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    10 July 2009, Volume 42 Issue 7
    CROP GENETICS & BREEDING·GERMPLASM RESOURCES·MOLECULAR GENETICS
    Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Grain Traits in Japonica Rice
    LI Mao-mao,XU Lei,REN Jun-fang,CAO Gui-lan,YU Li-qin,HE Hao-hua,HAN Long-zhi,KOH Hee-jong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2255-2261 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.001
    Abstract ( 1023 )   PDF (408KB) ( 738 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of grain traits were detected to provide a theoretical basis for fine mapping and molecular marker-assisted breeding of grain traits in japonica rice. 【Method】 Using an F2 population including 200 individuals derived from a cross combination between two japonica rice DL115 with large grain and XL005 with small grain. The grain length, grain width, grain thickness, ratio of grain length to width and 1000-grain weight were evaluated in Beijing. The quantitative trait loci for above five grain traits were identified by composite interval mapping using SSR markers. 【Result】 The results showed that the five grain traits exhibited a normal continuous distribution in F2 population, indicated they were quantitative traits controlled by multiple genes. A total of 16 QTLs conferring the five grain traits were detected on chromosomes 2, 3, 5 and 12, respectively. Eight QTLs, namely qGL3a, qGW2, qGW5, qGT2, qRLW2, qRLW3, qGWT2 and qGWT3, were major QTLs and explained 15.42%, 40.89%, 13.54%, 33.43%, 13.82%, 13.61%, 12.51% and 10.1% of the observed phenotypic variance, respectively. Among them, qGW2, qGT2, qRLW2 and qGWT2 were mapped in same interval RM12776-RM324 on chromosome 2. Four QTLs alleles were derived from small grain parent XL005, and other 12 QTLs alleles were derived from large grain parent DL115. The modes of gene action were mainly additive or partial dominance. 【Conclusion】 The grain traits of japonica rice were quantitative traits controlled by multiple genes. The marker interval RM12776-RM324 on chromosome 2 was common marker intervals of four major QTLs, which were associated with grain width, grain thickness, ratio of grain length to width and 1000-grain weight, respectively. The two SSR markers, RM12776 and RM324, would be used in molecular marker-assisted breeding in japonica rice. The alleles from larger parent were showed significant effects on grain length, grain width, grain thickness and 1000-grain weight.

    Genetic Analysis of QTL Affecting Recombination Frequency in Whole Genome of Maize and Rice#br#
    LI Lin,LI Qing,WANG Li-bo,ZHANG Zu-xin,LI Jian-sheng,YAN Jian-bing
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2262-2270 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.002
    Abstract ( 1023 )   PDF (294KB) ( 658 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Recombination plays an important role in species evolution as well as plant and animal breeding. Here, the number of crossover breakpoints was used as a trait to map the QTL controlling recombination of genomes. 【Method】 Total number of crossover breakpoints across all chromosomes (NCAC) was used as the trait. 【Result】 Seven and eleven QTL were detected in 3 maize and 3 rice genetic populations, respectively. Meanwhile, 12 and 57 more QTL were detected in the maize IBM302 and rice Genetic98 population, respectively, when using the number of crossover breakpoints per chromosome (NCPC) as the trait. The number of QTL detected is strongly correlated with the resolution of the genetic linkage map. 【Conclusion】 These results not only have provided evidences for the true existence of genes controlling recombination frequency, but also facilitate our further research on map-based gene cloning and molecular breeding.

    Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Potassium Transporters in Major Crops#br#
    LU Li-ming
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2271-2279 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.003
    Abstract ( 1011 )   PDF (226KB) ( 1243 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The purpose of this experiment is to search all genes related to potassium absorption and transportation in major crops (except rice), and analyze their phylogenetic relationships. 【Method】 With the help of comparative genome analysis method, searching was conducted across GenBank, EMBL, DDBJ, PDB NR database. Phylogenetic analysis was implemented within the searching result. 【Result】 44 genes with complete cds related to potassium transporter families have been identified in wheat, barley, maze, tobacco etc (except rice). Among these genes, 8 from barley, maze, grape and broad bean fall into HAK/KUP/KT family, 27 from wheat, barley, maze, potato, tomato, tobacco etc into AKT family, 4 from wheat and barley into HKT family and 4 from barley, tobacco and potato into KCO family. KEA family is represented by only one gene from maize. In this research, ZM_BFb0024K15, ZM_BFc0028P03 and ZM_BFb0207I17 cloned in maize genome sequencing project were firstly identified as potassium transporters. The first two genes belong to HAK/KUP/KT family and the third to KEA family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that genes from each family are closely related to the query gene. The comparative identities are from 33% to 84%. 【Conclusion】 There are many genes related to potassium absorption and transportation in major crops (except rice), and many of them are closely related to arabidopsis potassium genes.

    Studies on Hybrid Heterosis and Parental Combining Ability of Yield and Quality Traits in Early Generations of Soybean#br#
    YANG Jia-yin,GAI Jun-yi
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2280-2290 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.004
    Abstract ( 1256 )   PDF (353KB) ( 738 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The present study was aimed at evaluating the hybrid heterosis, inbreeding depression and combining ability performed in F1-F3 generations of 14 yield and quality traits among parental materials of soybean in Huang-Huai velleys so as to provide guidelines of parental selection and early generation selection in breeding of hybrid cultivars and inbred line cultivars. 【Method】 A set of eight parental cultivars chosen from Huang-Huai valleys and the US along with their 28 diallel crosses were tested in 2005. The mid-parent heterosis and high-parent heterosis as well as inbreeding depression were evaluated for each of the 14 traits. DIALLEL-SAS05 was used to carry out the combined analysis of variance of combining ability of eight traits in F1, F2 and F3 generations. 【Result】 The obtained results were as follows: (1) There appeared hybrid heterosis and inbreeding depression for yield-related traits, among them, yield heterosis was the largest, that of number of pods per plant and seeds per plant the next, while no obvious heterosis for 100-seed-weight was observed. The traits with high F1 heterosis performed high inbreeding depression in F2 and F3, therefore, were not appropriate for utilization of heterosis in F1-derived generations. But there showed no obvious hybrid heterosis in maturity and quality (protein and oil contents) traits. (2) There existed significant GCA×Generation and SCA×Generation interaction in yield, therefore, the parental cultivars with high combining ability performed in F1 were not necessary with high combining ability in derived inbred generations, while no significant GCA×Generation and SCA×Generation interaction of quality traits were observed, therefore, the combining ability performed in F1 could predict that in derived inbred generations. (3) The yield of the parental materials per se could not be used as an indicator of its GCA, but the protein and oil contents of them per se could be used as an indicator of its GCA. 【Conclusion】 The heterosis of yield was the largest among the traits studied, but that in F1-derived generations declined and, therefore, not useful in production. There might be different superior parental materials and crosses in F1 hybrid cultivars and derived inbred line cultivars. In breeding for line cultivars, selection pressure can be put on early hybrid generations for the effective improvement of the quality traits.

