For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    Crop Genetics · Breeding · Germplasm Resources
    Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Hybrid Necrosis
    JIANG Qi-yan, HU Zheng, PAN Xing-lai , ZHANG Hui
    2013, 12(3): 387-397.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60238-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Hybrid necrosis is the gradual premature death of leaves or plants in certain F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Comparison of protein expression in necrotic and normal wheat leaves showed that the abundance of 33 proteins was changed significantly, and 24 of these proteins were identified. These proteins were involved in plant growth and development, antioxidation, photosynthesis and carbon assimilation, amino acid and protein biosynthesis, cytological signal transduction, DNA and RNA modification, protein transport, folding and assembly according to their functions. The down-regulation of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase and the up-regulation of lipoxygenases in necrotic leaves may be related to the oxidative stress in the necrotic cells. The heat shock proteins may play the cytoprotective role. The differential expression of photosynthesis and carbon assimilation related proteins indicated chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development were inhibited and might finally cause the gradual chlorosis and cell death in necrotic leaves. The results of this study give a comprehensive picture of the post-transcriptional response to necrosis in hybrid wheat leaves and serve as a platform for further characterization of gene function and regulation in wheat hybrid necrosis.
    Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Spike-Development Inhibited and Normal Tillers of Wheat 3558
    ZHENG Yong-sheng, MA Xiao-gang, CHI De-zhao, GAO Ai-nong, LI Li-hui , LIU Wei-hua
    2013, 12(3): 398-405.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60239-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Spike number is one of three yield-related factors and is closely related to wheat yield. In the present study, we found that the inhibited and normal tillers of the 3558 line presented phenotypic differences at the elongation stage by morphological and anatomical analysis. We then initiated a proteomic study using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and nanoscale liquid chromatography-high-definition tandem mass spectroscopy, to isolate and identify the key proteins and metabolic pathways related to spike-development inhibition. A total of 31 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), which were mainly involved in cell cycle regulation, photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress response, and oxidation-reduction reactions, were isolated and identified. 14-3-3-like proteins and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), involved in cell-cycle regulation, were dramatically down-regulated in inhibited tillers compared to normal tillers. Six spots corresponding to degraded Rubisco large subunits, involved in photosynthesis, were detected in different locations of the 2-DE gels and were up-regulated in inhibited tillers. In addition, the relative levels of DEPs involved in glycolysis and oxidationreduction reactions changed dramatically. Development was blocked or delayed at the elongation stage in the inhibited tillers of 3558. Weakened energy metabolism might be one reason that the inhibited tillers could not joint and develop into spikes. These DEPs and related metabolic pathways are significant for understanding the mechanism of spike-development inhibition and studying the spike-development process in wheat.
    Relationships Between C4 Enzyme Activities and Yield in Soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)
    HUANG Shan-shan, LI Chang-suo, YANG Ming-liang, LI Wen-bin , WANG Ji-an
    2013, 12(3): 406-413.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60240-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    To study the relationships between C4 enzyme activities and yield, C4 enzyme activities (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase), NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK)) in different organs of ten soybean cultivars with different yields were measured at different growth stages in China. The result showed that four enzyme activities in C4 pathway were obviously different among cultivars, especially PPDK activity was not detected in the leaves of Dongnong 1567 and Dongnong 1068 and the young leaves of Gongjiao 9107-1 and Dongnong 97-172, but there were weak activities in pod coats. The order of C4 enzyme activities is young leaves < old leaves < pod coats. The correlation coefficients between PEPCase activity and yield and between NADP-MDH activity at blooming stage and yield were 0.6979 and 0.6565, respectively, and both reached the significant level (5%), and PEPCase activity kept significant positive correlation with plant photosynthetic rate. There was a negative correlation between NADP-ME activity and yield, and no correlation was found between PPDK activity and yield.
    Development of SRAP Markers Linked to a Gene for Stem Nematode Resistance in Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.
