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    Distribution and Research Advances of Citrus tristeza virus
    Sagheer Atta, ZHOU Chang-yong, ZHOU Yan, CAO Meng-ji
    2012, 12(3): 346-358.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8552
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most important causal agents of citrus diseases and exists as numerous strains.CTV is replicated in phloem cells of plants within the family Rutaceae and is transmitted by a few of aphid species. CTVepidemics have caused death of millions of citrus trees in many regions all over the world, where the sour orange (Citrusaurantium) was used as rootstock. Also the production of grapefruit (C. paradisi) and sweet orange (C. sinensis) hasbeen affected by CTV strains. CTV gives uplift to three prominent syndromes, namely quick-decline (tristeza), stempittingand seedling-yellows. The disease is graft-transmissible in nature but not seed-transmitted. However, the tristezadisease in most citrus groves was a man-made problem created by the desire of horticulturists to introduce cultivars fromother citrus growing areas. The utmost importance of the disease called for review articles in numbers of plant protection,epidemiology books, citriculture and proceedings. This review collects the information with respects to disease history,distribution host range, virus isolates association, identification and detection, transmission and management; especiallyon the current status of CTV prevailing and controlling in Pakistan. It provides valuable information for CTV disease andits controlling approaches.
    Genetic Analysis of Cold Tolerance at Seedling Stage and Heat Tolerance atAnthesis in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
    CHENG Li-rui, Veronica Uzokwe, WANG Yun, ZHU Linghua
    2012, 12(3): 359-367.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8553
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    A set of 240 introgression lines derived from the advanced backcross population of a cross between a japonica cultivar,Xiushui 09, and an indica breeding line, IR2061, was developed to dissect QTLs affecting cold tolerance (CT) at seedlingstage and heat tolerance (HT) at anthesis. Survival rate of seedlings (SRS) and spikelet fertility (SF), the index traits of CTand HT, showed significant differences between the two parents under stresses. A total of four QTLs (qSRS1, qSRS7,qSRS11a and qSRS11b) for CT were identified on chromosomes 1, 7, 11, and the Xiushui 09 alleles increased SRS at all lociexcept qSRS7. Four QTLs for SF were identified on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, and 11. These QTLs could be classified into twomajor types based on their behaviors under normal and stress conditions. The first was QTL expressed only under normalcondition; and the second QTL was apparently stress induced and only expressed under stress. Among them, two QTLs(qSF4 and qSF6) which reduced the trait difference between heat stress and normal conditions must have contributed toHT because of their obvious contribution to trait stability, and the IR2061 allele at the qSF6 and the Xiushui 09 allele at the qSF4improved HT, respectively. No similar QTL was found between CT at seedling stage and HT at anthesis. Therefore, it ispossible to breed a new variety with CT and HT by pyramiding the favorable CT- and HT-improved alleles at above locifrom Xiushui 09 and IR2061, respectively, through marker-assisted selection (MAS).
    Differentially Expressed Genes of Soybean During Infection by Phytophthorasojae
    XU Peng-fei, Allen Xue, CHEN Wei-yuan, LV Hui-ying, FAN Su-jie, WANG Xin, JIANG Liang-yu, ZHANG Shu-zhen
    2012, 12(3): 368-377.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8554
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    To elucidate the differential gene expression patterns in soybeans during infection by Phytophthora sojae, a cDNA libraryfor suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was constructed with cDNAs from soybean cultivar Suinong 10 treatedwith sterile distilled water as the driver and cDNAs from Suinong 10 inoculated with P. sojae as the tester. A total of 2 067recombinant colonies from the SSH library were randomly picked, amplified, and sequenced. After discarding 312 poorquality expressed sequence tags (EST), 1 755 high quality ESTs were assembled and edited to 1 384 tentatively uniquegenes (TUG), in which, 586 showed significant homology to known sequences, and 798 had low homology or no matchwith the known sequences. A cDNA microarray containing 307 singletons from the 586 TUGs and 222 singletons from the798 TUGs was developed to characterize differentially expressed cDNAs in the SSH library, and eight cDNAs wereidentified to be up-regulated after microarray analysis and then confirmed by real-time PCR. They were homologous to theprotein 10, and were also related to some proteins in disease resistance response, such as pathogen-related protein,phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, isoflavone reductase, WRKY transcription factor 31, major allergen Pru ar 1, and pleiotropicdrug resistance protein 12. Most of the up-regulated cDNAs encode enzymes of phytoalexin biosynthesis andpathogenesis-related proteins involved in plant disease resistance. Here, we fist reported the Pru ar 1 in soybeans. Thefindings of this research have contributed to better understanding of soybean resistance to P. sojae at the molecular level.