    High Level Expression of Human Thymosin α1 Concatemer in Transgenic Tomato Plants #br#
    CAO Hui-ying,ZHANG Rui,GUO San-dui
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2291-2296 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.005
    Abstract ( 1085 )   PDF (527KB) ( 998 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To improve the expression of immunoreactive thymosin alpha 1(Tα1) protein in tomato plants.【Method】 The Tα1 gene was designed and synthesized according to the plant codon usage bias, then created a novel Tα1 concatemer that four copies of Tα1 gene were arranged end-to-end in tandem. Recognition site sequence of enterokinase was inserted between single Tα1 gene, so that fusion protein could be cut by enterokinase. Subsequently, Tα1 gene and Tα1 concatemer were respectively introduced into tomato via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. 【Result】 After the two genes transformation, 19 and 10 regenerated tomato plants resistant to kanamycin were obtained. Some of transgenic tomato plants were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. Western blot analysis showed the expression of Tα1 concatemer protein in transgenic tomato fruits. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis showed that the content of the Tα1 concatemer protein was equal to 20.2 μg Tα1?g-1 fresh weight in mature tomato fruit, which was higher than the expression of Tα1 gene. 【Conclusion】 The expression of Tα1 protein had increased in tomato by gene repeats.

    Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of EPSP Synthase Gene cDNA of Allium macrostemon Bunge#br#
    ZHOU Xiao-hui,HUANG Li-hua,JIANG Xiang,LI Yu-qiang,ZHANG Xue-wen
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2297-2304 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.006
    Abstract ( 1127 )   PDF (469KB) ( 862 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Allium macrostemon Bunge is a weed plant and it is very hard to control in cotton field because of its glyphosate resistance. To reveal its mechanism of glyphosate resistance can lead to a molecular understanding and utilization. 【Method】 The cDNA of EPSPs gene that is responsible to glyphosate resistance were amplified and cloned by RT-PCR and RACE. The glyphosate resistance of the protein is tested by expression of the EPSPs cDNA in E. coli. 【Result】 The cloned full-length cDNA is 1 821 bp with an open reading frame of 1 569 bp. The cDNA encodes a putative 522 amino acids protein. BLAST and protein structure estimation analysis revealed that it is homologous to EPSP synthase of many other plants but with same characterized sites. The cDNA is designed of EPSPsA. The PCR products of the cDNA coding region were recombined into the expression vector pRSET-A and transformed into bacterium E.coli BL21 (DE3) for expression. The target protein with a molecular mass of 55 kD was identified in PAGE after inducing with IPTG. The bacteria show an increased resistance ability when treated with glyphosate. Conclusion】 It is concluded that the EPSPs of Allium macrostemon Bunge has the feature and trait of glyphosate resistance.

     

    TILLAGE & CULTIVATION·PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY
    The Lodging Resistance of Erect Panicle Japonica Rice in Northern China#br#
    ZHANG Xi-juan,LI Hong-jiao,LI Wei-juan,XU Zheng-jin,CHEN Wen-fu,ZHANG Wen-zhong,WANG Jia-yu
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2305-2313 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.007
    Abstract ( 1061 )   PDF (437KB) ( 829 )   Save
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    【Objective】 In rice breeding, improvement of lodging resistance has been a main aspect for high-yield and excellent-qualities. This study investigated the lodging resistance of erect panicle Japonica rice in northern China. It would be beneficial to improve ment of lodging resistance of Northern japonica rice and realization of high-yield and excellent-quality in rice. 【Method】 Thirty days after heading, the lodging resistance of every elongating internodes of erect panicle type rice (EPT) and curved panicle type rice (CPT) were studied by using 12 japonica rice cultivars as materials and T-test as statistical analysis method. Furthermore, to demonstrate the reason why erect panicle type japonica rice has better lodging resistance than curved panicle type japonica rice, the correlations between the breaking resistance of the culm and its characteristics of physics and mechanics were studied. 【Result】 The results revealed that there was no significant difference in bending moment of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th internodes between erect panicle type rice and curved panicle type rice (CPT). But EPT had greater breaking resistance of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd internode than CPT. So that the lodging index of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd internodes of EPT was lower than that of CPT. The correlations between the breaking resistance of culm and its morphological traits, anatomical features, chemical components were further studied. There were many reasons for the breaking resistance of 1st, 2nd and 3rd internodes of EPT increased. Firstly, EPT had thicker culm wall and larger culm wall area than EPT. Secondly, the mumber of vascular bundles, the area of vascular bundles, the area of phloem and the area of xylem of EPT were lager than those of CPT. Thirdly, EPT had higher cellulose content in comparison with CPT. 【Conclusion】 In selection of lodging resistant cultivars, one should consider those characterized with thicker culm wall , larger culm wall area, better vascular bundle characters with high cellulose content in their stems. In northern of China, breeding erect-panicle cultivars would be an effective way to improve lodging resistance of japonica rice

