGC). Flag leaf N concentration at anthesis (FLNC) significantly and positively correlated with GNC, FeGC, MnGC, and CuGC. The study extended our knowledge on minerals in wheat grains and suggested which interactions between minerals should be considered in future breeding program.
    MicroRNA Primary Transcripts and Promoter Elements Analysis in Soybean (Glycine max L. Merril.)
    LI Jing, LIU Yong-xin, HAN Ying-peng, LI Yong-guang, GUO Mao-zu , LI Wen-bin
    2013, 12(9): 1522-1529.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60500-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The importance of microRNA (miRNA) at the post-transcriptional regulation level has recently been recognized in both animals and plants. In recent years, many studies focused on miRNA target identification and functional analysis. However, little is known about the transcription and regulation of miRNAs themselves. In this study, the transcription start sites (TSSs) for 11 miRNA primary transcripts of soybean from 11 miRNA loci (of 50 loci tested) were cloned by a 5´ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5´ RACE) procedure using total RNA from 30-d-old seedlings. The features consistent with a RNA polymerase II mechanism of transcription were found among these miRNA loci. A position weight matrix algorithm was used to identify conserved motifs in miRNA core promoter regions. A canonical TATA box motif was identified upstream of the major start site at 8 (76%) of the mapped miRNA loci. Several cis-acting elements were predicted in the 2 kb 5´ to the TSSs. Potential spatial and temporal expression patterns of the miRNAs were found. The target genes for these miRNAs were also predicted and further elucidated for the potential function of the miRNAs. This research provides a molecular basis to explore regulatory mechanisms of miRNA expression, and a way to understand miRNAmediated regulatory pathways and networks in soybean.
    Characterization and Expression Analysis of Starch Branching Enzymes in Sweet Potato
    QIN Hua, ZHOU Shuang , ZHANG Yi-zheng
    2013, 12(9): 1530-1539.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60369-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Spatial and temporal expression patterns of Sbe1 and Sbe2 that encode starch branching enzyme (SBE) I and II, respectively, in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) were analyzed. Expression of both genes in Escherichia coli indicate that both genes encoded active SBE. Analysis with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique indicates that IbSbe1 mRNA was expressed at very low levels in leaves but was the predominant isoform in tuberous root while the reverse case was found for IbSbe2. The expression pattern of IbSbe1, closely resembles that of AGPase S, a gene coding for one of the subunits of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, which is the key regulatory enzyme in the starch biosynthetic pathway. Western analysis detected at least two isoforms of SBE I in tuberous roots, those two isoforms showed adverse expression patterns with the development of the tuberous roots. Expression of the two IbSbe genes exhibited a diurnal rhythm during a 12-h cycle when fed a continuous solution of sucrose. Abscisic acid (ABA) was aother potent inducer of IbSbe expression, but bypassed the semidian oscillator.
    Physiology & Biochentry · Tillage · Cultivation
    Effect of Nitric Oxide on Alleviating Cadmium Toxicity in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
    ZHAO Xiu-feng, CHEN Lin, Muhammad I A Rehmani, WANG Qiang-sheng, WANG Shao-hua, HOU Pengfu, LI Gang-hua , DING Yan-feng
    2013, 12(9): 1540-1550.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60417-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule in plants that plays a key role in mediating a wide range of physiological processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the exogenous application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and Cd uptake in rice plants. Rice plants were exposed to Cd stress (0.2 mmol L-1 CdCl2) and different concentrations of SNP (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mmol L-1). A SNP concentration of 0.1 mmol L-1 (SNP10) significantly reduced the Cd-induced decrease in shoot and root dry weights and leaf chlorophyll concentrations. The addition of NO also reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ascorbic acid (ASA) concentrations. However, the reduction in glutathione (GSH) concentration was inhibited by NO treatment. Moreover, NO prevented the Cd-induced increase in antioxidative enzyme activity. The amount of Cd accumulation in rice plants was also influenced by the addition of NO. The NO supplied by the SNP enhanced the Cd tolerance of the rice by increasing the Cd uptake by the roots and decreasing the Cd accumulation by the shoots. However, the application of potassium ferrocyanide (Cd+Fe) or sodium nitrate and nitrite (Cd+N) (without NO release), did not exhibit the effects of the SNP. Furthermore, the effects of the SNP were reversed by the addition of hemoglobin (an NO scavenger). Our results suggested that exogenous NO was involved in the resistance of rice to Cdtoxicity.
    Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid or Gibberellin Acid Has Different Effects on Starch Granule Size Distribution in Grains of Wheat
    PENG Dian-liang, CAI Tie, YIN Yan-ping, YANG Wei-bing, NI Ying-li, YANG Dong-qing , WANG
    2013, 12(9): 1551-1559.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60557-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Granule size distribution of wheat starch is an important characteristic that can affect its chemical composition and the functionality of wheat products. Two high-yield winter wheat cultivars were used to evaluate the effects of the application of exogenous ABA or GA during the reproductive phase of the initial grain filling on starch granule size distribution and starch components in grains at maturity. The results indicated that a bimodal curve was found in the volume and surface area distribution of grain starch granules, and a unimodal curve was observed for the number distribution under all treatments. The exogenous ABA resulted in a significant increase in the proportions (both by volume and by surface area) of B-type (<9.9 μm in diameter) starch granules, with a reduction in those of A-type (>9.9 μm) starch granules, while, the exogenous GA3 led to converse effects on size distribution of those starch granules. The exogenous ABA also increased starch, amylose and amylopectin contents at maturity but significantly reduced the ratio of amylose to amylopectin. Application of GA3 significantly reduced starch content, amylopectin content but increased the ratio of amylose to amylopectin. The ratio of amylose to amylopectin showed a significant and negative relationship with the volume proportion of granules <9.9 μm, but was positively related to the volume proportion of granules 22.8-42.8 μm.
    Effect of Shading During Grain Filling on the Physicochemical Properties of Fresh Waxy Maize
    LU Da-lei, SUN Xu-li, WANG Xin, YAN Fa-bao , LU Wei-ping
    2013, 12(9): 1560-1567.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)9071
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Grain physicochemical properties determine the table quality of fresh waxy maize. Two waxy maize varieties, Suyunuo 5 (shading tolerant) and FHN003 (shading sensitive), were used to estimate the effect of shading (plants received 30% less radiation than control) during grain filling (from 0 d to 23 d after pollination) on physicochemical properties of fresh waxy maize grain. Shading decreased the grain fresh weight of Suyunuo 5 and FHN003 by 8.4 and 19.1%, respectively. Shading increased the grain water content of FHN003, whereas that of Suyunuo 5 was not affected. In both varieties for shading treatment, soluble sugar, starch and protein contents were decreased, whereas zein content was increased. The changes in globulin, albumin and glutenin contents under shading were variety dependent. In both varieties, shading decreased λmax, iodine binding capacity and the percentage of large starch granules (diameter >17 μm) but increased crystallinity. The results of rapid visco analysis showed that the viscosity characteristics (except for pasting temperature) of both varieties were decreased by shading; however, FHN003 was more severely affected than Suyunuo 5. Under shading, ΔHret and %R were decreased in both varieties, whereas the changes in ΔHgel and transition temperatures were variety dependent. Hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness were decreased in both varieties. Significant differences in physicochemical characteristics were observed between the two varieties.