    Overexpression of SOS Genes Enhanced Salt Tolerance in Sweetpotato
    GAO Shang, ZHAI Hong, HE Shao-zhen, LIU Qing-chang
    2012, 12(3): 378-386.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8555
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The production of transgenic sweetpotato (cv. Xushu 18) plants exhibiting enhanced salt tolerance using salt overlysensitive (SOS) genes was achieved through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. A. tumefaciens strainEHA105 harbors a binary vector pCAMBIA3301 with SOS genes (SOS1, SOS2 and SOS3) and bar gene. Selection culturewas conducted using 0.3 mg L-1 phosphinothricin (PPT). A total of 40 plants were produced from the inoculated 170 cellaggregates via somatic embryogenesis. PCR analysis showed that 37 of the 40 regenerated plants were transgenic plants.The in vitro assay demonstrated that superoxide dismutase (SOD) and proline were significantly more accumulated andmalonaldehyde (MDA) was significantly less accumulated in 21 transgenic plants than in control plants when they wereexposed to 86 mmol L-1 NaCl. Salt tolerance of these 21 plants was further evaluated with Hoagland solution containing 0,51, 86, and 120 mmol L-1 NaCl in the greenhouse. The results indicated that 6 of them had significantly better growth androoting ability than the remaining 15 transgenic plants and control plants. Expression of SOS genes in the 6 salt-toleranttransgenic plants was demonstrated by RT-PCR analysis. This study provides an alternative approach for improving salttolerance of sweetpotato.
    Optimization of Transformation Efficiency of Suspension Cultured Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay Embryogenic Cells
    WU Jiao, HE Rong-rong, WANG Chao-xia
    2012, 12(3): 387-396.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8556
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay suspension cultures were established from proembryogenic mass and employed for optimizing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. One-factor-at-a-time experiment revealed that OD600 of Agrobacterium,time of inoculation, co-cultivation, and cell-drying before inoculation significantly affected the transformation efficiencywhich reached maximum 21.5% at the following conditions: 0.8 of OD600, 25 min of inoculation, 2 d of co-cultivation, and 10min of cell drying. Response surface methodology experiments based on a five-level, four-factor central-compositerotatable design were then used to optimize these selected factors. The optimized conditions for Chardonnay grapetransformation were: 0.8711 of OD600, 28.9 min of inoculation, 2.25 d of co-cultivation and 11.76 min of cell drying. Afteroptimization, transformation efficiency was 26.2% and there were no interactions among different factors.
    Photosynthesis and Dry Matter Accumulation in Different Chlorophyll-Deficient Rice Lines
    WANG Dan-ying, CHEN Song, TIAO Long-xing, ZHANG Xiu-fu
    2012, 12(3): 397-404.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8557
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Three different chlorophyll-deficient rice isogenic lines chl, fgl and pgl, and their recurrent parent zhefu802 (zf802) wereused to study effects of leaf color on photosynthesis, dry matter accumulation, yield, and quality in early season indicarice. Analysis showed that the chlorophyll (Chl.) a/b ratio of isogenic lines chl-8, pgl and fgl was 5.35, 10.00 and 15.46,respectively, among them, line fgl had higher leaf area index (LAI), higher net photosynthetic rate and higher grain-fillingrate than its recurrent parent zf802 at the later period of grain filling stage; while LAI, net photosynthetic rate and drymatter accumulated in lines chl-8 and pgl were lower than in zf802. Differences were found in the grain yield and qualityamong chlorophyll deficient isogenic lines, lines fgl, chl-8 and zf802 had similar grain yield, which was significantly higherthan that of pgl; the highest milling quality was observed in isogenic line fgl, with relatively high protein content. Thisstudy showed that isogenic line fgl would become a unique material for the development of high yield rice with high grainquality because of its slow aging process and relative steady grain-filling rate.