    The ATPase Activity in Phloem Cells and Its Relation to the Accumulation of Photo-Assimilates in Developing Caryopsis During Wheat Grain Filling#br#
    ZHOU Zhu-qing,LI Ji-wei,DENG Xiang-yi,WANG Li-kai,MEI Fang-zhu,ZOU Li-ping
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2314-2325 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.008
    Abstract ( 999 )   PDF (2057KB) ( 723 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of ATPase in phloem cells and to analyze the relationships between the ATPase active products in phloem cells and the accumulation of photo-assimilates in grain during grain filling. 【Method】 During grain filling of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), different photo-assimilates in grain were determined by Anthrone’s method, the positions of polysaccharide in phloem and endosperm of caryopsis were located by microscopic cyto-chemical technology and the ATPase activity in phloem were located by ultracytochemical technology. Meanwhile, correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were done between ATPase active products in phloem cells and accumulation of photo-assimilates in grain. 【Result】 At early stage of grain filling, the photo-assimilates of grain were mainly soluble sugar. At around 14 d after flowering, the contents of soluble sugar and starch of grain were basically equal and then starch became the main form of photo-assimilates. During the whole filling stage, the changes of soluble sugar and starch showed mutual growth and decline, but the total sugar of grain showed a "S"-type growth. The cell wall of SE and the starch granules in endosperm were dyed bright red by PAS reaction during gradual increasing period and fast increasing period, but they showed light red during slight increasing period. In the SE, IC, CC and PPC, ATPase active products mainly distributed on the plasma membrane, the cell wall and the vesicles around plasma membrane. The P-type plastids, double-layer membrane of mitochondria in SE and the branches of the plasmodesmata between SE and IC also had a strong ATPase activity. The ATPase activity in SE was higher than that in IC during gradual increasing period and fast increasing period, but the ATPase activity in IC was higher than that in SE during slight increasing period. There was a significant negative correlation between the soluble sugar contents of grain and the ATPase active products of the SE, a very significant positive correlation between the starch contents and the ATPase active products and a significant positive correlation between the total sugar contents and the ATPase active products. Otherwise, there was a clear linear relationship between the ATPase active products and the photo-assimilates contents. The soluble sugar contents of grain and the ATPase active products of the IC also had a highly significant positive correlation. 【Conclusion】 In the grain filling process, the changes of grain soluble sugar and starch showed mutual growth and decline, but the total sugar content was still increased. The contents of different photo-assimilates of grain and the ATPase active products of SE and IC had significant or very significant correlations. The distribution of ATPase active in phloem showed a dynamic changes in time and space. The SE played a leading role at the first and second filling stages, but IC played a leading role at the third filling stages. This result has provided a cytological basis for the physiological study of wheat grain filling

    Modelling Dynamic Grain Protein Composition in Wheat#br#
    SHI Xiao-yan,ZHU Yan,TANG Liang,CAO Wei-xing
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2326-2331 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.009
    Abstract ( 972 )   PDF (307KB) ( 710 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Modelling grain protein composition in wheat is of significant importance for evaluating wheat grain quality. 【Method】 Based on time-course observations on grain protein components under varied nitrogen rates and water regimes with different cultivars, the change patterns in contents of grain protein components with growth progress and environmental factors were characterized, and a dynamic model was developed to simulate formation processes of grain protein components in wheat grains. The dynamic content of albumin with growing degree days (GDD) after anthesis could be described with a power model, and the contents of gliadlin and glutenin could be described with a logarithmic model. The effects of nitrogen and water conditions on grain protein components were quantified with nitrogen and water factors. The model was validated with independent experiment data. 【Result】 The mean RMSEs of four grain protein components during filling stage under different temperatures were 0.44%, 0.58%, 0.53% and 0.59%, respectively, and the mean RMSEs at maturity were 0.41%, 0.56%, 0.75% and 0.56%, respectively. 【Conclusion】The results indicate that the present model has a good performance in predicting dynamic contents of grain protein components in wheat, which have laid a foundation for simulating wheat grain quality and improving wheat growth system.

    Physiological Mechanisms of Variation in Temperature-Sensitivity of Cotton Fiber Strength Formation Between Two Cotton Cultivars #br#
    SHU Hong-mei,ZHAO Xin-hua,ZHOU Zhi-guo,ZHENG Mi,WANG You-hua
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2332-2341 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.010
    Abstract ( 920 )   PDF (367KB) ( 803 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This experiment was carried out to study the physiological mechanisms of variation in temperature -sensitivity of cotton fiber strength formation in different cotton cultivars. 【Method】 In 2006 and 2007, two cotton cultivars with different temperature-sensitivity during fiber strength formation (Kemian 1 is a temperature-insensitive cultivar and Sumian 15 is a temperature-sensitive cultivar) were used to investigate the matter (sucrose, β-1,3-glucan and cellulose) content and the activity of sucrose synthase and β-1, 3-glucanase which play very important roles in developing cotton fiber. The effects of low temperature on cotton fiber development by setting different sowing dates, thus the fiber development process can be arranged at different temperature conditions. 【Result】 In normal sowing date, mean daily minimum temperature was 24.0℃ and 25.4℃ during fiber development period, cotton had high-strength fiber, sucrose synthase activity in cotton fiber was the highest, β-1,3-glucanase activity was the lowest, and sucrose transformation rate and cellulose accumulation were the highest. When mean daily minimum temperature was less than 21.1℃ in late sowing dates, enzyme activity and matter content related to cotton fiber development was reduced, sucrose transformation rate, β-1,3-glucan and cellulose accumulation decreased, sucrose synthase activity decreased, and β-1,3-glucanase activity increased, which resulted in lower fiber strength. Two cultivars had different sensitivity to low temperatures, the changing range of Sumian 15 in sucrose transformation, cellulose accumulation and enzyme activity was lager than that of Kemian 1. 【Conclusion】 Mean daily minimum temperature below 21.1℃ which affected cotton fiber development. There were significant differences in the sensitivity of the related enzymes activities and matter content to low temperature between two cultivars, and that may be one of the important factors which lead to the two cotton cultivars had different temperature-sensitivity during fiber strength formation.