    Impact of Tillage and Herbicides on Weed Density, Yield and Quality of Cotton in Wheat Based Cropping System
    Khalid Usman, Niamatullah Khan, Muhammad Umar Khan, Aziz ur Rehman , Said Ghulam
    2013, 12(9): 1568-1579.  DOI: 10.1016/s2095-3119(13)60339-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Conservation tillage may improve yield of cotton in addition to improvement in soil quality if practiced for longer period. However, the practice may not be productive in short-term particularly when severe weeds are infesting the crops such as Cynodon dactylon, Conyza canadensis, Tribulus terrestris, and Cyperus rotundus, etc. Recent studies indicate that conventional tillage (CT) is more productive than zero tillage (ZT)/reduced tillage (RT). Performance of cotton under three tillage systems, viz., ZT, RT and CT; and five herbicides, i.e., haloxyfop-R-methyl 10.8 EC (108 g a.i. ha-1), lactofen 24 EC (168 g a.i. ha-1), haloxyfop 10.8 EC + lactofen 24 EC, hand weeding, and weedy check were evaluated during 2010-2011 at Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan, to explore the best management option for effective weed control, enhanced yield and quality of cotton grown after wheat. The results revealed that hand weeding and Haloxyfop as post emergence alone or in combination with Lactofen reduced weed density to the minimum irrespective of the tillage systems. Excessive rainfall and cooler temperature limited cotton growth and yield in 2010. The adverse weather conditions had more adverse effect on boll weight under ZT and RT than CT. Haloxyfop + lactofen produced higher seed cotton yield in RT than ZT, however, it could not exceed CT. Broad-spectrum herbicides × CT produced the highest number of bolls/plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield. Fiber quality and net returns were also the highest in broad-spectrum herbicides × CT. In conclusion, broad-spectrum herbicides under CT were more productive in wheat based cropping system on silty clay soil of D.I.Khan.
    Plant Protection
    Postulation of Leaf Rust Resistance Genes in Seven Chinese Spring Wheat Cultivars
    SHI Li-hong, ZHANG Na, HU Ya-ya, WEI Xue-jun, YANG Wen-xiang , LIU Da-qun
    2013, 12(9): 1580-1588.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60566-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    To detect the leaf rust resistance genes in the 7 Chinese spring wheat clultivars Shenmian 99025, Shenmia 99042, Shenmian 85, Shenmian 91, Shenmian 96, Shenmian 1167 and Shenmian 962, Thatcher, Thatcher backgrounded near-isogenic lines and 15 pathotypes of P. triticina were used for gene postulate at the seedling stage, and 9 of the 15 pathotypes were used in the field tests. Molecular markers closely linked to, or co-segregated with resistance genes Lr1, Lr9, Lr10, Lr19, Lr20, Lr21, Lr24, Lr26, Lr28, Lr29, Lr32, Lr34, Lr35, Lr37, Lr38, and Lr47 were screened to assist detection of the resistance genes. As results, 4 known resistance genes, including Lr1, Lr9, Lr26, and Lr34, and other unknown resistance genes were postulated singly or in combination in the tested cultivars. Shenmian 85, Shenmian 91, Shenmian 96, Shenmian 962, Shenmian 1167, and Shenmian 99042 are potentially useful for wheat production and breeding programs. The result suggested that combining gene postulation, molecular markers and pedigrees is effective and more accuracy method to know the resistance genes in cultivars.
    Influence of Organic Amendments on Adsorption, Desorption and Leaching of Methiopyrisulfuron in Soils
    WU Chun-xian, NIE Guo, ZHANG Zhong-ming, WANG Guang-cheng, GAO Li-ming , WANG Jinjun
    2013, 12(9): 1589-1597.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60429-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Methiopyrisulfuron is a novel sulfonylurea herbicide with good activity for annual broadleaf and gramineal weeds control. Present study was to investigate the effects of organic amendments (including peat (PE), sewage sludge (SS), and humic acid (HA)) on adsorption, desorption and leaching of methiopyrisulfuron in soils. The batch equilibration technique was applied for adsorption-desorption experiments and the leaching was tested through soil column simulated experiments under laboratory conditions. The Freundlich model may well describe adsorption-desorption of methiopyrisulfuron on organic amendments, the natural soil, and amended soils. Organic amendments could not only greatly increase the adsorption capacity of methiopyrisulfuron, but also significantly enhance the hysteresis of desorption of methiopyrisulfuron. The correlations between Kf-ads and organic matter content of amended soils were significant, and the correlations between H and soil organic matter in amended soils with PE, SS, and HA were significant too. The results of soil column experiments indicated that organic amendments greatly decreased leaching of methiopyrisulfuron. This study suggested that PE, SS, and HA could greatly influence environmental behavior of methiopyrisulfuron in soils. Use of organic amendments might be an effective management practice for controlling potential pollution of methiopyrisulfuron to environment.
