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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2016, Vol. 15 Issue (05): 992-1004    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(15)61166-2
Physiology·Biochemistry·Cultivation·Tillage Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Top-dressing nitrogen fertilizer rate contributes to decrease culm physical strength by reducing structural carbohydrate content in japonica rice
ZHANG Wu-jun, WU Long-mei, DING Yan-feng, WENG Fei, WU Xiao-ran, LI Gang-hua, LIU Zhenghui, TANG She, DING Cheng-qiang, WANG Shao-hua
Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production/Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Information Agriculture/National Engineering and Technology Center for Information Agriculture/Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P.R.China
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Abstract  Lodging is an important factor limiting rice yield and quality by bending or breaking stem in japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. The objectives of this study were to determine the mechanism of lodging resistance in japonica rice as affected by carbohydrate components, especially its related arrangement in culm tissue and response to top-dressing nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Field experiments were conducted in Danyang County, Jiangsu Province, China, by using two japonica rice varieties Wuyunjing 23 (lodging-resistance variety) and W3668 (lodging-susceptible variety) with three top-dressing N fertilizer rates (0, 135 and 270 kg N ha–1) in 2013 and 2014. Lodging related physical parameters, morphological characteristics and stem carbohydrate components were investigated at 30 d after full heading stage. Results showed that with increasing N fertilizer rates, the lodging rate and lodging index increased rapidly primarily due to significant reduction of breaking strength in two japonica rice varieties. Correlation analysis revealed that breaking strength was significantly and positively correlated with bending stress, but negatively correlated with section modulus, except for significant correlation at W3668 in 2014. Higher stem plumpness status and structural carbohydrate contents significantly enhanced stem stiffness, despite of lower non-structural carbohydrate. With higher N fertilizer rate, the culm wall thickness was almost identical, and culm diameter increased slightly. The structural carbohydrates, especially for lignin content in culm, reduced significantly under high N rate. Further histochemical staining analysis revealed that high N treatments decreased the lignin deposition rapidly in the sclerenchyma cells of mechanical tissue, large vascular bundle and small vascular bundle region, which were consistent with reduction of bending stress, especially for W3668 and thus, resulted in poor stem strength and higher lodging index. These results suggested that structural carbohydrate plays a vital role for improving stem strength in japonica rice. N rate decreased lodging resistance primarily due to poor stem stiffness, by reducing structural carbohydrate content and lignin deposition in the secondary cell wall of lower internode culm tissue.
Keywords:  japonica rice        lodging resistance        nitrogen        stem strength        structural carbohydrate  
Received: 29 April 2015   Accepted:

We thank the staff of Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China, Nanjing Agriculture University. Funding was provided by the National Key Technologies R&D Program of China during the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011BAD16B14, 2012BAD20B05, 2012BAD04B08) and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

Corresponding Authors:  LI Gang-hua, Tel/Fax: +86-25-84396475, E-mail:   

Cite this article: 

ZHANG Wu-jun, WU Long-mei, DING Yan-feng, WENG Fei, WU Xiao-ran, LI Gang-hua, LIU Zhenghui, TANG She, DING Cheng-qiang, WANG Shao-hua. 2016. Top-dressing nitrogen fertilizer rate contributes to decrease culm physical strength by reducing structural carbohydrate content in japonica rice. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 15(05): 992-1004.

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