    Discussion on Drought Resistance of Sorghum and Its Status in Agriculture in Arid and Semiarid Regions#br#
    SHAN Lun,XU Bing-cheng
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2342-2348 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.011
    Abstract ( 1223 )   PDF (243KB) ( 1096 )   Save
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    Based on authors’ research results and taking maize as the main reference crop, the paper discussed the yield performance, water utilization and drought resistance of sorghum under drought stress environment. Sorghum is regarded as a crop having strong and comprehensive ability of coping with drought, especially low water consumption and high water use-efficiency characteristics. The drought tolerance of sorghum is significantly higher than maize, millet and alfalfa. Sorghum is a typical drought-resistant model crop, which has important values for production and research. The paper also discussed the reasons for the sharp declining in total planting areas of sorghum, and pointed out that as a multifunctional crop possessing high stress resistibility, sorghum can be used for food, fodder, the production of beverages, as well as biofuels, which indicates its favorable developmental prospects. To bring more land under cultivation for sorghum at the regions where the rainfall is lower than 450mm and heat is satisfiable for growth, and strengthen the investigations about drought-resistant mechanism in whole and drought-resistant genome were proposed.

    PLANT PROTECTION
    Application of Digital Image Processing Technology in Recognizing the Diseases, Pests, and Weeds from Crops #br#
    GUAN Ze-xin,YAO Qing,YANG Bao-jun,HU Jie,TANG Jian
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2349-2358 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.012
    Abstract ( 989 )   PDF (265KB) ( 1373 )   Save
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    The major image processing methods used for the reorganization of diseases, pests, and weeds from crops were reviewed. These methods include color space partition method, texture feature analysis method, morphological feature analysis method, wavelet analysis methods, multi-parametric analysis method and special image analysis method. The principles of these methods were introduced and their advantages and disadvantages were compared. In addition, the pattern recognition methods that related to the above methods were also summarized briefly. Finally, some concerns as well as further researches in this field were discussed.

    Cloning, Expression and Tissue-Specific Expression of cDNA Encoding Pheromone Binding Protein PBP2 in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)#br#
    ZHANG Shuai,ZHANG Yong-jun,SU Hong-hua,GAO Xi-wu,GUO Yu-yuan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2359-2365 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.013
    Abstract ( 1019 )   PDF (495KB) ( 699 )   Save
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    【Objective】 A gene named HarmPBP2 encoding pheromone binding protein 2 was cloned from Helicoverpa armigera and expressed in prokaryotic system, and purified HarmPBP2 was obtained. 【Method】 The HarmPBP2 gene was cloned in H.armigera using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). And its spatio-temporal expression pattern was studied by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. HarmPBP2 was expressed using pGEX-4T-1/BL21 (DE3) prokaryotic expression system, and purified using GSTrap FF. 【Result】 The full length of HarmPBP2 (GenBank loucs: EU647241) was 457 bp, encoding 149 amino acids, including 25 aa of signal peptide. Sequencing and analysis indicated that HarmPBP2 was characterized by six conservative Cys, which shared typical feature of OBP with those of other insects. Further analysis showed that HarmPBP2 may belong to the family of PBP. HarmPBP2 was expressed in antenna, leg and wing in both male and female, and also expressed in female maxillary palpus. The expression quantity was antenna>wing>leg, and the female>male. The molecular weight of recombinant protein of pGEX-4T-1/ HarmPBP2 was about 40 kD. About 14 kD HarmPBP2 was obtained by affinity chromatography and cleavage of GST-tag. 【Conclusion】 HarmPBP2 was cloned and expressed it in prokaryotic expression system ,and then the expressed protein was purified, which is helpful for further researches on molecular structure and function of HarmPBP2, and the expression pattern was studied by Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis.

    Effects of Environmental Factors on Stability of Thelytoky of Trichogramma dendrolimi Infected with Wolbachia #br#
    ZHANG Hai-yan,ZHANG Ying,CONG Bin,QIAN Hai-tao,DONG Hui,FU Hai-bin
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2366-2372 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.014
    Abstract ( 944 )   PDF (318KB) ( 846 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To clarify the genetic stability of thelytokous line of Trichogramma dendrolimi (Matsumura) infected with Wolbachia by horizontal transfer under abnormal circumstance, and adaptation between Wolbachia and its host. 【Method】 Parasitic, reproductive and several other biological characteristics of thelytokous line of Trichogramma dendrolimi were investigated in treatments of feeding with tetracycline, continuance of high temperature and mating. 【Result】 After treatment with tetracycline, male Trichogramma emerged in the F2 generation of the thelytokous line, the males induced by tetracycline mated with females induced to produce offspring, and male individuals appeared in all 20 descendant families. At normal temperature of 25℃, the mating of thelytokous line of Trichogramma dendrolimi reduced the number of parasitic compared to non-mating markedly until the F7 generation. However individual males presented incidentally in generations F2 and F4, not found in other generation with mating and all generation without mating. At relative higher temperature of 32 ℃, individual males presented in whole generation of F5 including mating and non-mating. 【Conclusion】 Stability of thelytokous line of Trichogramma dendrolimi infected with Wolbachia can not be affected by mating at 25℃ and 32℃, antibiotic treatment and higher temperature of 32℃ lasting at least 20 d are the key factors to eliminate Wolbachia to alter thelytokous of Trichogramma dendrolimi .