    The Binding Characterization of Cry Insecticidal Proteins to the Brush Border Membrane Vesicles of Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera litura and Agrotis ipsilon
    LU Qiong, CAO Guang-chun, ZHANG Li-li, LIANG Ge-mei, GAO Xi-wu, ZHANG Yong-jun , GUO Yu-yuan
    2013, 12(9): 1598-1605.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60427-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are effective biological insecticides against certain insect species. However, there are potential risks of the evolved resistance of insects to Cry toxin owing to decreased binding of toxins to target sites in the brush border membranes of the larva midgut. The Cry toxins with different binding sites in the larval midgut have been considered to be a good combination to deploy in delaying resistance evolution. Bioassay results demonstrated that the toxicity of different Cry toxins ranked differently for each species. The toxicity ranking was Cry1Ac>Cry1Ab>Cry2Ab for Helicoverpa armigera, Cry1B>Cry1C>Cry2Ab for Spodoptera exigua, and Cry2Ab>Cry1B> Cry1C for S. litura. Only Cry2Ab was toxic to Agrotis ipsilon. Binding experiments were performed with 125I-Cry1Ab, 125ICry1Ac, 125I-Cry1B, 125I-Cry1C, 125I-Cry2Ab and the brush border membranes vesicles (BBMV) from H. armigera, S. exigua, S. litura and A. ipsilon. The binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac was shown to be saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of H. armigera BBMV (Kd=(45.00±2.01) nmol L-1 and (12.80±0.18) nmol L-1, respectively; Bmax=(54.95±1.79) ng and (55.44±0.91) ng, separately). The binding of Cry1B was shown to be saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of S. exigua BBMV (Kd=(23.26±1.66) nmol L-1; Bmax=(65.37±1.87) ng). The binding of 125ICry toxins was shown to be non-saturable by incubating with increasing concentrations of S. litura and A. ipsilon BBMV. In contrast, Cry1B and Cry1C showed some combination with the BBMV of S. litura, and a certain amount of Cry2Ab could bind to the BBMV of A. ipsilon. These observations suggest that a future strategy could be devised for the focused combination of specific cry genes in transgenic crops to control target pests, widen the spectrum of insecticide effectiveness and postpone insect resistance evolution.
    Effects of Pesticide Applications on the Biochemical Properties of Transgenic cry 2A Rice and the Life History Parameters of Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Homptera: Delphacidae)
    SHI Zhao-peng, DU Shang-gen, YANG Guo-qing, LU Zhen-zhen , WU Jin-cai
    2013, 12(9): 1606-1613.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60596-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Effects of transgenic Bt rice on non-target pests following pesticide applications plays an important role in evaluating the ecological safety of transgenic rice. Changes of the life history parameters of laboratory population of Nilaparvata lugens feeding on transgenic Bt rice T2A-1 and its parental line cv. MH63 as the control, and the contents of oxalic acid and soluble sugar following three pesticides (triazophos, jinggangmycin and chlorantraniliprole) treatments were investigated in this paper. Results showed that the population parameters of N. lugens and the physiological and biochemical parameters of rice did not differ significantly between T2A-1 and MH63 without pesticide application. But, the emergence rate (ER), the nymphal number of next generation (NN), and the index of population trend (IP) on T2A-1 treated with 10 mg L-1 of triazophos were significantly higher than those on MH63, respectively, while the hatchability (HB) on T2A-1 treated with the three pesticides were obviously lower than those on MH 63. Furthermore, the content of oxalic acid in MH63 treated with 20 mg L-1 triazophos and, 40 and 80 mg L-1 chlorantraniliprole was significantly higher than that in T2A-1, while the content of soluble sugar in T2A-1 treated with 400 mg L-1 jinggangmycin was significantly higher than that in MH63. The results above indicated that triazophos in a low dose could cause a more favor of T2A-1 to population growth of N. lugens compared with MH 63.