    ZHAO Ning, ZHAI Hong, YU Xiao-xia, LIU Zhe-sheng, HE Shao-zhen, LI Qiang, MA Dai-fu , LIU Qing-chang
    2013, 12(3): 414-419.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60241-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Sequence-related amplification polymorphism (SRAP) markers closely linked to stem nematode resistance gene were developed in sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. Using bulked segregant analysis (BSA), 200 SRAP primer combinations were screened with the resistant and susceptible bulked DNA from the 196 progenies of an F1 single-cross population of resistant parent Xu 781×susceptible parent Xushu 18, 77 of them showed polymorphic bands between resistant and susceptible DNA. Primer combinations detecting polymorphism between the two bulks were used to screen both parents and 10 individuals from each of the bulks. The results showed that primer combination A9B4 produced 3 specific bands in the resistant plants but not in the susceptible plants, suggesting that the markers, named Nsp1, Nsp2 and Nsp3, respectively, linked to a gene for stem nematode resistance. Primer combination A3B6 also produced a SRAP marker named Nsp4 linking to the resistance gene. Amplified analysis of the 196 F1 individuals indicated that the genetic distance between these markers and the resistance gene was 4.7, 4.7, 6.3, and 9.6 cM, respectively.
    Efficient Plant Regeneration with Arabinogalactan-Proteins on Various Ploidy Levels of Cereals
    Yasemin Coskun, Ragbet Ezgi Duran, Cigdem Savaskan, Tunhan Demirci , Mehmet Tolgahan Hakan
    2013, 12(3): 420-425.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60242-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    To determine the most effective dose of arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) in regeneration medium, mature embryos of genotypes in three different ploidy levels (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ikizce-96, Triticum durum Desf. cv. Mirzabey and Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Tokak) were used to establish an efficient plant regeneration system for cereals. Percentage of callus production, capacity of regeneration were calculated, and also culture effect, root, stem, and total plant length of regenerant plants were observed in six different regeneration media (MS control, MS+2, 5, 7, 10, 12 mg L-1 AGP) in these three different genotypes. According to the results, the highest amount of callus production was found in Ikizce-96 as 93.75% using 5 mg L-1 dicamba and 1 mg L-1 kinetin in induction medium. However, the most improved callus was observed in diploid barley Tokak as 179.95 mg in weight and 6.18 mm in diameter, respectively. The highest regeneration capacity was observed in the dose of 5 mg L-1 AGP in MS of all the genotypes and hexaploid wheat Ikizce-96 gave the best results with the highest regeneration capacity and culture effects (94.86 and 92.5%) in the same dose of AGP. These results indicated that effective dose of AGP in regeneration medium increase plant regeneration in calli derived from cereal mature embryos.
    Studies on the Root Characteristics of Maize Varieties of Different Eras
    ZHANG Feng-lu, NIU Xing-kui, ZHANG Yi-ming, XIE Rui-zhi, LIU Xin, LI Shao-kun , GAO Shi-ju
    2013, 12(3): 426-435.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60243-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Experiment was conducted at the Gongzhuling Experimental Station of Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jilin Province, China, during 2009-2010. Six representative varieties of maize (Baihe in the 1950s, Jidan 101 in the 1960s, Zhongdan 2 in the 1970s, Yedan 13 in the 1980s, Zhengdan 958 in the 1990s, and Xianyu 335 in the 2000s) were each planted under two different densities (52 500 and 82 500 plants ha-1) and two different nitrogen application levels (150 and 300 kg ha-1). Root characteristics and distribution among soil layers were studied by the field root digging method. The results showed that root mass increased with the process of the growth and development of the plant, and it peaked at kernel filling stage, and decreased at maturity due to the root senesces. Root mass of different maize varieties from the 1950s to 1980s had a trend of increase, while it decreased for the modern varieties. Root length and root surface areas had the similar changing trend. The study suggested that early maize varieties may have root redundancy, and reducing root redundancy may be a direction for variety improvement for high yield. Root characteristics were affected by nitrogen application level and density; modern varieties were more suitable for higher fertilizer application level and density conditions. Root characteristics distribution among soil layers decreased by an exponent equation, but the regression coefficients of different varieties were different. Though the root length density (RLD) of every soil layer of different varieties also decreased by an exponent equation, there were large variations of RLD in every part of a layer.