    Sequence Analysis of the pst I-G Genomic Fragment of the Ophiusa Disjungens Nucleopolyhedrovirus#br#
    CHANG Run-lei,LIN Tong,ZHANG Yu-hong,ZHANG Qi,WEN Xiu-jun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2373-2379 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.015
    Abstract ( 993 )   PDF (1129KB) ( 706 )   Save
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    【Objective】 In order to investigate the genomic organization and phylogenetic status of OpdiNPV. 【Method】OpdiNPV DNA was digested with pstⅠ and separated by electrophoresis. A pst I-G fragment was recovered, ligated into PUC18 vector, and transformed into E. coli strain DH5α. Recombinant plasmids were purified from white bacterial colonies and sequenced.【Result】 The pst I-G fragment was 5056bp in length, containing four open reading frames (ORFs) that encode odv-e66 gene (EU 623602), p87/vp80 gene (EU 732665), odv-ec43 gene (EU617337) and ac108 gene (EU 732666) respectively. A late promoter motif TAAG was found 12 nucleotides (nt) upstream of the start codon ATG of ac108 gene. Upstream of the start codon ATG of odv-ec43 has two early transcription motifs CAGT and a late promoter motif TAAG. Two transmembrane helices, 3 N-glycosylation sites, 1 N-myristoylation site, 7 Protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 1 Tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site, 4 Casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation sites were found in the protein deduced by odv-ec43.A polyadenylation signal site was found 89 nucleotides (nt) downstream of the stop codon TAA of p87/vp80 gene. 【Conclusion】 Amino acid sequence alignment and identity analysis showed that Ac108, ODV-E66 and P87/VP80 had a low identity with other baculovirus. ODV-Ec43 was conserved among baculoviruses.

    An Antifungal Active Component from Spiraea alpina to Plant Fungi#br#
    TENG Yun,YU Zhi-yi,CUI Wen-hua,ZHANG Xin-gang,QUAN Xin,SUN Qiu,HOU Tai-ping
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2380-2385 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.016
    Abstract ( 1047 )   PDF (310KB) ( 826 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To exploit the antifungal new active components from Spiraea alpina against phytopathogenic fungi. 【Method】 Different fractions of antifungal ethanol extract from the leaves of Spiraea alpina were obtained with different polarities of solvents such as petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol. Guided by the inhibitory activities detection of Rhizoctonia solani, Gibberella zeae, Pyricularia oryzea and Exserohilum turcicum, the main antifungal component from the strongest antifungal fraction was separated by medium pressure preparation chromatogram and column chromatography, and the structure was analyzed by HR-MS, ultraviolet-vis, infra-red, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 135-degree DEPT and HMBC spectrums. 【Result】 A new compound named 6-O-(3',4'-dihydroxy-2'-methylene-butyroyl)-1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-β-D-glucopyranose was found as a major fungal growth inhibitor, which performed an inhibitory rate to R. solani and E. turcicum, 86.7% and 63.2% at 0.3 mg?ml-1, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The EtOH extract from Spiraea. alpina had some inhibitory activities on R. solani and E. turcicum, and studies on Spiraea. alpina would give some more new fungitoxic metabolites.

    Comparison of Cuticular Penetration Between Susceptible and Lambda-Cyhalothrin-Resistant Populations in Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)#br#
    LIU Yong-jie,SHEN Jin-liang,YANG Tian-tang,XIAO Peng,HE Jin
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2386-2391 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.017
    Abstract ( 1018 )   PDF (295KB) ( 700 )   Save
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    【Objective】 In this paper, the relationship of the resistance of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius, to lambda-cyhalothrin and cuticular penetration of lambda-cyhalothrin was studied. 【Method】 Topical application, leaf-dipping and leaf-sandwich methods were used to determine the resistance levels of Spodoptera litura to lambda-cyhalothrin and cuticular penetration of 14C-lambda-cyhalothrin was carried out. 【Result】 The results indicate that the sequence of resistance levels of the 3rd instar larvae was topical application (2765.4 fold) >leaf-dipping method (365.1 fold) >leaf-sandwich method (34.0 fold) and the sequence of resistance levels of the 5th instar larvae was also topical application (2271.3 fold) >leaf-dipping method (257.2 fold) >leaf-sandwich method (20.2 fold). The resistance levels of the 3rd instar larvae were 81.3 and 10.7 times higher obtained by topical application (contact toxicity) and leaf-dipping method (contact toxicity and stomach toxicity) than that by leaf-sandwich method (stomach toxicity). Compared in the same way, the resistance levels of the 5th instar larvae were 112.4 and 12.7 times higher. Therefore, the resistant population of Spodoptera litura has a resistance level obtained by way of contact toxicity at least 81.3 times than that of stomach toxicity. After 0.5 h and 1.0 h treatments, the results indicate that there was no significant difference of cuticular penetration of 14C-lambda-cyhalothrin between the resistant and susceptible populations. After 2 h treatment, the rate of cuticular penetration of the resistant population became a little slower than that of the susceptible population. After 8h treatment, the rate of cuticular penetration in 3rd and 5th instar larvae of the resistant population was about 0.77 and 0.67 folds of that in the susceptible population. 【Conclusion】 Delayed cuticular penetration is responsible for the resistance of Spodoptera litura to lambda-cyhalothrin.

    SOIL & FERTILIZER·WATER-SAVING IRRIGATION·AGROECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT
    Acid and Alkaline Buffering Capacity of Typical Fluvor-Aquic Soil in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain#br#
    HUANG Ping,ZHANG Jia-bao,ZHU An-ning,ZHANG Cong-zhi
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2392-2396 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.018
    Abstract ( 1095 )   PDF (267KB) ( 867 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Soil acid and alkali buffer capacity, as a major indicator for evaluating the vulnerability and resistibility to soil acidification and alkalization, is an important factor impacting the sustainable development of agricultural soils, through which soil acidification process can be predicted and modified. 【Method】 In this study, titration curve method was adopted to investigate the pHBC, and separate titration curves were established by adding incremental amounts of either standardized hydrochloric acid (HCl) (0.12 mol?L-1) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0.10 mol?L-1) to soil suspended in deionized water (soil﹕solution = 1﹕5). Soil pH was measured after 7d resuspension and isothermal equilibrium (t =25℃). Linear regressions were fitted to the linear portion of each titration curve and the slopes of these lines were used as the determination of pHBC. 【Result】 The results showed that great significance of correlations between the amounts of adding acid or alkali and the pH drop or increase were presented, and the coefficients of relativity were higher than the similar researches on acid soils (R2 = 0.97). The slope-derived pHBC of acid and alkali were 158.71 mmol?kg-1 and 25.02 mmol?kg-1, respectively. 【Conclusion】Titration technique was applicable in determination of pHBC on typical fluvor-aquic soil in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. According to the classification of soil buffer systems, the soil studied belongs to the calcium carbonate buffer system, and in contrast to the soil organic matter, the carbonates contribute the most to pHBC.

