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    LIU Xu
    2012, 12(1): 0-0.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8530
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Making More Food Available: Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Production
    Rudy Rabbinge , Prem S Bindraban
    2012, 12(1): 1-8.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8532
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Modern Issues in Food Safety -A Perspective
    James N Seiber
    2012, 12(1): 9-13.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8529
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Research, Extension, and Good Farming Practices Improve Water Quality and Productivity
    Clinton C Shock, Candace B Shock
    2012, 12(1): 14-30.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8527
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Agriculture in southeastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho known collectively as the Treasure Valley has depended on furrow irrigation using heavy inputs of water and nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Crop rotations include onion, corn, wheat, sugar beet, potato, bean, and other crops. By 1986 groundwater had become contaminated with nitrate and residues of the herbicide chlorthal-dimethyl (DCPA); an official groundwater management area was established by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality along with an action plan and well monitoring network. The action plan allowed for a trial period to see whether voluntary changes would improve trends. Researchers, producers, and agencies cooperated to develop production options that had the possibility of being both environmentally protective and cost effective. Options were tested to improve irrigation practices, increase N fertilizer use efficiency on several rotation crops, and find a cost effective replacement for DCPA. Research demonstrated the opportunity for increased productivity through both irrigation scheduling and the adoption of drip and sprinkler systems. Fertilizer research demonstrated that smaller, more frequent N applications were more efficient than a single large application. Effective, lower cost herbicides replaced DCPA. Research results were effectively delivered through many means and voluntarily adopted. Both groundwater nitrate and DCPA residues are declining. Productivity has increased.
    Crop Genetics & Germpoasm Resources
    Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of TaZFP15, a C2H2- Type Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Gene in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    SUN Zhao-hua, DING Chang-huan, LI Xiao-juan , XIAO Kai
    2012, 12(1): 31-42.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8521
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Based on sequencing of part clones in a root subtractive cDNA library, an expressed sequence tag (EST) sharing high similarity to a rice C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor (ZFP15) was obtained in wheat. Through bioinformatics approach, the wheat C2H2-type ZFP gene referred to TaZFP15 has been identified and characterized. As a full-length cDNA of 670 bp, TaZFP15 has an open reading frame of 408 bp and encodes a 135-aa polypeptide. TaZFP15 contains two C2H2 zinc finger domains and each one has a conserved motif QALGGH. The typical L-box, generally identified in the C2H2 type transcription factors, has also been found in TaZFP15. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that TaZFP15 shares high similarities with rice ZFP15 (GenBank accession no. AY286473), maize ZFP (GenBank accession no. NM_001159094) and a subset of other zinc-finger transcription factor genes in plant species. The expression of TaZFP15 was up-regulated by starved-Pi stress, showing a pattern to be gradually elevated along with the progression of the Pi-stress in a 23-h treatment regime. Similarly, the transcripts of TaZFP15 in roots were also induced by nitrogen deficiency, and abiotic stresses of drought and salinity. No responses of TaZFP15 were detected in roots to nutrition deficiencies of P, Zn, and Ca, and the external treatment of abscisic acid (ABA). TaZFP15 could be specifically amplified in genome A, B, and D, and without variability in the sequences, suggesting that TaZFP15 has multi-copies in the homologous hexaploid species. Transgenic analysis in tobacco revealed that up-regulation of TaZFP15 could significantly improve plant dry mass accumulation via increasing the plant phosphorus acquisition capacity under Pi-deficiency condition. The results suggested that TaZFP15 is involved in mediation of signal transductions of diverse external stresses.
    Conversion of the Statistical Combining Ability into a Genetic Concept
    LV Ai-zhi, ZHANG Hao, ZHANG Zu-xin, TAO Yong-sheng, YUE Bing , ZHENG Yong-lian
    2012, 12(1): 43-52.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8512
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Since the combining ability was proposed in 1942, efforts to uncover the genetic basis underlying this phenomenon have been ongoing for nearly 70 yr, with little success. Some breeding strategies based on evaluation of combining ability have been produced, and are still extensively used in hybrid breeding. In this review, the genetic basis underlying these breeding strategies is discussed, and a potential genetic control of general combining ability (GCA) is postulated. We suggested that GCA and the yields of inbred lines might be genetically controlled by different sets of loci on the maize genome that are transmitted into offspring. Different inbred lines might possess different favorable alleles for GCA. In hybrids, loci involved in multiple pathways, which are directly or indirectly associated with yield performance, might be regulated by GCA loci. In addition, a case of GCA mapping using a set of testcross progeny from introgression lines is provided.