    NaCl-Induced Changes of Ion Fluxes in Roots of Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
    LI Mao-ying, LI Fang-jun, YUE Yue-sen, TIAN Xiao-li, LI Zhao-hu , DUAN Liu-sheng
    2013, 12(3): 436-444.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60244-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is grown worldwide, including in saline soils, but the effect of salinity on ion fluxes of Bt cotton remains unknown. Responses of two transgenic Bt cotton genotypes (SGK321 and 29317) and their corresponding receptors, Shiyuan 321 (SY321) and Jihe 321 (J321), to 150 mmol L-1 NaCl stress were studied in a growth chamber. The root dry weight of SGK321 and 29317 under NaCl treatment was decreased by 30 and 31%, respectively. However, their corresponding receptor cultivars SY321 and J321 were less affected (19 and 24%, respectively). The root length and surface area of the Bt cultivars were significantly decreased relative to their receptors under salt stress. NaCl treatment significantly increased Cry1Ac mRNA transcript levels in SGK321 and 29317 but did not affect Bt protein content in leaves or roots of either cultivar at 1 and 7 d after NaCl treatment. Fluxes of Na+, K+, and H+ in roots were investigated using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique. Both mean K+ efflux rate and transient K+ efflux of the Bt cultivars increased four-fold compared to their corresponding receptors when exposed to salinity stress. There were no significant differences in Na+ efflux between Bt and non-Bt cottons. Furthermore, the Na+ contents in roots and leaves of all genotypes dramatically increased under salt stress, whereas K+ contents decreased. Our results suggested that Bt cotton cultivars are more sensitive to salt stress than their receptor genotypes.
    Exogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity, Amylase Activities and Salt Tolerance of Cucumber Hypocotyls and Radicles
    YU Li-xu, ZHANG Cun-jia, SHANG Hong-qin, WANG Xiu-feng, WEI Min, YANG Feng-juan , SHIQing-hua
    2013, 12(3): 445-456.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60245-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    In the present experiment, effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H2S donor, on the oxidative damage, antioxidant capacity and the growth of cucumber hypocotyls and radicles were studied under 100 mmol L-1 NaCl stress. NaCl treatment significantly induced accumulation of H2O2 and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in cucumber hypocotyls and radicles, and application of NaHS dramatically reduced the accumulation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation. However, the alleviating effects greatly depended on the concentrations of NaHS, and 400 μmol L-1 NaHS treatment showed the most significant effects. Corresponding to the change of lipid peroxidation, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes as well as the antioxidant capacity indicated as DPPH scavenging activity, chelating activity of ferrous ions and hydroxyl radical (·OH) scavenging activity were induced by NaHS treatment under NaCl stress, especially by 400 μmol L-1 NaHS treatment. With the alleviating lipid peroxidation, the amylase activities in cotyledons were increased, and the length of cucumber hypocotyls and radicles were significantly promoted by NaHS treatment under NaCl stress. Unlike the effects of NaHS, pretreatment with other sodium salts including Na2S, Na2SO4, NaHSO4, Na2SO3, NaHSO3 and NaAc did not show significant effects on the growth of cucumber hypocotyls and radicles. These salts do not release H2S. Based on above results, it can be concluded that the effects of NaHS in the experiment depended on the H2S rather than other compounds derived from NaHS, and the alleviating effects might related with its function in modulating antioxidant capacity and amylase activities.