    Animal Science · Veterinary Science
    Characterization of MicroRNA* Species in Peking Duck Skin
    ZHANG Li, XIE Xiu-juan, JIA Shan-gang, XIAO Mei, LIN Shu-dai, AN Li-long, LUO Wen, JIA Xinzheng, NIE Qing-hua , ZHANG Xi-quan
    2013, 12(9): 1614-1619.  DOI: 10.1016/s2095-3119(13)60494-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    A substantial fraction of miRNA* species are conserved in animals and can repress activities of target genes. This study aims to investigate the miRNA* species in duck skin by using Solexa sequencing. We obtained a total of 96 miRNA* species in two skin small RNA libraries and identified 56 miRNA/miRNA* (miR/miR*) pairs. Nucleotide bias of miRNA* indicated that the priority was C>A>U>G for the first nucleotide and U>C>A>G for the last nucleotide. Comparison analyses showed that 3´-U accounted for a higher proportion in the 56 miR/miR* pairs. Among the top 20 expressed miRNA* species, 17 were shared by two libraries and most of the miRNA* species were highly conservative, especially in the “seed region”. miR-199a* were expressed highly in our samples, which was also previously shown abundant in mouse hair follicle. Furthermore, four miRNA* species were predicted to target their genes in signal pathways of feather follicle development and feather morphogenesis despite very low levels.
    Plant Protection
    Reducing Dietary Cation-Anion Difference on Acid-Base Balance, Plasma Minerals Level and Anti-Oxidative Stress of Female Goats
    WU Wen-xuan, YANG Yi, ZHANG Ji-kun, LI Sheng-li
    2013, 12(9): 1620-1628.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60259-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Reducing dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) has been proved an effective way to prevent milk fever in dairy cows. Based on the similar physiological gastro-intestinal tract anatomy and metabolic process between female goats and dairy cows, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying DCAD on fluid acid-base status, plasma minerals concentration and anti-oxidative stress capacity of female goats. Urinary pH, plasma Ca, P and Mg; and anti-oxidative stress indices of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined to evaluate the effect. Forty-eight Guizhou black female goats ((15±1.9) mon of old, (22.3±3.75) kg of BW) were randomly allocated to 4 blocks of 12 goats each and were fed 1 of 4 diets differed in DCAD level (calculated as Na+K-Cl-S, mEq kg-1 DM). Levels of DCAD were preliminarily designed to be control (+150 mEq kg-1 DM, CON), high DCAD (+300 mEq kg-1 DM, HD), low DCAD (0 mEq kg-1 DM, LD) and negative DCAD (-150 mEq kg-1 DM, ND), respectively. A commercial anionic salts (Animate) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) were supplemented to reduce and increase DCAD level, respectively. There was no difference in dry matter intake for 4 groups of goats. Urine pH was aggressively decreased (P<0.0001) with reduced DCAD and there was a strong association between DCAD and urine pH (R2=0.793, P<0.0001). Compared with CON and HD feeding of LD and ND resulted in greater (P<0.05) plasma Ca concentration. Plasma P level was increased (P<0.05) when anionic salts were supplemented. The DCAD alteration did not affected (P>0.05) plasma Mg level. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in plasma GSH-Px activity and H2O2, but anionic salts supplementation in LD and ND significantly increased (P<0.05) plasma T-SOD activity and tended to reduce MDA (P<0.1) over HD and CON. Results from this study indicated that reducing DCAD could decrease urine pH and increase plasma Ca concentration of female goats. Additionally, reducing DCAD was helpful to enhance anti-oxidative stress capability of female goats.
    Animal Science · Veterinary Science
    Differential Proteomic Analysis of Carbon Ion Radiation in Sheep Sperm
    HE Yu-xuan, LI Hong-yan, ZHANG Yong, HE Jian-hua, ZHANG Hong, ZHAO Xing-xu
    2013, 12(9): 1629-1637.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60558-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    This study is first to investigate proteomic changes in sheep sperm induced by carbon ion radiation using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis in the project of breeding a new variety of sheep. Differential expression proteins were detected using the PDQuest 8.0 software after staining with Coomassie blue. Valid spots were then analyzed through liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Among the 480 total protein spots displayed in 2-D gels, 6 specific protein spots were observed in sperm gels. A search against protein sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information databases (NCBI) indicated that differentially expressed proteins correspond to two proteins, identified to be enolase and transcription factor AP-2-alpha (TFAP-2α). The two proteins were up-regulated in the irradiated sperm. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to identify proteomic changes induced by carbon ion radiation in sheep sperm. The analysis of differential expression protein may be useful in identifying new breeding markers in sheep reproduction and in clarifying the mechanisms involved in irradiation or space breeding.