    Scarabaeid Larvae- and Herbicide-Resistant Transgenic Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) Obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of cry8Ca2, cry8Ga and bar Genes
    WU Jin-xia, ZHANG Zhi-guo, ZHANG Qian, LANG Zhi-hong , SUN Xue-hui
    2012, 12(1): 53-61.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8528
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Insect pest and weeds are two major problems for forage and turf grasses. In this study, scarab larvae- and herbicideresistant transgenic perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was obtained by transforming it with cry and bar genes simultaneously via the Agrobacterium-mediated method. To optimize the callus induction and plant regeneration conditions, various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine were assayed. The transformation efficiencies of different Agrobacterium suspension media, used during Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, were compared. Then, plasmids of pCAMBIA3301 containing cry gene (cry8Ca2 or cry8Ga) and bar gene, driven by ubiquitin promoter, were transformed into perennial ryegrass. The transformants were generated and confirmed by both Southern hybridization analysis and Western hybridization analysis. Further, the resistance of transgenic perennial ryegrass plants to scarab larvae and herbicide were analyzed. After 30 d of co-cultivation with scarab larvae, the damage to the root system of transgenic plants was less than that of non-transgenic control plants. Additionally, the leaves of transgenic plants were resistant to Basta®, while leaves of the wild plants wilted after Basta® spraying. These results show that cry gene and bar gene were successfully transferred into perennial ryegrass by the Agrobactgerium-mediated method, and convey resistance to scarab larvae and herbicide in transgenic perennial ryegrass plants.
    Abiotic Stresses and Phytohormones Regulate Expression of FAD2 Gene in Arabidopsis thaliana
    YUAN Si-wei, WU Xue-long, LIU Zhi-hong, LUO Hong-bing , HUANG Rui-zhi
    2012, 12(1): 62-72.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8513
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Modification of unsaturated fatty acid (FA) levels has been found to accompany multiple abiotic stress acclimations in many plants. Delta 12 fatty acid desaturase (FAD2) plays a critical role in the synthesis of polyunsaturated FAs in plant cells by converting oleic acid (18:1) to linoleic acid (18:2). To better understand the relationship between polyunsaturated FAs metabolism and stress adaptation, the expression of FAD2 gene and changes in the FA compositions under various abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments in Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated in this study. A 1 423-bp promoter of the FAD2 gene was cloned and characterized from Arabidopsis. Several putative hormone- and stressinducible cis-elements were identified in the cloned promoter, which include salt- and pathogen-inducible GT-1 motifs, low-temperature-responsive MYC element, dehydration-responsive MYB element, and GA signaling related WRKY71OS element. To investigate the fine regulation of FAD2 gene, a recombinant FAD2 promoter-GUS construct was introduced into Arabidopsis plants. Histochemical study showed that the promoter was ubiquitously active and responsive not only to exogenous phytohormones including ABA, 24-eBL, and SA but also to darkness, temperature, salt, and sucrose stresses in Arabidopsis seedlings. Consistent with the expression change, treatments with exogenous 24-eBL, ABA, SA, and NaCl resulted in reduction in polyunsaturated FAs in Arabidopsis seedlings. These findings suggest that the FAD2 gene with a wide variety of putative response elements in its promoter is responsive to multiple phytohormones and abiotic stresses and therefore may play an important role in stress responses of Arabidopsis during plant growth and seed development.