    The Sublethal Effects of Chlorantraniliprole on Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    ZHANG Rui-min, DONG Jun-feng, CHEN Jia-hua, JI Qing-e , CUI Jin-jie
    2013, 12(3): 457-466.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60246-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole to Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae were evaluated through exposure of third instar larvae to the insecticide incorporated into an artificial diet. When larvae were fed on the insecticide-containing diet for 7 d, the LC10, LC20, LC40, and LC50 values were 3.790, 7.977, 21.577, and 33.121 μg active ingredient L-1, respectively. Chlorantraniliprole at sublethal concentrations significantly reduced the larval body mass, emergence ratio, adult longevity and egg hatching rate in both the parental and offspring generations. The pupation and copulation rate in the parental generation and the pupal mass in the offspring also strongly decreased. Reproduction was seriously disturbed in both the parental and offspring groups even when only one of the partners was exposed to chlorantraniliprole at larval stages. However, at the lowest concentration of exposure (LC10), offspring fecundity was strongly reduced only when both partners were exposed. The net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and gross reproduction rate (GRR) at LC20, LC40 concentrations were significantly lower than that of the control. Post-exposure effects also included an extended larval developmental time and increased male proportion in both generations. The doubling time (Dt) at LC20, LC40 concentrations as well as gross reproduction rate (GRR) at LC10 concentration were also significantly increased. Chlorantraniliprole might have significant effects on H. armigera population dynamics even at sublethal concentrations on both parental and offspring generations.
    Influence of Garlic Intercropping or Active Emitted Volatiles in Releasers on Aphid and Related Beneficial in Wheat Fields in China
    ZHOU Hai-bo, CHEN Ju-lian, LIU Yong, Frédéric Francis, Eric Haubruge, Claude Bragard, SUN Jingrui, CHENG Deng-fa
    2013, 12(3): 467-473.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60247-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    In order to develop biological control of aphids by a “push-pull” approach, intercropping using repellent emitting plants was developed in different crop and associated plant models. Garlic is one of the potential plant that could be inserted in crops to decrease the pest occurrence in neighboring crop plots. In this study, field works were conducted in wheat fields in Langfang Experimental Station, Hebei Province in China from October 2009 to July 2010 during wheat developmental season. The effect of wheat intercropping with garlic but also the volatiles emission on the incidence of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae Fabricius (Homoptera: Aphididae) was assessed. Natural beneficial occurrence and global yields in two winter wheat varieties that were susceptible or resistant to cereal aphid were also determined comparing to control plots without the use of garlic plant intercrop nor semiochemical releaser in the fields. S. avenae was found to be lower in garlic oil blend treatment (GOB), diallyl disulfide treatment (DD) and wheat-garlic intercropping treatment (WGI) when compared to the control plots for both two varieties (P<0.01). Both intercropping and application of volatile chemicals emitted by garlic could improve the population densities of natural enemies of cereal aphid, including ladybeetles and mummified aphids. Ladybeetle population density in WGI, GOB and mummified aphids densities in WGI, DD were significantly higher than those in control fields for both two varieties (P<0.05). There were significant interactions between cultivars and treatments to the population densities of S. avenae. The 1 000-grain weight and yield of wheat were also increased compared to the control. Due to their potential alternatives as a biological control agent against cereal aphid, garlic intercropping and related emitted volatiles are expected to contribute to the further improvement of integrated pest management systems and to potentially reduce the amount of traditional synthetic pesticides applied in wheat fields.