    Determination of Optimum Growing Degree-Days (GDD) Range Before Winter for Wheat Cultivars with Different Growth Characteristics in North China Plain
    LI Qiao-yun, LIU Wan-dai, LI Lei, NIU Hong-bin, MA Ying
    2012, 12(3): 405-415.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8558
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    To provide base for adjusting the sowing date, achieving the yield potential of wheat cultivars with different growth characteristics, and improving the utilization rate of natural resource in the North China Plain (NCP), a 4-yr field experiment of growing degree-days (GDD) before winter (realized through different sowing dates) with three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars of each type of semi-winterness and weak springness was carried out at 20 test experimental sites (32°4´N- 36°1´N) of Henan Province in the NCP. The results showed that: (i) yield of semi-winterness wheat was significantly higher than weak springness wheat (**P<0.01); (ii) there was a quadratic regression between the yield and GDD before winter. According to the regression equation, the optimum GDD range with high yield of semi-winterness and weak springness wheats was 750-770 and 570-590°C d, respectively; (iii) under the optimum GDD condition, the foliar age on the main stem of semi-winterness and weak springness wheats was 7.67-7.91 and 6.36-6.86 leaves, respectively, calculated by the linear regression equation between foliar age and GDD before winter; (iv) both semi-winterness and weak springness wheats were in the double ridge stage of spike differentiation under the condition of the optimum GDD range, and at this time, the foliar age on the main stem of semi-winterness and weak springness wheats was about 7.80 and 6.07 leaves, respectively, which was consistent with the results calculated by the liner regression equation. Therefore, we could consider that the sowing date is appropriate if the foliar age is about 7.8 and 6.3 leaves for semi-winterness and weak springness wheats, respectively. According to the results of this study, choosing semi-winterness wheat and planting 7- 10 d earlier would improve yield and natural resource utilization in NCP.
    Arsenic Distribution, Species, and Its Effect on Maize Growth Treated with Arsenate
    CI Xiao-ke, LIU Hua-lin, HAO Yu-bo, LIU Peng, DONG Shu-ting
    2012, 12(3): 416-423.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8559
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different arsenic (As) levels on maize (Zea mays L.) growth and As accumulation and species in different parts of maize plants, as a guideline for production of maize in As-polluted areas with the objective of preventing As from entering the food chain, and improving understanding of the mechanisms of effect of As on plant. Zhengdan 958 was grown at five As levels added to soil (0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg-1 As). As concentration in maize tissues increased in the order of grain<stalk<leaf<<root. The As concentration in maize grain exceeded the maximum permissible concentration of 0.7 mg kg-1 in China at levels of 50 and 100 mg kg-1. As species were presented in root, stalk, and grain, but organic As was the major As species identified in the grain. Maize plants were able to reduce arsenate to arsenite. Low As levels of 12.5 and 25 mg kg-1 improved maize growth and grain nutrition quality, while high levels of As 50 or 100 mg kg-1 inhibited them. Yield reduction at high As levels resulted mainly from reduced ear length, kernel number per row, and kernel weight.
    Curent Situation of “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” in Guangdong, China, Where Citrus Huanglongbing Was First Described
    DENG Xiao-ling, CHEN Jian-chi, KONG Wei-wen, LI Hua-ping
    2012, 12(3): 424-429.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8560
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease) was first observed in the coastal Chaoshan Plain of Guangdong Province, China, in the late 19th century based on descriptions of yellow shoot symptoms. “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” has been considered as a putative pathogen associated with HLB since 1994. Information about the curent prevalence of this bacterium is important for HLB control in Guangdong and also provides useful reference for HLB study elsewhere. In 2007, we collected HLB symptomatic citrus samples from 16 cultivars in 12 prefecture cities, mostly in the north and west regions of Guangdong, where major citrus fruits are currently produced. Among the 359 samples collected, 241 (67.1%) were positive for “Ca. L. asiaticus”, distributed in 15 out of the 16 cultivars from all 12 cities, indicating the widespread prevalence of “Ca. L. asiaticus” in Guangdong Province. The detection rates varied from 16.7 to 100% depending on location and cultivar. Lower detection rates were found in newer citrus cultivation cities among the previously less popular but now promoted cultivars. In reviewing the citrus management and pest control practice, we believe that infected nursery stocks play a key role in the current spread of “Ca. L. asiaticus”.