    Formation and Developmental Characteristics of A- and B-Type Starch Granules in Wheat Endosperm
    YIN Yong-an, QI Jun-cang, LI Wei-hua, CAO Lian-pu , WANG Zi-bu
    2012, 12(1): 73-81.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8518
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Wheat grain natural transverse sections of 12 periods were observed and analyzed using scanning electron micrographs technology and Bio-Quant system IV image analyzer in order to detect the developing process of A- and B-type starch granules. In addition, the chemical composition and starch granule-bound proteins (SGPs) of A- and B-type starch granules were tested and analyzed. The results showed that A-type starch granules in wheat began from 3 d post anthesis (DPA) till grain maturing and B-type starch granules occured after 15 DPA till grain maturing. Approximately 98.5% of chemical compositions in both A- and B-type starch granules were amylose and amylopectin, and more than half of which were amylopectin. The amylopectin contents, average chain length, and chain length distribution (degree of polymerization> 40) of amylopectin in A-type starch granules were significant higher than that of B-type starch granules. SGP-145, SGP- 140, and SGP-26 kD were associated with A-type starch formation in wheat grain.
    Statistical Analysis of Leaf Water Use Efficiency and Physiology Traits of Winter Wheat Under Drought Condition
    WU Xiao-li, BAO Wei-kai
    2012, 12(1): 82-89.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8515
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Five statistical methods including simple correlation, multiple linear regression, stepwise regression, principal components, and path analysis were used to explore the relationship between leaf water use efficiency (WUE) and physiological traits (photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, intercellular CO2 concentration, etc.) of 29 wheat cultivars. The results showed that photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were the most important leaf WUE parameters under drought condition. Based on the results of statistical analyses, principal component analysis could be the most suitable method to ascertain the relationship between leaf WUE and relative physiological traits. It is reasonable to assume that high leaf WUE wheat could be obtained by selecting breeding materials with high photosynthesis rate, low transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance under dry area.
    Identification of Antifungal Substance (Iturin A2) Produced by Bacillus subtilis B47 and Its Effect on Southern Corn Leaf Blight
    YE Yun-feng, LI Qi-qin, FU Gang, YUAN Gao-qing, MIAO Jian-hua , LIN Wei
    2012, 12(1): 90-99.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8509
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Bacillus subtilis B47 is an endophytic bacterium of tomato, and produces substance that strongly inhibits the growth of Bipolaris maydis, the pathogen of southern corn leaf blight (SCLB), as well as several other phytopathogenic fungi. The antifungal substance was purified from the broth culture of the bacterium using acid precipitation, methanol extraction, and three-step chromatography. Based on FT-IR spectrometry, amino acid composition, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS CID analyses, the antifungal substance was identified as iturin A2, a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic. To evaluate the efficacy of iturin A2 for control of SCLB, partially purified iturin A2 (75%, w/v) was applied under different conditions. At the concentration of 300 mg kg-1, iturin A2 showed efficacy ranging from 100 to 53.1% under in vitro, in plot and in field conditions. This efficacy was higher than or similar to that of the fungicide chlorothalonil. When the concentration of iturin A2 was increased to 500 mg kg-1, the control efficacy was enhanced to 64.2% in field, which was significantly higher than that of chlorothalonil. These results indicate that iturin A2 has potential for SCLB control and could be a substitute to synthetic fungicides. To our knowledge, this is the first report on using partially purified iturin A for control of SCLB under field conditions.
    Expression of Nitrilases in Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen in Root Galls Caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae
    LIU Yan, YIN You-ping, WANG Zhong-kang , LUO Yuan-li
    2012, 12(1): 100-108.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8522
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Five commonly-used reference genes: ACT (actin), UBE (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), RPL2 (ribosomal protein L2), BRP II (RNA polymerase II subunit), and NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) were examined using geNorm software as reference genes for RT-qPCR. Among the tested reference genes, ACT and UBE were the most stable in all samples. In parallel, expression analysis of nitrilases in Brassica juncea var. tumida, was performed to preliminarily investigate the molecular interactions between nitrilase and clubroot development at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 40 d postinoculation (dpi) with a suspension of resting spores of Plasmodiophora brassicae. The results showed that different gene expressions of nitrilases were regulated during the initial periods of clubroot development. The expression level of BjNIT1 increased sharply from 20 to 40 dpi in infected roots while there were no remarkable changes in healthy roots. From 15 to 30 dpi, the expression levels of BjNIT2 and BjNIT4 in infected roots were lower than those in non-infected roots. Finally, BjNIT2 in treatment was down approximately to control at 40 dpi. Our results suggest that BjNIT1, which promoted overproductions of auxin, might be involved in P. brassicae infection of B. juncea.