    Development of Double Antibody Sandwich ELISA for Detection of Duck or Goose Flavivirus
    NIU Hui-min, HUANG Xin-mei, HAN Kai-kai, LIU Yu-zhuo, ZHAO Dong-min, ZHANG Jing-feng, LIU Fei, LI Tong-tong, ZHOU Xiao-bo, LI Xiang-rui , LI Yin
    2013, 12(9): 1638-1643.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60332-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    In order to establish double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) for detection of duck or goose flavivirus, polyclonal antibody against the flavivirus strain JS804 in geese and monoclonal antibody against the E protein of flavivirus strain JS804 in geese were used as the capture antibody and detection antibody, respectively. The optimal dilution of the capture antibody and detecting antibody capable of detecting the flavivirus strain JS804 in geese were 1:3 200 and 1:160 in the check-board titration, respectively. The reaction time of sample was 1 h, and the optimal working dilution of HRP-labeled goat-anti-mouse IgG was 1:10 000. The positive standard value was 0.247 (OD450 nm). The geese flavivirus could be detected at a minimal concentration of 1.875 μg mL-1. The ELISA had no cross-reaction with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Avian influenza virus (AIV), Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Duck hepatitis virus (DHV), and Gosling plague virus (GPV). Twenty clinical samples were detected by the DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR respectively, with the agreement rate of 75%. The results revealed that the DAS-ELISA possessed favorable specificity and higher sensitivity, indicating a suitable method for rapid detection of the duck or goose flavivirus.
    Soil & Fertilization · Irrigation · Agro-Ecology & Environment
    Soil Insect Diversity and Abundance Following Different Fertilizer Treatments on the Loess Plateau of China
    LIN Ying-hua, LU Ping, YANG Xue-yun , ZHANG Fu-dao
    2013, 12(9): 1644-1651.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60562-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The presence of abundant and diverse communities of macro-arthropods is considered an indicator of sustainability in agroecosystems. This study was designed to investigate the effects of different fertilizer treatments on abundance and diversity of insects of arable loess soil on the Loess Plateau of China. These regimes included a control with no fertilizer addition or manure, treatments with application of mineral fertilizers (N, NK, NP, PK, NPK), treatments with NPK in combination with organic materials such as wheat straw or maize stalk, treatments with two rates of organic manure application; and different crop rotations (Rot.1: winter wheat summer maize; Rot.2: winter wheat summer maize soybean intercropping; and Rot.3: winter wheat or rapeseed summer maize soybean intercropping). Soil macro-arthropods were collected from the plough layer (0-20 cm) and sorted by hand after each harvest in June and October 2001 and 2002. A total of 3 132 individuals were collected, from 7 orders and 55 families, dominated by Formicidae (61.72%) and Staphylinidae (14.24%). The results showed that individuals and groups were significantly influenced by sampling dates, while groups were significantly influenced by the fertilization treatments. Soil insect biodiversity, as determined by the Shannon index, was significantly influenced by fertilization and sampling dates. The abundance of soil insects was positively and significantly correlated with soil moisture content in October 2002. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers and incorporation of organic materials were favorable factors for abundance and diversity in arable loess soil.