    The Influence of Bt-Transgenic Maize Pollen on the Bacterial Diversity in the Midgut of Chinese Honeybees, Apis cerana cerana
    JIANG Wei-yu, GENG Li-li, DAI Ping-li, LANG Zhi-hong, SHU Chang-long, LIN Yi, ZHOU Ting, SONG Fu-ping , ZHANG Jie
    2013, 12(3): 474-482.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60248-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Using culture-independent technique polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and conventional culture techniques, ecological risk of transgenic maize pollen on gut bacteria of the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, was assessed. Honeybees were fed with Bt-transgenic maize pollen, non-transgenic near isoline pollen, linear cry1Ah gene (800 ng mL-1) and supercoiled plasmid DNA (800 ng mL-1) under laboratory conditions. The DGGE profile showed that the number of DGGE bands varied from 10.7 to 14.7 per sample, and the Shannon’s index ranged from 0.85 to 1.00. The similarity calculated by PAST was mostly above 92%, indicating no obvious changes among treatments or within replicates. 14 bacterial strains affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were isolated and characterized on media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These results demonstrated that transgenic cry1Ah maize pollen did not induce significant changes of the honeybee gut bacterial community composition under laboratory conditions.
    Transplantation of Goat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (gMSCs) Help Restore Spermatogenesis in Endogenous Germ Cells-Depleted Mouse Models
    WANG Fang, LIU Chao, ZHANG Shan-shan, LIU Wei-shuai , HUA Jin-lian
    2013, 12(3): 483-494.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60249-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are a well-characterized population of adult stem cells that can be maintained and propagated in culture for a long time with the capacity to form a variety of cell types. This study investigated the characteristics of dairy goat bone marrow MSCs (gMSCs) and their differentiation potential toward germ cells in vitro, and to test their potential in vivo, these cells were transplanted into seminiferous tubes of endogenous germ cells-depleted mouse models. The results showed that characteristic gMSC lines were established and a small population of gMSCs transdifferentiated into male germ cell-like cells which expressed Stra8 after induction with retinoic acid (RA), as analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence. Further, we transplanted the gMSCs into endogenous germ cells-depleted mouse models. A variety of analysis demonstrated that gMSCs might differentiate into male germ cells and helped spermatogenesis in endogenous germ cells depleted mouse models at 30 d after transplantation. The gMSCs could be used as a potential source of cells for reproductive studies and a neoadjuvant therapy for the spermatogenesis anomaly. Moreover, these cells may offer a new strategy for male infertility and an alternative approach for production of transgenic animals.
    Pharmacokinetics of Cyadox and Its Major Metabolites in Swine After Intravenous and Oral Administration
    ZHAO Ning, WANG Lin, LU Xiao-xiong, JIA Hui-qin, FANG Bing-hu, ZENG Zhen-ling , DING Huanzhong
    2013, 12(3): 495-501.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60250-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Pharmacokinetics of cyadox (CYX) and its major metabolites in healthy swine was investigated in this paper. 