    Study on Undisturbed Soil Sample Incubation for Estimating Soil Nitrogen Supplying Capacity in Loess Plateau#br#
    ZHAO Kun,LI Shi-qing,LI Sheng-xiu
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2397-2406 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.019
    Abstract ( 1150 )   PDF (279KB) ( 761 )   Save
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    【Objective】The purpose is to assess the effects of N supplying capacity on Loess Plateau using long-term alternate leaching aerobic incubation with undisturbed soils. 【Method】 Based on the results from pot experiments treated with leaching soil initial NO3--N and non-leaching soil initial NO3--N, long-term alternate leaching aerobic incubation with undisturbed soil samples was conducted to study the soil nitrogen supplying capacity of 11 surface soil with different fertilities on Loess Plateau. 【Result】 The results indicated that when initial NO3--N was not leached, soil initial NO3--N and mineral N extracted by CaCl2 before aerobic incubation were closely related with raygrass nitrogen uptake, the correlation coefficients were 0.856 and 0.862, respectively, both reached at 1% significant level. When initial NO3--N was leached,, it was no good relationship between mineralizable N extracted by aerobic incubation, soil initial mineral N and mineralizable N extracted by aerobic incubation, N0 and soil initial mineral N and N0 with raygrass nitrogrn uptake, the correlation coefficients were 0.410, 0.553, 0.492 and 0.419, respectively, indicating that the poor effects of mineralizable N on reflecting soil N capacity were influenced and disturbed by initial nitrate. When initial NO3--N was leached, the correlation coefficients between soil initial NO3--N and mineral N extracted by CaCl2 before aerobic incubation with raygrass nitrogen uptake were decreased to 0.613 and 0.607, respectively, and both reached 5% significantly level. However, the correlation coefficients between mineralizable N extracted by aerobic incubation, soil initial mineral N and mineralizable N extracted by aerobic incubation, N0 and soil initial mineral N and N0 with raygrass nitrogen uptake were raised obviously, and all reached 5% and 1% significant level. 【Conclusion】 It is concluded that NO3--N in soil extracted by CaCl2 before aerobic incubation is a good soil N index, reflecting soil N supplying capacity at present, but it is difficult to reflect soil potential N supplying capacity, and the long-term alternate leaching aerobic incubation with undisturbed soils is good laboratory method to estimate soil nitrogen supplying capacity, if compared with plant nitrogen uptake in pot experiment with leaching soil initial NO3--N.

    Grain Yield Trends of Different Food Crops Under Long-Term Fertilization in China#br#
    LI Zhong-fang,XU Ming-gang,ZHANG Hui-min,ZHANG Wen-ju,GAO Jing
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2407-2414 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.020
    Abstract ( 1185 )   PDF (274KB) ( 975 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The study was conducted to reveal the difference and dynamic of grain yield in China under long-term fertilization, and to provide scientific references for evaluating and establishing long-term fertilization mode. 【Method】 Grain yield trends of rice, wheat and maize crops in different treatments (unfertilized control, fertilizer NPK, and fertilizer NPK plus manure, i.e., NPKM) under long-term fertilization were investigated and 700 sets of data were included. 【Result】 It was discovered that grain yield of unfertilized maize and wheat showed a very significant (P<0.01) declining trend, the decline rates (per year) were -110.9 kg?hm-2 and -33.4 kg?hm-2, respectively, while rice yield was stable. Yield trends of the all three crops in NPK treatment decreased significantly (P<0.05) with year, the yield decline rates of maize, wheat and rice were -90.9 kg?hm-2, -48.5 kg?hm-2 and -25.3 kg?hm-2, respectively. Grain yields of 3 crops were stable under NPKM fertilization. The coefficients of variation (CV%) of maize, wheat and rice decreased by 8%, 4% and 3% in NPKM treatment, respectively, compared with those of NPK treatment. The yields of wheat and maize varied greatly with year, while that of rice was stable relatively. A significantly positive correlation between the fertilized and unfertilized crop yields was found. When the yields of unfertilized crops increased by one unit, the magnitude of yields increased in NPKM treatments decreased by 0.12-0.31 kg?hm-2?a-1 compared with those in NPK treatments. The crop yields under long-term NPK fertilization was more dependent on soil basic fertility than that of NPKM fertilization. 【Conclusion】 The yield declining trends were observed in wheat and maize crops with no fertilizer or chemical fertilizers alone, while that of rice was relatively stable. Chemical fertilizer in combination with manure is a more effective fertilization to improve and maintain the grain yield, and it is strongly recommended for sustainable agriculture.