    Cultivating Erect Milkvetch (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) (Leguminosae) Improved Soil Properties in Loess Hilly and Gullies in China
    WANG Zhan-bin , WANG Qing-yi
    2013, 12(9): 1652-1658.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60394-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Erect milkvetch (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.), a leguminous grass, is a major source of fuel and forage, and has an important role in the restoration of the degraded ecosystems in central and northeastern China. The objective of this work was to investigate how erect milkvetch planting would affect the physical and chemical properties of soil in degraded arable lands. Soil samples at the depths of 0-20 and 20-40 cm were collected from erect milkvetch planting fileds at ages of 0, 1, 2 and 3 yr. Changes in soil bulk density, soil porosity, total N and P, organic matter content, available P, hydrolysable N and available K were measured. The results showed that root biomass and above-ground plant biomass were both significantly increased with plantation age. The significant increase in root nodule biomass was not observed in the first two years. However, it was significantly increased after three years. Root growth of erect milkvetch improved soil structure, and hence, decreased soil bulk density and increased soil porosity. Furthermore, the nitrogen fixation by erect milkvetch and return of erect milkvetch plant to soil increased the soil total N, hydrolysable N and organic matter content of the soil. Low concentrations of P in the soil with erect milkvetch planting could be ascribed to high plant uptakes and possibly to high sequestrations of P in plant biomass. Concentrations of K significantly increased during the first two years of erect milkvetch planting. The high accumulation of K under erect milkvetch cultivation in the first two years could partly be attributed to low plant uptake, and partly to relatively quick recycling within plant-soil systems. Three years after erect milkvetch plantingr, K accumulation at 0-20 cm soil layer was significantly lower than that from non-vegetated field sites, which could be attributed to high plant uptake. These parameters, except for soil bulk density, were all decreased with increasing soil depth. Soil total N, organic matter, porosity and available K in the 20-40 cm layer all showed linear increase trends, and soil bulk density, total P and available P in the depth 0-20 cm layer soil were decreased with increasing planting age. Erect milkvetch establishment could be an effective and applicable measure to improve soil nutrients, and prevent further soil degradation and erosion.
    Fertilization Affects Biomass Production of Suaeda salsa and Soil Organic Carbon Pool in East Coastal Region of China
    MENG Qing-feng, YANG Jing-song, YAO Rong-jiang, LIU Guang-ming, YU Shi-peng
    2013, 12(9): 1659-1672.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)9083
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Land use practice significantly affects soil properties. Soil is a major sink for atmospheric carbon, and soil organic carbon (SOC) is considered as an essential indicator of soil quality. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of N and P applied to Suaeda salsa on biomass production, SOC concentration, labile organic carbon (LOC) concentration, SOC pool and carbon management index (CMI) as well as the effect of the land use practice on soil quality of coastal tidal lands in east coastal region of China. The study provided relevant references for coastal exploitation, tidal land management and related study in other countries and regions. The field experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design, consisting of four N-fertilization rates (0 (N0), 60 (N1), 120 (N2) and 180 kg ha-1 (N3)), three P-fertilization rates (0 (P0), 70 (P1) and 105 kg ha-1 (P2)) and bare land without vegetation. N and P applied to S. salsa on coastal tidal lands significantly affected biomass production (above-ground biomass and roots), bulk density (ρb), available N and P, SOC, LOC, SOC pool and CMI. Using statistical analysis, significantly interactions in N and P were observed for biomass production and the dominant factor for S. salsa production was N in continuous 2-yr experiments. There were no significant interactions between N and P for SOC concentration, LOC concentration and SOC pool. However, significant interaction was obtained for CMI at the 0-20 cm depth and N played a dominant role in the variation of CMI. There were significant improvements for soil measured attributes and parameters, which suggested that increasing the rates of N and P significantly decreased ρb at the 0-20 cm depth and increased available N and P, SOC, LOC, SOC pool as well as CMI at both the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depth, respectively. By correlation analysis, there were significantly positive correlations between biomass (aboveground biomass and roots) and SOC as well as LOC in 2010 and 2011 across all soil depth, respectively. The treatment with N at 180 kg ha-1 and P at 105 kg ha-1 was superior to the other treatments. The results from the 2-yr continuous experiments indicated that, in short-term, there were a few accumulation of SOC and LOC concentrations by means of N and P application to S. salsa, whereas in the long run, S. salsa with N and P application was recommended for coastal tidal lands because of its great potential of carbon sequestration, improvements of soil nutrition status and promotion of soil quality.