1,4- Bisdesoxycyadox (BDCYX), cyadox-1-monoxide (CYX-1-O) and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA), three main metabolites of cyadox, were synthesized by College of Science, China Agricultural University. Cyadox (CYX) was administered to 8 healthy cross-bread swine intravenously (i.v.) and orally (p.o.) at a dosage of 1 mg kg-1 body weight and 40 mg kg-1 body weight respectively in a randomized crossover design test with 2-wk washout period. A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of cyadox and its major metabolites in plasma. CYX and its major metabolites BDCYX, and CYX-1-O can be detected after intravenous administration of cyadox while CYX and its metabolites BDCYX, CYX-1-O and QCA can be detected after oral administration of CYX. Plasma concentration vs. time profiles of CYX and its major metabolites were analyzed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic method. Following i.v. administration, the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0- ) were (0.38±0.03) μg mL-1 h (CYX), (0.018±0.002) μg mL-1 h (BDCYX) and (0.17±0.02) μg mL-1 h (CYX-1-O), respectively. The terminal elimination half-lives (t1/2lz) were determined to be (0.93±0.07) h (CYX), (1.45±0.04) h (BDCYX), and (0.92±0.04) h (CYX-1-O), respectively. Steady-state distribution volume (Vss) of (2.14±0.11) L kg-1 and total body clearance (CL) of (2.84±0.19) L h-1 kg-1 were determined for CYX after i.v. dosing. The bioavailability (F) of CYX was 2.85% for oral administration. After single i.v. administration, peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of (1.08±0.06) μg mL-1 (CYX), (0.0068± 0.0004) μg mL-1 (BDCYX) and (0.25±0.03) μg mL-1 (CYX-1-O) were observed at Tmax of 0.033 h (CYX), 1 h (BDCYX) and 0.033 h (CYX-1-O), respectively. The main pharmacokinetic parameters after p.o. administration were as follows: AUC0- were (0.42±0.04) μg mL-1 h (CYX), (1.38±0.14) μg mL-1 h (BDCYX), (0.59±0.02) μg mL-1 h (CYX-1-O) and (1.48±0.09) μg mL-1 h (QCA), respectively. t1/2lz were (4.77±0.33) h (CYX), (5.77±0.56) h (BDCYX), (4.12±0.28) h (CYX-1-O), and (8.51±0.39) h (QCA), respectively. After p.o. administration, Cmaxs of (0.033±0.002) μg mL-1 (CYX), (0.22±0.03) μg mL-1 (BDCYX), (0.089±0.005) μg mL-1 (CYX-1-O), and (0.17± 0.01) μg mL-1 (QCA) were observed at Tmax of (7.38±0.33) h (CYX), (7.25±0.31) h (BDCYX), (7.38±0.33) h (CYX-1-O), and (7.25±0.31) h (QCA), respectively. The results showed that CYX was slowly absorbed after oral administration and most of CYX was transformed to its metabolites in swine. The area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0- )of metabolites were higher than that of CYX after p.o. administration, and the elimination half-lives (t1/2lz) of QCA were longer than those of CYX, CYX-1-O, and BDCYX after oral administration.
    Effects of High Fluoride and Low Iodine on Thyroid Function in Offspring Rats
    GE Ya-ming, NING Hong-mei, GU Xin-li, YIN Mei, YANG Xue-feng, QI Yong-hua , WANG Jundong
    2013, 12(3): 502-508.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60251-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups of eight with six females and two males in each group. The rats were exposed to high fluoride drinking water (45 mg F- L-1 from 100 mg NaF L-1), low dietary iodine (0.0855 mg kg-1), or both together in order to assess the effects of these three regimens on the thyroid function of the offspring rats. After the animal model was established, the offspring rats were bred and 10-, 20-, 30-, 60-, and 90-d-old rats were used for the experiment. The treatments for the offspring rats were the same as those of their parents. In comparison with control rats, the relative thyroid glands were changed by three regimens, but the mean values of thyroid weight in the experimental groups saw no marked difference. Serum TT3 levels were increased in all stages in the low iodine (LI) group. In the high fluoride (HiF) group, increase in TT3 levels was observed except in 20-d-old rats. Decrease in TT3 at 20- and 90-d and increase in TT3 at 30- and 60-d were found in HiF+LI group. Serum TT4 levels first saw an increase, and then dropped in the LI and HiF+LI group. However, an increase in TT4 was found in the HiF group. The levels of TSH in serum rocketed at d 20, and then dropped in the next stages in experimental groups. The results suggested that thyroid disorder could be induced by high flroride in drinking water, low iodine diet, or both of them. Exposure time to fluoride or low iodine diet was one of the important factors that fluoride can induce the development of thyroid dyfunction.