    Structure, Binding Characteristics, and 3D Model Prediction of a Newly Identified Odorant-Binding Protein from the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)
    ZHANG Tian-tao, WANG Wei-xuan, ZHANG Zi-ding, ZHANG Yongjun, GUO Yu-yuan,
    2012, 12(3): 430-438.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8561
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The full-length sequence of the odorant binding protein 5 gene, HarmOBP5, was obtained from an antennae cDNA library of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). The cDNA contains a 444 bp open reading frame, encoding a protein with 147 amino acids, namely HarmOBP5. HarmOBP5 was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the purified protein can be used for further investigation of its binding characteristics. Competitive binding assays with 113 odorant chemicals indicated that HarmOBP5 has strong affinity to some special plant volatiles, including (E)-β-farnesene, ethyl butyrate, ethyl heptanoate, and acetic acid 2-methylbutyl ester. Based on three-dimensional (3D) model of AaegOBP1 from Aedes aegypti, a 3D model of HarmOBP5 was predicted. The model revealed that some key binding residues in HarmOBP5 may play important roles in odorant perception of H. armigera. This study provides clues for better understanding physiological functions of OBPs in H. armigera and other insects.
    Identification of Bovine Casein Phosphorylation Using Titanium Dioxide Enrichment in Combination with Nano Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry
    LI Shan-shan, WEI Hong-yang, BU Deng-pan, ZHANG Le-ying, ZHOU Ling-yun
    2012, 12(3): 439-445.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8562
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Protein phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification that regulates milk protein structure and function. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of phosphorylated casein. Bovine milk proteins were first separated by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After in gels digestion and extraction, phosphorylated peptides were enriched by titanium dioxide and identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with nano electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. This method ensured the identification of 20 phosphorylated peptides, including 7 phosphorylated forms of αs1-casein, 8 αs2-casein, and 5 β-casein. Eight phosphorylated sites derived from 3 αs1-caseins, 3 αs2-caseins, and 2 β-caseins were also identified, and localized on residues Ser61, Ser63 and Ser130 in αs1-casein; Thr145, Ser146 and Ser158 in αs2-casein; and Ser50 and Thr56 in β-casein. These findings provide valuable information for investigating casein phosphorylation of the bovine milk.
    Controlled Freezing and Open-Pulled Straw (OPS) Vitrification of In vitro Produced Bovine Blastocysts Following Analysis of ATP Content and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Level
    ZHAO Xue-ming, WANG Dong, QIN Tong, LIU Yan, ZHU Hua-bin
    2012, 12(3): 446-455.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8563
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    To our knowledge, no single study has systemically compared cryopreservation efficiencies of bovine blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) by controlled freezing and vitrification. This experiment, therefore, was designed to compare the cryopreservation of these blastocysts with controlled freezing and OPS vitrification. Adenosine-5´-triphosphate (ATP) content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in blastocysts were also analyzed. Firstly, for each type of blastocyst (IVF, ICSI or SCNT), significant differences were observed between the survival rates of the controlled freezing ((81.56±2.33), (68.18±4.72) or (47.89±5.83)%) and OPS vitrification groups ((92.24±4.54), (82.40±3.76) or (78.71±5.91)%; P<0.05). Secondly, for each type of blastocyst (IVF, ICSI or SCNT), ATP content was significantly decreased after controlled freezing or vitrification, and the ATP content in the controlled freezing group (0.43±0.06), (0.35±0.05) or (0.21±0.02) pmol) was significantly lower than that found in the OPS vitrification group (0.62±0.04), (0.46±0.03) or (0.30±0.01) pmol; P<0.05). Thirdly, ROS level in fresh IVF ((47.33±3.56) c.p.s (counted photons per second), ICSI ((36.51±2.58) c.p.s) or SCNT blastocysts ((26.44±1.49) c.p.s) was significantly lower than that found in the OPS vitrification group ((72.14±4.31), (58.89±3.89) or (40.11±5.73) c.p.s; P<0.05), but higher than that of the controlled freezing group (34.41±3.32), (23.13±1.26) or (15.46±2.45) c.p.s; P<0.05). The present study indicated that vitrification is more efficient in the cryopreservation of bovine blastocysts derived from IVF, ICSI or SCNT than controlled freezing. Furthermore, both vitrification and controlled freezing significantly altered the ATP content and ROS level in those blastocysts.
