Pharmacokinetics of Cyadox and Its Major Metabolites in Swine After Intravenous and Oral Administration
Pharmacokinetics of cyadox (CYX) and its major metabolites in healthy swine was investigated in this paper. 1,4- Bisdesoxycyadox (BDCYX), cyadox-1-monoxide (CYX-1-O) and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA), three main metabolites of cyadox, were synthesized by College of Science, China Agricultural University. Cyadox (CYX) was administered to 8 healthy cross-bread swine intravenously (i.v.) and orally (p.o.) at a dosage of 1 mg kg-1 body weight and 40 mg kg-1 body weight respectively in a randomized crossover design test with 2-wk washout period. A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of cyadox and its major metabolites in plasma. CYX and its major metabolites BDCYX, and CYX-1-O can be detected after intravenous administration of cyadox while CYX and its metabolites BDCYX, CYX-1-O and QCA can be detected after oral administration of CYX. Plasma concentration vs. time profiles of CYX and its major metabolites were analyzed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic method. Following i.v. administration, the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0- ) were (0.38±0.03) μg mL-1 h (CYX), (0.018±0.002) μg mL-1 h (BDCYX) and (0.17±0.02) μg mL-1 h (CYX-1-O), respectively. The terminal elimination half-lives (t1/2lz) were determined to be (0.93±0.07) h (CYX), (1.45±0.04) h (BDCYX), and (0.92±0.04) h (CYX-1-O), respectively. Steady-state distribution volume (Vss) of (2.14±0.11) L kg-1 and total body clearance (CL) of (2.84±0.19) L h-1 kg-1 were determined for CYX after i.v. dosing. The bioavailability (F) of CYX was 2.85% for oral administration. After single i.v. administration, peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of (1.08±0.06) μg mL-1 (CYX), (0.0068± 0.0004) μg mL-1 (BDCYX) and (0.25±0.03) μg mL-1 (CYX-1-O) were observed at Tmax of 0.033 h (CYX), 1 h (BDCYX) and 0.033 h (CYX-1-O), respectively. The main pharmacokinetic parameters after p.o. administration were as follows: AUC0- were (0.42±0.04) μg mL-1 h (CYX), (1.38±0.14) μg mL-1 h (BDCYX), (0.59±0.02) μg mL-1 h (CYX-1-O) and (1.48±0.09) μg mL-1 h (QCA), respectively. t1/2lz were (4.77±0.33) h (CYX), (5.77±0.56) h (BDCYX), (4.12±0.28) h (CYX-1-O), and (8.51±0.39) h (QCA), respectively. After p.o. administration, Cmaxs of (0.033±0.002) μg mL-1 (CYX), (0.22±0.03) μg mL-1 (BDCYX), (0.089±0.005) μg mL-1 (CYX-1-O), and (0.17± 0.01) μg mL-1 (QCA) were observed at Tmax of (7.38±0.33) h (CYX), (7.25±0.31) h (BDCYX), (7.38±0.33) h (CYX-1-O), and (7.25±0.31) h (QCA), respectively. The results showed that CYX was slowly absorbed after oral administration and most of CYX was transformed to its metabolites in swine. The area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0- )of metabolites were higher than that of CYX after p.o. administration, and the elimination half-lives (t1/2lz) of QCA were longer than those of CYX, CYX-1-O, and BDCYX after oral administration.