    Spatial Interpolation of Soil Texture Using Compositional Kriging and Regression Kriging with Consideration of the Characteristics of Compositional Data and Environment Variables
    ZHANG Shi-wen, SHEN Chong-yang, CHEN Xiao-yang, YE Hui-chun, HUANG Yuan-fang , LAI Shuang
    2013, 12(9): 1673-1683.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60395-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The spatial interpolation for soil texture does not necessarily satisfy the constant sum and nonnegativity constraints. Meanwhile, although numeric and categorical variables have been used as auxiliary variables to improve prediction accuracy of soil attributes such as soil organic matter, they (especially the categorical variables) are rarely used in spatial prediction of soil texture. The objective of our study was to comparing the performance of the methods for spatial prediction of soil texture with consideration of the characteristics of compositional data and auxiliary variables. These methods include the ordinary kriging with the symmetry logratio transform, regression kriging with the symmetry logratio transform, and compositional kriging (CK) approaches. The root mean squared error (RMSE), the relative improvement value of RMSE and Aitchison’s distance (DA) were all utilized to assess the accuracy of prediction and the mean squared deviation ratio was used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the theoretical estimate of error. The results showed that the prediction methods utilized in this paper could enable interpolation results of soil texture to satisfy the constant sum and nonnegativity constraints. Prediction accuracy and model fitting effect of the CK approach were better, suggesting that the CK method was more appropriate for predicting soil texture. The CK method is directly interpolated on soil texture, which ensures that it is optimal unbiased estimator. If the environment variables are appropriately selected as auxiliary variables, spatial variability of soil texture can be predicted reasonably and accordingly the predicted results will be satisfied.
    Food Science
    Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench and Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth) Hulls, Brans and Flours
    LI Fu-hua, YUAN Ya, YANG Xiao-lan, TAO Shu-ying , MING Jian
    2013, 12(9): 1684-1693.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60371-82012-10-19
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The extracts from hulls, brans and flours of Fagopyrum esculentum Möench (FEM, three varieties) and Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth (FTG, seven varieties) were screened for free and bound phenolic content or total phenolic content (TPC), as well as 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Free phenolics were predominant in buckwheat hulls, brans and flours. FEM hulls extract exhibited the highest reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activity with the average EC50 84.54 μg mL-1 and IC50 11.54 μg mL-1 respectively, FTG brans extract had the highest average TPC (24.87 mg GAE g-1 DW), and FEM flours extract showed the lowest TPC, reducing power and radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, the correlations among TPC, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of all the samples were investigated. The rank correlation coefficient (rs) between reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of buckwheat hulls, between TPC and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of buckwheat flours were 0.76 and 0.79, respectively (P<0.05). However, there is no significant correlation between the remaining indexes of hulls and flours, as well as the ten buckwheat brans. This result indicated that some non-phenolic compounds also contributed to the total antioxidant activity in hulls, brans and flours of buckwheats. This study demonstrated that buckwheat hulls and brans, rather than flours, are good source of antioxidants.
    Reduction in Activity/Gene Expression of Anthocyanin Degradation Enzymes in Lychee Pericarp is Responsible for the Color Protection of the Fruit by Heat and Acid Treatment
    FANG Fang, ZHANG Zhao-qi, ZHANG Xue-lian, WU Zhen-xian, YIN Hui-fang , PANG Xuequn
    2013, 12(9): 1694-1702.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60410-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Heat and acid treatments were reported to be a promising substitute for SO2 fumigation in color protection of postharvest lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruits, but the mechanism was not clear. In the present study, hot water (70°C) dipping followed by immersion in 2% HCl (heat-acid) substantially protected the red color of the fruit during storage at 25°C and inhibited anthocyanin degradation while hot water dipping alone (heat) led to rapidly browning and about 90% loss in anthocyanin content. The pH values in the pericarp of the heat-acid treated fruit dropped to 3.2, while the values maintained around 5.0 in the heat-treated and control fruit. No significantly different pH values were detected among the arils of heat-acid, heat treated and control fruit. Heat-acid treatment dramatically reduced the activities of anthocyanin degradation enzyme (ADE), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase in the pericarp. A marked reduction in LcPOD gene expression was also detected in heat-acid treated fruit, in contrast, induction was found in heat treated fruit. The pericarp of heat-acid treated fruit exhibited significantly lower respiration rate but faster water loss than that of the untreated or heat treated fruit. Taken together, heat treatment triggered quick browning and anthocyanin loss in lychee fruit, while heat-acid treatment protected the fruit color by a great reduction in the activities/gene expression of anthocyanin degradation enzymes and acidification of lychee pericarp.