    Biodegrading Wheat Bran with Agaricus blazei and Its Effects on Intestinal Development Identified with Mice
    SHEN Heng-sheng, CHEN Jun-chen, LI Yi-bin, Ting Zhou
    2012, 12(3): 456-464.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8564
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Agaricus blazei Murill is a well known edible/medicinal mushroom used for immune-nutrient food therapies. The biodegradation of different substrates with this fungus may result in different metabolites and degraded compounds, which may enrich the function of the food therapies. In this study, soluble compounds from the culture of A. blazei grown in liquid media with whole wheat bran and its water filtrate, respectively, were compared. Total soluble sugar, arabinoxylan, protein, and amino acids were significantly higher in the fungal culture resulted from the medium with whole wheat bran (43.54, 1.56, 0.59, and 2.19 mg mL-1, respectively) than that from the medium with the bran filtrate (17.28, 0.37, 0.13, and 1.13 mg mL-1, respectively). The biodegraded wheat bran with cultured mycelia was fed to Mus musculus Linnaeus as supplementation or as dietary fiber exclusive ingredient. As non-specific food therapies, feeding effects on mice intestinal development were indicated indirectly in growth performance, intestinal absorption and serum parameters. Compared to feeding uncultured wheat bran, feeding mice with culture mixes of A. blazei resulted in remarkably increase in villus height and villus height/crypt depth ratio, which were increased by 25.4 and 31.0%, respectively, when applied as supplementation, and by 44.3 and 43.4%, respectively, when applied as dietary fiber. These increases are concomitant with the higher level of D-xylose in blood serum about 16.9 and 29.2% as supplementation and dietary fiber, respectively. The results implying that culturing A. blazei with whole wheat bran enhanced extracellular metabolism of the fungus and extensive degradation of wheat bran insoluble fibrous compounds. Furthermore, feeding the culture mix including metabolites and degraded wheat bran improved intestinal villus development, proving the nutritional benefits of the A. blazei mycelial cultures.
    Development of High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Detection of Tulathromycin in Swine Plasma
    HUANG Xian-hui, LIANG Zi-sen, ZENG Zhen-ling, ZHANG Min, FANG Bing-hu
    2012, 12(3): 465-473.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8565
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    An accurate and precise method for the determination of tulathromycin in swine plasma was developed and validated. Plasma samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-MS/MS) using electrospray ionization (ESI). Tulathromycin was extracted from plasma by precipitation with acetonitrile and separated using a Phenomenex Luna 5 μm C18 column (150 mm×2.0 mm) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL min-1. Solvent A consisted of 0.002 mol L-1 ammonium acetate and formic acid (999:1, v/v), and solvent B was acetonitrile. The mass spectrometer was operated in the selected-ion mode with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization to monitor the respective MH+ ions, namely, m/z 577.3 for tulathromycin and m/z 679.3 for the internal standard roxithromycin. The calibration curves were linear in a dynamic range of 2.0-500 ng mL-1 on the column. The accuracy was ranged from 95.25 to 109.75%, and the precision was ranged from 2.81 to 7.72%. The recoveries measured at 3 concentration levels (20, 250, and 500 ng mL-1) were higher than 98%. The method described above is efficient, and has the required accuracy and precision for rapid determination of tulathromycin in plasma. The method was applied to study the pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in swine, and tulathromycin demonstrated a rapid absorption, wide distribution, and slow elimination after intramuscular administration.
    Effects of Active Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Postharvest Quality of Shiitake Mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) Stored at Cold Storage
    YE Jing-jun, HAN Xiao-xiang, JIANG Tian-jia, XIA Miao
    2012, 12(3): 474-482.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8566
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the postharvest quality of shiitake mushrooms stored at cold temperature (4°C) were investigated. The gas components were 2% O2+7% CO2 (MAP1), 2% O2+10% CO2 (MAP2) and 2% O2+13% CO2 (MAP3), respectively. The results showed that active MAP could extend the shelf-life of shiitake mushrooms to 17 d and the concentration of carbon dioxide could influence the postharvest quality of shiitake mushrooms. MAP2 treatment inhibited the increase in respiration rate and malondinaldehyde (MDA) contents, delayed the decrease in firmness, soluble sugar and vitamin C, and obviously reduced the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the degree of browning, therefore maintaining better quality.