    Effects of Long-Term Fertilization on Distribution and Storage of Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in Water-Stable Aggregates of Red Paddy Soil #br#
    XIANG Yan-wen,ZHENG Sheng-xian,LIAO Yu-lin,LU Yan-hong,XIE Jian,NIE Jun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2415-2424 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.021
    Abstract ( 1083 )   PDF (388KB) ( 831 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The effects of 25-year application of fertilizer and combining fertilizer with rice straw on water-stable aggregates size distribution and content and storage of aggregate-associated organic carbon and nitrogen were studied. 【Method】 The experiment was established in 1981 on a Typic Hapli-Stagnic Anthrosols. The treatments selected in this study were: CK: (without fertilization), NP(N,P fertilizers), NPK(N,P,K fertilizers), NP+RS(NP plus rice straw) and NPK+RS (NPK plus rice straw). 【Result】 Results showed that long-term application combining fertilizer with rice straw increased the content of water-stable aggregates in the 2-5 mm and 0.5-2 mm size fraction. Long-term application combining fertilizer with rice straw significantly increased the contents of organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN) and potential mineralizable N (PMN) , and also increased the storages of OC, TN and PMN in these water-stable aggregates (2-5 mm, 0.5-2 mm). It was found in this study that balanced fertilization treatment with N, P and K fertilizers could increase the contents and storages of OC, TN and PMN in the water-stable macroaggregates (2-5 mm, 0.5-2 mm) compared with CK treatment, but the range of increase of OC, TN and PMN was lower in NPK treatment than in the treatments with combined application of fertilizer with the rice straw. Water-stable aggregate protected organic carbon and nitrogen were significantly greater for macroaggregates (2-5 mm and 0.5-2 mm) than for microaggregates (<0.25 mm), indicating physical protection of organic carbon and nitrogen within macroaggregates. 【Conclusion】 Long-term application of fertilizer combined with rice straw increased significantly the contents and storages of OC, TN and PMN in water-stable macroaggregates(2-5 mm, 0.5-2 mm), which is an effective measure to improve soil structure, increase soil fertility in red paddy soil.

    Studies on Comprehensive Evaluation of Tobacco Ecological Suitability of Henan Province Supported by GIS#br#
    CHEN Hai-sheng,LIU Guo-shun,LIU Da-shuang,CHEN Wei-qiang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2425-2433 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.022
    Abstract ( 1289 )   PDF (411KB) ( 1070 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The growth of tobacco is sensitive to environment conditions. The tobacco production is strictly restricted by regional cultivated land. Based on the principal of hiberarchy analysis and fuzzy mathematics and the technique of GIS, the comprehensive evaluation of tobacco ecology suitability were studied according to the actual circumstances of the whole Henan tobacco planting regions. 【Method】 The evaluation index system of tobacco ecology suitability of Henan tobacco planting regions was established by choosing 17 evaluation indexes from 3 respects of climate, soil and landform with Delphi method. Furthermore, the membership function was set up according to the effects of each ecology factors on the growth and quality of tobacco suitability. And the AHP was used to determine the weight of indexes by using quantitative analysis. Then the tobacco ecology suitability map of Henan tobacco plantation was drawn with GIS software mapGIS. 【Result】 It is found that the most areas of the western and southern parts of Henan province is the highly suitable regions, accounting for 22.52% of Henan tobacco planting areas. It is because that there are medium air temperature, sunshine and rainfall, medium soil pH value and high contents of soil organic matter in the regions. Moveover, the topography is hill and massif and the height above sea level is between 150-800 m there .Some areas of the southern and middle parts of Henan province is the suitable ones, accounting for 34.99% of Henan tobacco planting areas. It is because that there are enough rainfall, medium air temperature, high contents of available N and available K in the soil in this regions. There are less suitable regions in the northern and eastern parts of the investigated regions because of drought, too high pH value and Cl- in the soil and irrigation water, accounting for 35.54% of the whole areas. 【Conclusion】It can be conducted rapidly and correctly by combining AHP and membership function for comprehensive evaluation of tobacco ecological suitability supported by GIS. For most of tobacco planting fields in Henan province, and practical tobacco productivity can be identified completely.

    HORTICULTURE
    Cloning and Characterization of ARF Family Gene SmARF8 in Solanum melongena L.#br#
    DU Li-ming,MAO Wei-hai,BAO Chong-lai,HU Tian-hua,ZHU Qin-mei,HU Hai-jiao
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2434-2441 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.023
    Abstract ( 1030 )   PDF (840KB) ( 676 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Cloning of auxin response factor, SmARF8, and its expression analysis can provide a basis for molecular mechanism research of fruit development in eggplant. 【Method】 RT-PCR and RACE were used to amplify full-length cDNA sequence of SmARF8 in eggplant. The analysis of conserved domains and phylogenetic relations among the known ARFs was performed by amino acid sequence alignment method. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression patterns of SmARF8 in different tissues. 【Result】 Full-length cDNA sequence of this gene is 3 671 bp with an ORF of 2 676 bp in length. The results of phylogenetic analysis among ARF family genes indicated that this gene was highly homologous with the parthenocarpy-related gene ARF8 in Arabidopsis, so it was named SmARF8. The amino acid sequence analysis showed that it contained a nuclear localization signal. The DNA-binding domain was localized on N-terminal, the middle was un-conserved regulation domain with enriched in proline, serine and threonine residues, and C-terminal was the protein interaction domain. Results of the real-time PCR analysis showed that SmARF8 was detected in the roots, stems, leaves, bud flowers, flowers, anthesis, opening flowers, fruits and old fruits, and it was strongly expressed in immature fruits. 【Conclusion】 Results of this research indicate that SmARF8 is an ARF family gene in eggplant.

