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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2021, Vol. 20 Issue (12): 3186-3198    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63421-9
Special Issue: 园艺-分子生物合辑Horticulture — Genetics · Breeding
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Analysis of genetic diversity and structure across a wide range of germplasm reveals genetic relationships among seventeen species of Malus Mill. native to China 
GAO Yuan, WANG Da-jiang, WANG Kun, CONG Pei-hua, LI Lian-wen, PIAO Ji-cheng
Research Institute of Pomology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crops Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Xingcheng 125100, P.R.China
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中国是世界苹果属植物遗传多样性中心,中国原产苹果属植物有17个野生种和6个栽培种。利用19对SSR引物,对来源于14个省分属于17个种(12个野生种和5个栽培种)的798份苹果属植物材料进行鉴定评价。统计分析结果表明,798份种质具有较高的遗传多样性水平,其有效等位基因数(Ne)、期望杂合度(He)和香农信息指数(I)分别为10.309、0.886和2.545. 新疆野苹果 (He=0.814, I=2.041, Ne=6.054)、山荆子(He=0.848, I=2.350, Ne=8.652)、变叶海棠 (He=0.663, I=1.355, Ne=3.332) 和湖北海棠 (He=0.539, I=0.912, Ne=0.579) 的遗传多样性水平高于前人研究结果。新疆野苹果和山荆子只对部分中国苹果种质的起源演化有贡献,但是其他中国苹果种质却与山荆子和栽培种有更近的关系,尤其是八棱海棠、花红和楸子。并非所有的中国苹果种质均是由中国新疆的新疆野苹果演化而来。本研究为明确中国原产苹果属植物的亲缘关系提供新的理论依据,对解析苹果属植物遗传关系、种质资源保护和育种利用具有重要意义。

China is a center of diversity for Malus Mill. with 27 native species including 21 wild species and six domesticated species.  We applied a set of 19 simple sequence repeat markers to genotype 798 accessions of 17 species (12 wild species and five cultivated species) of Malus originating from 14 provinces in China.  A total of 500 alleles were detected.  Diversity statistics indicated a high level of genetic variation as quantified by the average values of the effective allele number (Ne), expected heterozygosity (He), and Shannon’s Information Index (I) (10.309, 0.886, and 2.545, respectively).  Malus sieversii (MSR; He=0.814, I=2.041, Ne=6.054), M. baccata (MBB; He=0.848, I=2.350, Ne=8.652), M. toringoides (MTH; He=0.663, I=1.355, Ne=3.332), and M. hupehensis (MHR; He=0.539, I=0.912, Ne=0.579) showed a higher level of genetic diversity in this study than the previous studies.  MSR and MBB contributed to the origin and evolution of some accessions of M. domestica subsp. chinensis (MDC).  However, other accessions of MDC showed a closer genetic distance with MBB and cultivated species, especially M. robusta (MRB), M. asiatica (MAN), and M. prunifolia (MPB).  Not all accessions of MDC were descended from MSR in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.  This research provides novel insights into the genetic relationships of Malus native to China, which will be useful for genetic association studies, germplasm conservation, and breeding programs.
Keywords:  genetic diversity        genetic structure        genetic relationship        microsatellite       Malus Mill.  
Received: 07 July 2020   Accepted:
Fund: This study was funded by the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS-ASTIP). 
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence WANG Kun, Mobile: +86-13998907719, Tel/Fax: +86-429-3598120, E-mail:; CONG Pei-hua, E-mail:   
About author:  GAO Yuan, E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

GAO Yuan, WANG Da-jiang, WANG Kun, CONG Pei-hua, LI Lian-wen, PIAO Ji-cheng. 2021. Analysis of genetic diversity and structure across a wide range of germplasm reveals genetic relationships among seventeen species of Malus Mill. native to China . Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(12): 3186-3198.

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