    Soil & Fertilization · Irrigation · Agro-Ecology & Environment
    Alternate Furrow Irrigation: A Practical Way to Improve Grape Quality and Water Use Efficiency in Arid Northwest China
    DU Tai-sheng, KANG Shao-zhong, YAN Bo-yuan , ZHANG Jian-hua
    2013, 12(3): 509-519.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60252-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Field experiments were conducted for two years to investigate the benefits of alternate furrow irrigation on fruit yield, quality and water use efficiency of grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Rizamat) in the arid region of Northwest China. Two irrigation treatments were included, i.e., conventional furrow irrigation (CFI, two root-zones were simultaneously irrigated during the consecutive irrigation) and alternate partial root-zone furrow irrigation (AFI, two root-zones were alternatively irrigated during the consecutive irrigation). Results indicate that AFI maintained similar photosynthetic rate (Pn) but with a reduced transpiration rate when compared to CFI. As a consequence, AFI improved water use efficiency based on evapotranspiration (WUEET, fruit yield over water consumed) and irrigation (WUEI, fruit yield over water irrigated) by 30.0 and 34.5%, respectively in 2005, and by 12.7 and 17.7%, respectively in 2006. AFI also increased the edible percentage of berry by 2.91-4.79% significantly in both years. Vitamin C (Vc) content content of berry was increased by 25.6-37.5%, and tritrated acidity (TA) was reduced by 9.5-18.1% in AFI. This resulted in an increased total soluble solid content (TSS) to TA ratio (TSS/TA) by 11.5-16.7% when compared to CFI in both years. Our results indicate that alternate furrow irrigation is a practical way to improve grape fruit quality and water use efficiency for irrigated crops in arid areas.
    Drip Irrigation Scheduling for Tomato Grown in Solar Greenhouse Based on Pan Evaporation in North China Plain
    LIU Hao, DUAN Ai-wang, LI Fu-sheng, SUN Jing-sheng, WANG Yan-cong , SUN Chi-tao
    2013, 12(3): 520-531.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60253-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    This study has investigated the suitable drip irrigation scheduling for tomato grown in solar greenhouse based on 20-cm pan evaporation (Epan) in North China Plain. Irrigation treatments included three irrigation frequencies (I1 10, I2 20 and I3 30 mm, and irrigation interval of 2-6 d for I1, 4-9 d for I2 and 8-12 d for I3) based on accumulated pan evaporation (Epan), and four plant-pan coefficients (Kcp1 0.5, Kcp2 0.7, Kcp3 0.9 and Kcp4 1.1). Results indicate that total irrigation amount, seasonal crop evapotranspiration (ET) and tomato yield (Y) were 185.1-365.8 mm, 249.1-388.0 mm and 99.6-151.8 t ha-1, respectively. Irrigation frequency and amount increased the yield, and second-degree polynomial relationship was found between Y and ET (R2=0.8671). Irrigation frequency did not increase mean fruit weight, diameter and length significantly but increased fruit number, total soluble solids content (TSS), TSS yield, fruit firmness and water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation WUE (IWUE) significantly. Irrigation amount increased external quality of tomato but reduced TSS content, TSS yield, fruit firmness, WUE and IWUE significantly. Kcp3 and Kcp4 treatments had the highest fruit yield, but Kcp2 and Kcp3 treatments had the highest WUE. I1Kcp3 treatment (irrigation interval of 2-6 d, and Kcp=0.9) had higher IWUE, WUE, external quality, yield, and TSS yield, so it is recommended as the suitable irrigation scheduling for tomato grown in solar greenhouse in North China Plain.
    Assessing Maize Drought Hazard for Agricultural Areas Based on the Fuzzy Gamma Model
    LIU Xing-peng, ZHANG Ji-quan, CAI Wei-ying , TONG Zhi-jun
    2013, 12(3): 532-540.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60254-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Drought is one of the severe meteorological disasters and causes of serious losses for agricultural productions, and early assessment of drought hazard degree is critical in management of maize farming. This study proposes a novel method for assessment of maize drought hazard in different growth stages. First, the study divided the maize growth period into four critical growth stages, including seeding, elongation, tasseling, and filling. Second, maize drought causal factors were selected and the fuzzy membership function was established. Finally, the study built a fuzzy gamma model to assess maize drought hazards, and the gamma 0.93 was finally established using Monte Carlo Analysis. Performing fuzzy gamma operation with 0.93 for gamma and classifying the area yielded a map of maize drought hazards with four zones of light, moderate, severe, and extreme droughts. Using actual field collected data, seven selected samples for drought hazard degree were examined, the model output proved to be a valid tool in the assessment maize drought hazard. This model will be very useful in analyzing the spatial change of maize drought hazard and influence on yield, which is significant for drought management in major agricultural areas.