    Tissue Deposition and Residue Depletion in Broiler Exposed to Melamine-Contaminated Diets
    DING Xue-mei, BAI Shi-ping, ZHANG Ke-ying, WANG Liang, WU Cai-mei, CHEN Dai-wen, JIA Gang , BAI Jie
    2012, 12(1): 109-115.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8514
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    To investigate the tissue deposition and elimination of melamine (MEL) in broilers, a total of 1 920 commercial 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with diets contaminated by MEL at 0, 2, 10, 30, 50, 100 mg kg-1 of diet for 42 d, and followed MEL withdrawal from diet at 50 or 100 mg kg-1 of diet for 96 h. The MEL was found in residue of plasma, liver, kidney, breast, and leg muscle with the highest level in kidney and in dose response manner (except in kidney), but no time response (except in plasma). The MEL residue in organ tissue was below the safe level of 50 μg mL-1 in blood or 50 μg kg-1 in tissues proposed by the US FSIS when MEL in diet was lower (2 mg kg-1). The MEL in tissues was eliminated by withdrawal MEL from diets. The elimination half-life of MEL was from 3.2 to 6.6 h, and the clearance time, when MEL residue concentration under limit detection, was from 18.0 to 31.4 h.
    Detection and Characterization of β-Lactam Resistance in Haemophilus parasuis Strains from Pigs in South China
    GUO Li-li, ZHANG Jian-min, XU Cheng-gang, REN Tao, ZHANG Bin, CHEN Ji-dang , LIAO Ming
    2012, 12(1): 116-121.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8517
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    To characterize the β-lactam resistance in veterinary clinical isolates of Haemophilus parasuis, 115 isolates were examined for the β-lactam resistance, the possession of β-lactamase, and the presence of β-lactamase genes. The genetic relationship among isolates was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Overall, the commonly detected resistance phenotypes were resistant to ampicillin (26.09%), penicillin (22.61%), amoxicillin (21.74%), cefazolin (14.78%), cefaclor (12.17%), and cefotaxime (6.96%). These strains showed high minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) to oxacillin. 20.87% strains produced β-lactamase, and 4.35% strains showed extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype. Moreover, 19 strains harboured bla genes including TEM-1 (n=5), TEM-116 (n=10), and ROB-1 (n=5). Significantly, one strain possessed both TEM-1 and ROB-1, and displayed resistance to cefotaxime (MIC=8 mg L-1). The epidemiological analysis of PFGE revealed high genetic diversity among bla-positive isolates. This work shows that TEM- and ROB-type β-lactamases are prevalent in H. parasuis isolates in China.
    Gut Bacterial and Lactobacilli Communities of Weaning Piglets in Response to Mannan Oligosaccharide and Sugar Beet Pulp In vitro Fermentation
    HANG Su-qin , ZHU Wei-yun
    2012, 12(1): 122-133.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8516
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of piglets during weaning transition can experience a sharp change which could result in growth reduction and diarrhea of weaned piglets. Dietary manipulations can play an important role in attenuating such changes caused by weaning stress. Therefore, ileal and colonic contents of weaned piglets were used as inocula, mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) or sugar beet pulp (SBP) was supplied as single energy sources to investigate effects of MOS or SBP on the shifts of gastro-intestinal microflora and lactobacilli populations. The universal bacteriaand lactobacilli-specific PCR/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing techniques were used. DGGE profiles of the universal bacteria showed that great changes were found in the position, numbers and intensity of dominant bands after fermentation. The similarity of bacterial community between ileum and colon was increased to 85-97% by MOS or SBP treatment after fermentation from the similarity with 20% before fermentation. MOS treatment significantly increased the bacterial diversity and band number in both ileal and colonic fermentation (P<0.05). SBP treatment significantly increased the bacterial diversity and band number in colon (P<0.05). It implies that some species were enriched by the addition of MOS or SBP to increase the similarity and diversity of bacterial community in weaned piglets. Five specific bands appearing in MOS or SBP treatment group after fermentation were cloned and sequenced, the changes of species related to Prevotella and Ruminococcus were observed. Two bands related to uncultured bacterium with 98% similarity were detected by MOS or SBP treatment. However, there were no effects on the similarity, diversity index and lactobacilli species revealed by MOS or SBP treatment. These results imply that MOS or SBP could have beneficial effects on the weaning piglets by stablizing microbiota in the GIT microflora.