    Antidepressant Effects of Ginsenosides from Panax notoginseng
    YAO Yang, YANG Xiu-shi, WANG Li-li, WU Li, WANG Li-jun, ZHU Zhi-hua, REN Gui-xing
    2012, 12(3): 483-488.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8567
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, R1, Rd, and Re are major constituents of Panax notoginseng, a famous traditional Chinese medicinal herb, which has both stimulative and inhibitory effects on the central nervous system (CNS). The monoamine hypothesis proposes that depression is a result of the depletion of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in addition to the activation of monoamine oxidase in the CNS. The purpose of this study was to determine whether P. notoginseng Saponin (PNS) has an antidepressant activity. We investigated the antidepressant-like activities of Rg1, Rb1, R1, Rd, and Re in mice, using two animal models of depression. In addition, we analyzed the neurochemicals by the chronic unpredictable mild stress test. Our results showed that Rb1, Rd, and Re treatment at 10 mg kg-1 significantly reduced the duration of immobility in both the tail suspension and forced swimming tests. Rb1, Rd, and Re increases in 5- HT and NE levels at 10 mg kg-1 in both the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Dopamine levels increased in the hippocampus and the striatum. Moreover, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were found increased in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that the antidepressant effects of Rb1, Rd, and Re may be related to the increase in 5-HT and NE in the CNS, and through the alterations in the synthesis or metabolism of dopamine.
    Calculation and Simulation of Evapotranspiration of Applied Water
    Richard L Snyder, Morteza Orang, Sara Sarreshteh
    2012, 12(3): 489-501.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8568
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The University of California, Davis and the California Department of Water Resources have developed a weather generator application program “SIMETAW” to simulate weather data from climatic records and to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and crop evapotranspiration (ETc) with the generated simulation data or with observed data. A database of default soil depth and water holding characteristics, effective crop rooting depths, and crop coefficient (Kc) values to convert ETo to ETc are input into the program. After calculating daily ETc, the input and derived data are used to determine effective rainfall and to generate hypothetical irrigation schedules to estimate the seasonal and annual evapotranspiration of applied water (ETaw), where ETaw is the net amount of irrigation water needed to produce a crop. In this paper, we will discuss the simulation model and how it determines ETaw for use in water resources planning.
    Effects of Irrigation Water Quality and Drip Tape Arrangement on Soil Salinity, Soil Moisture Distribution, and Cotton Yield (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Under Mulched Drip Irrigation in Xinjiang, China
    LIU Mei-xian, LI Xiao-ming, YU Mei, WANG Jin
    2012, 12(3): 502-511.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8569
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    More and more attention is being focused on saline water utilization in irrigation due to the shortage of fresh water to agriculture in many regions. For purpose of reducing the risks of using of saline water for irrigation, the mechanism of soil moisture and salinity distribution and transport should be well understood for developing optimum management strategies. In this paper, field experiments were carried out at Junggar Basin, China, to study the effects of drip irrigation water quality and drip tape arrangement on distribution of soil salinity and soil moisture. Six treatments were designed, including two drip tape arrangement modes and three irrigation water concentration levels (0.24, 4.68, and 7.42 dS m-1). Results showed that, soil moisture content (SMC) directly beneath the drip tape in all treatments kept a relatively high value about 18% before boll opening stage; the SMC in the narrow strip in single tape arrangement (Ms) plot was obviously lower than that in the double tapes arrangement (Md) plot, indicating that less sufficient water was supplied under the same condition of irrigation depth, but there was no significant reduction in yield. Mulching had not significant influence on salt accumulation but the drip tape arrangement, under the same condition of irrigation water depth and quality, compared with Md, Ms reduced salt accumulation in root zone and brought about relatively high cotton yield.
    Effects of Wetland Reclamation on Soil Nutrient Losses and Reserves in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China
    WANG Yang, WANG Jin-da, SUN Chong-yu
    2012, 12(3): 512-520.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8570
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) variations of a temperate wetland soil under continuous cultivation for 40 yr were determined and evaluated in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. The results showed that the soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents in each soil layer decreased sharply after cultivation for 2-3 yr, and exhibited minor differences after cultivation for 11 yr, which showed an exponential decline curve with the increase of cultivation years. The reduction rates of carbon and nitrogen reserves were 14.79% and 28.53% yr-1 at the initial reclamation stages of 2-3 yr and then decreased to 2.02-3.08% yr-1 and 1.98-2.93% yr-1 after cultivation for 20 yr, respectively. Soil total phosphorus (TP) reserves decreased within cultivation for 5 yr, and then gradually restored to the initial level after cultivation for 17 yr. Both SOC and TN could be restored slightly when the farmland was left fallow for 8 yr after reclamation for 11 yr, whereas TP had no significant difference. These results demonstrated that wetland cultivation was one of the most important factors influencing on the nutrient fate and reserves in soil, which could lead to the rapid nutrient release and slow restoration through abandon cultivation, therefore protective cultivation techniques preventing nutrients from loss should be immediately established after wetland reclamation.