    Assessing Crop Water Demand and Deficit for the Growth of Spring Highland Barley in Tibet, China
    LIU Zhao-fei, YAO Zhi-jun, YU Cheng-qun , ZHONG Zhi-ming
    2013, 12(3): 541-551.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60255-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The aim of this study was to assess the crop water demand and deficit of spring highland barley and discuss suitable irrigation systems for different regions in Tibet, China. Long-term trends in reference crop evapotranspiration and crop water demand were analyzed in different regions, together with crop water demand and deficit of spring highland barley under different precipitation frequencies. Results showed that precipitation trends during growth stages did not benefit the growth of spring highland barley. The crop coefficient of spring highland barley in Tibet was 0.87 and crop water demand was 389.0 mm. In general, a water deficit was found in Tibet, because precipitation was lower than water consumption of spring highland barley. The most severe water deficit were in the jointing to heading stage and the heading to wax ripeness stage, which are the most important growth stages for spring highland barley; water deficit in these two stages would be harmful to the yield. Water deficit showed different characteristics in different regions. In conclusion, irrigation systems may be more successful if based on an analysis of water deficit within different growth stages and in different regions.
    Combining Ability and Breeding Potential of Rapeseed Elite Lines for Pod Shatter Resistance
    LIU Jia, MEI De-sheng, LI Yun-chang, CUI Jia-cheng, WANG Hui, PENG Peng-fei, FU Li , HU Qiong
    2013, 12(3): 552-555.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60256-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Pod shatter resistance of rapeseed is of great importance for modern farming practice. In order to determine the combining ability of elite inbred lines and the breeding potential of rapeseed hybrids in terms of pod shatter resistance, analysis of a 6×6 incomplete diallel cross was conducted at two locations. Results showed that a significant variation existed among breeding lines and their F1 hybrids for pod shatter resistant index (SRI), pod length and width. Pod shatter resistance was significantly positively correlated with pod length. The general combining ability (GCA) effects (GCA=1.58) played a more important role than specific combining ability (SCA) effects (SCA=0.20) for pod shatter trait. The elite lines R1, 1019B and 1055B displayed significant positive GCA effects for pod shatter resistance. Four crosses (1019B×R1, 1015B×R1, 6098B×R1, and 8908B×R1) with high mean performance and positive SCA effects were recommended for developing new hybrids for mechanical harvest in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River.
    Effect of Application of a Bacteria Inoculant and Wheat Bran on Fermentation Quality of Peanut Vine Ensiled Alone or with Corn Stover
    QIN Meng-zhen , SHEN Yi-xin
    2013, 12(3): 556-560.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60257-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    To find an effective method for ensiling peanut vine (PV), fermentation characteristics and nutritional values of PV silage and the mixture of PV with corn stover (CS) silage in a ratio of 1:1 fresh weight, prepared by adding lactic acid bacteria (LAB), 10% wheat bran (WB) and LAB+WB at ensiling were evaluated in 2009 and 2010. The fermentation qualities of PV silage ensiled with the LAB and WB additives were improved compared with those of the control (PV ensiled alone). However, the pH did not decline to the critical level of 4.2, and the nutritional values of the silage were not protected against losses in the LAB and WB addition silages. Ensiling PV in mixture with CS generated optimal moisture content and buffering capacity (BC) of ensiled materials. After adding the LAB and WB additives to mixture silage, especially adding LAB+WB, the fermentation qualities and nutritional values of the mixture silage were improved significantly (P<0.05), and the Flieg’s score reached to 99. The result suggested that it is a feasible method to ensile the mixed materials of PV with CS by adding LAB and high concentration of water soluble-carbohydrate materials for providing a good fermentation quality of PV silage.