    Effect of Nitrogen Regimes on Grain Yield, Nitrogen Utilization, Radiation Use Efficiency, and Sheath Blight Disease Intensity in Super Hybrid Rice
    LI Di-qin, TANG Qi-yuan, ZHANG Yun-bo, QIN Jian-quan, LI Hu, CHEN Li-jun, YANG Sheng-hai, ZOU Ying-bin , PENG Shao-bing
    2012, 12(1): 134-143.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8520
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Poor nitrogen use efficiency in rice production is a critical issue in China. Site-specific N managements (SSNM) such as real-time N management (RTNM) and fixed-time adjustable-dose N management (FTNM) improve fertilizer-N use efficiency of irrigated rice. This study was aimed to compare the different nitrogen (N) rates and application methods (FFP, SSNM, and RTNM methods) under with- and without-fungicide application conditions on grain yield, yield components, solar radiation use efficiency (RUE), agronomic-nitrogen use efficiency (AEN), and sheath blight disease intensity. Field experiments were carried out at Liuyang County, Hunan Province, China, during 2006 and 2007. A super hybrid rice Liangyou 293 (LY293) was used as experimental material. The results showed that RTNM and SSNM have great potential for improving agronomic-nitrogen use efficiency without sacrificing the grain yield. There were significant differences in light interception rate, sheath blight disease incidence (DI) and the disease index (ShBI), and total dry matter among the different nitrogen management methods. The radiation use efficiency was increased in a certain level of applied N. But, the harvest index (HI) decreased with the increase in applied N. There is a quadratic curve relationship between grain yield and applied N rates. With the same N fertilizer rate, different fertilizer-N application methods affected the RUE and grain yield. The fungicide application not only improved the canopy light interception rate, RUE, grain filling, and harvest index, but also reduced the degree of sheath blight disease. The treatment of RTNM under the SPAD threshold value 40 obtained the highest yield. While the treatment of SSNM led to the highest nitrogen agronomic efficiency and higher rice yield, and decreased the infestation of sheath blight disease dramatically as well. Nitrogen application regimes and diseases control in rice caused obvious effects on light interception rate, RUE, and HI. Optimal N rate is helpful to get higher light interception rate, RUE, and HI. Disease control with fungicide application decreased and delayed the negative effects of the high N on rice yield formation. SSNM and RTNM under the proper SPAD threshold value obtained highyield with high efficiency and could alleviate environmental pollution in rice production.
    Impact of Climate and Land-Use Changes on Water Security for Agriculture in Northern China
    QIU Guo-yu, YIN Jin , Shu Geng
    2012, 12(1): 144-150.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8531
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    North China is the most important food basket of China, where the majority of wheat and corn are produced. Most crops grown in North China are irrigated, thus water security is food security. Since the 1980s, drying has been frequently observed, as shown by a reduction in precipitation, cutoff in riverflow, and shrinkage of lakes. This increase in drying cannot be explained by climate change alone. We propose that intensive land-use in this area in recent decades has had a significant impact. The objectives of the study are to develop a quantitative model of the concurrent processes of climate change and land-use in North China, and to estimate the relative contributions of each on the observed drying. We integrated relevant socioeconomic data, land-use data, and climate data in the model, and carried out a detailed multitemporal (decade, year, day) analysis. Results showed that land-use has greatly changed since 1999. This change is mainly associated with an extremely important 1999 national policy of “returning farmland and grazing land to forest and grassland”. We found an interesting interaction between climate change and land use policy on riverflow, runoff, and evapotranspiration. During 1970s and 1980s, climate change explained more than 80%, while the land-use change explained only 10% of the riverflow change. The relative contributions were 45 and 45% in the 1980s-1990s and 35 and 55% in the 1990s-2000s respectively for climate change and land-use change. Since the 1990s land-use change has also contributed more to runoff change than climate change. The opposite trend was found for changes in evapotranspiration. Water availability for agriculture in northern China is simultaneously stressed by extensive changes in land-use and rapid climate change. Adaptation of ecological principles, such as the “returning farmland/grazing land to forest and grassland” policy, and other adjustments of economic developmental strategies can be effective tools to mitigate the water shortage problem in northern China and promote sustainable agricultural and food development.
    Response Surface Optimization of Nigella glandulifera Freyn Seed Oil Yield by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction
    ZHANG Jun-ping, HOU Xi-lin, YU Tian, LI Ying, DONG Hai-yan
    2012, 12(1): 151-158.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8511
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction was employed to extract oil from Nigella glandulifera Freyn seed in this study. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the effects of the process parameters (pressure, temperature, and CO2 flow rate) on oil yield of N. glandulifera seed. A Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The analysis of variance indicated that the linear coefficients of pressure and CO2 flow rate, the quadratic term coefficients of pressure and temperature and the interactions between pressure and temperature, as well as temperature and CO2 flow rate, had significant effects on the oil yield (P<0.05). The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum oil yield from N. glandulifera seed were pressure 30.84 MPa, temperature 40.57°C, and CO2 flow rate 22.00 L h-1. Under these optimal conditions, the yield of oil was predicted to be 38.19%. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted values. The fatty acid composition of N. glandulifera seed oil extracted using SC-CO2 was compared with that of oil obtained by Soxhlet method. The results showed that the fatty acid compositions of oil extracted by the two methods were similar. Identification of oil compounds with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the contents of unsaturated fatty acids linoleic acid (48.30%), oleic acid (22.28%) and saturated fatty acids palmitic acid (16.65%), stearic acid (4.17%) were the most abundant fatty acids in seed oil from N. glandulifera.
    Effect of Postharvest UV-C Irradiation on Phenolic Compound Content and Antioxidant Activity of Tomato Fruit During Storage
    LIU Chang-hong, CAI Lu-yun, LU Xian-ying, HAN Xiao-xu , YING Tie-jin
    2012, 12(1): 159-165.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8510
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Mature-green tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Zhenfen 202) were exposed to different UV-C irradiation at 2, 4, 8, and 16 kJ m-2 and then stored under the dark at 14°C and 95% relative humidity (RH) for 35 d. Of these four doses, UV-C irradiation at 4 and 8 kJ m-2 significantly increased total phenolic contents in present tomato fruit by 21.2 and 20.2%, respectively. Furthermore, UV-C irradiation at 4 or 8 kJ m-2 promoted the accumulation of total flavonoids and increased the antioxidant activity. 2 or 16 kJ m-2 UV-C irradiation also enhanced antioxidant activity, but to a lesser extent. Seven phenolic compounds, viz., gallic acid, (+)-catechin, chlorogenic acid, cafferic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, and quercetin in tomato fruit were identified and quantified by HPLC. Gallic acid was the major phenolic compound in tomato fruit and significantly correlated with antioxidant activity. 4 or 8 kJ m-2 UV-C irradiation significantly increased the contents of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, and quercetin. The optimum dose of UV-C irradiation in terms of increased phenolic compound content and enhanced Antioxidant activity was determined to be 4 or 8 kJ m-2.
    Month-Wise Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows in Guangdong Province, China
    YANG Jin-bo, WEI Neng , WEN Liu-fa
    2012, 12(1): 166-169.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(00)8519
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    To evaluate the month-wise prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SM) and its relations with climatic temperature and humidity, and to provide references for control and prevention of mastitis in dairy cows in Guangdong, China, California mastitis test method was used to determine the monthly prevalence of SM (MPSM, %) of lactating Holstein cows from 11 dairy farms in Guangdong Province, China, including about 516 cows per monthly examination. The average MPSM on a cow and a quarter basis were 30 and 13% respectively, and there was a positive linear correlation between monthly mean air temperature (MT, °C) and MPSM on a cow basis (r=0.763, P=0.004) or a quarter basis (r=0.577, P=0.049), but there were no correlations between MT and MPSM on a cow or a quarter basis (P>0.05). There was a shift in MPSM trend that the highest MPSM (38.4%) was not for the hottest July with MT at 30.8°C, but for the later September at 27.9°C. The farms need to develop new housing conditions to control cowshed temperatures in the hot season to reduce the mastitis prevalences in the posthot months.