    Study on the Response of Endogenous Hormone to Different Night Temperature and Its Relationship with Fruit Development in Melon#br#
    HAO Jing-hong,LI Tian-lai,DU Zhe,KAN Su-e
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2442-2448 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.024
    Abstract ( 1129 )   PDF (305KB) ( 645 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To investigate the response of fruit endogenous hormone to different night temperatures and the relationship with fruit development, the effects of different night temperatures on the content of endogenous hormone were studied.【Method】 Endogenous hormone contents in fruit during expanding were determined utilizing HPLC and the relationship between endogenous hormone and increment rate of single fruit were analyzed. 【Result】 The results showed that endogenous GA3 and ZT had peaks at prophase of fruit expanding period. IAA climbed the highest position in the later of fruit expanding period while ABA remained low all long. What was more, the content of endogenous hormone had a great changer after treatment with different night temperatures. Compared to other treatments, GA3, ZT, IAA reduced in evidence and GA3/ABA, ZT/ABA was also reduced significantly, and ABA increased at the last stage of fruit development after 9℃ in night with the extraordinary significant difference, while GA3 and GA3/ABA was smaller after treatment of 18℃in night than that of 15℃ and 12℃. Otherwise, endogenous hormone had no obvious change between 15℃ and 12℃ in night. In addition, the analysis of the relationship between fruit endogenous hormone and the increment rate of single fruit indicated that there existed an extremely positive significant linear relationship between GA3/ABA and increment rate of single fruit in different night temperatures, with determination slops smaller under unsuitable night temperature, especially 9℃. However, except for 15℃ and 18℃, there was no significant linear relationship between ZT/ABA and increment rate of single fruit. 【Conclusion】 In a word, these results suggested that different night temperatures had different effects on endogenous hormone. Otherwise, decreased fruit development in unsuitable night temperature may not only have relevance to GA3 and GA3/ABA, but also be affected by other factors.

    Factors Influencing Embryo Development in Embryo Rescue of Seedless Grapes#br#
    TANG Dong-mei,WANG Yue-jin,ZHAO Rong-hua,PAN Xue-jun,CAI Jun-she,ZHANG Jian-xia,ZHANG Chao-hong,LUO Qiang-wei
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2449-2457 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.025
    Abstract ( 1297 )   PDF (423KB) ( 1247 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The objective of this study was to improve breeding efficiency of seedless grape through embryo rescue in vitro, to investigate the effects of various correlative factors on embryo development in vitro. 【Method】 The open pollination ovules from 12 seedless grape varieties (lines), including Thompson Seedless, Black Monukka, Centennial Seedless, Delight, Flame Seedless, Superior Seedless, Autumn Royal, Fantasy Seedless, Dawn Seedless, Otilia Seedless, 00-3-1, Blush Seedless and hybrid ovules of 6 cross combinations Ruby Seedless×Guifeimeigui, Ruby Seedless×Xinyu, Delight×Kyoho, Xinyu×Kyoho, Emerald Seedless×Taishan-2, Delight ×Jiangxi-2 were used to investigate the effect of different ovule development media, different medium phases, low temperature, and light/dark condition on the proportion of embryo development in vitro, and evaluate the optimal sampling dates after bloom for picking the young berries, culturing the excised ovules in vitro in different cultivars and crosses. 【Result】 The results indicated that among the 8 media, Nitsch medium supplemented with 0.5 mg?L-1 GA3 and 1.5 mg?L-1 IAA, MM3 medium were found to be most suitable for embryo development in vitro of seedless grapes, and the next was ER medium. Among the solid, liquid and solid-liquid double phase media, solid-liquid double phase medium had the most positive effect on embryo development of middling ovules of seedless grape cv. Delight, yet three phase media showed no significant different effect on embryo development of bigger ovules of grape line 00-3-1. The results also showed that low temperature at the stage of ovule culture in vitro had a negative effect on embryos development. Dark culture had a positive effect on embryo development in ovule cultures in vitro. The optimal sampling dates after bloom of culturing ovules in vitro dissected from berries varied among different cultivars and crosses, the optimal sampling dates was 35 day after bloom (DAB) in Thompson Seedless, 40 DAB in Centennial Seedless, 40 DAB in Flame Seedless, 60 DAB in Delight, 55 DAB in Dawn Seedless, 70 DAB in Black Monukka, 50 DAB in Superior Seedless, 70 DAB in Autumn Royal, 60 DAB in Fantasy Seedless, 40 DAB in Otilia Seedless, 70 DAB in Ruby Seedless×Guifeimeigui, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The results indicated that Nitsch medium supplemented with 0.5 mg?L-1 GA3 and 1.5 mg?L-1 IAA, MM3 and ER media were suitable for embryo rescue in vitro of seedless grapes. The culture environment of room temperature (25±2)℃, solid-liquid double phase medium and dark culture had a positive effect on improvement of embryo rescue efficiency.

    Structure, Evolution and Expression of a Full-Length cDNA Sequence of SuSy Gene from Yam#br#
    ZHOU Sheng-mao,CAO Jia-shu,WANG Ling-ping,XIANG Xun,WEI Ben-hui,LI Yang-rui,FANG Feng-xue,LI Wen-jia
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2458-2468 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.026
    Abstract ( 924 )   PDF (934KB) ( 724 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The purpose of this paper is to elucidate sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) gene family members and their functions. 【Method】 Both RT-PCR and RACE technique were employed to isolate a full-length cDNA sequence of SuSy gene (DaSuSy1) from the underground tubers of yam (Dioscorea alata), both structural characteristics and molecular evolution of which were analyzed with such software as DANSTAR and Clastal W, and the spatial and temporal expressions of this gene were characterized by RT-PCR and Northern hybridization. 【Result】 DaSuSy1 full-length cDNA sequence was 2 673 bp in size, which comprised a 2 445 bp largest open reading frame (ORF), a 7 bp 5′ noncoding region and a 221 bp 3′ noncoding region with a 24 nt poly (A+) tailor. A polypeptide of 814 amino acids with a 92.76 kD molecular weight and a theoretical pI of 6.42 was putatively encoded by the largest ORF, containing both two conserved functional regions as sucrose synthase and glucosyl-transferase and two phosphorylated sites as Ser10 at N-end of and SNLDRRET781 RR(Ser774-Thr781) at C-end of amino acid sequence. At the levels of complete cDNA sequences, coding regions and its deduced amino acid sequences, DaSuSy1 shared the similarities of 45.3%-71.3%, 45.8%-74.8%, 50%-84.7%, respectively, with SuSy genes of the selected and known species in GenBank, and had the closest genetic relationship with some members of SuSy gene families of gramineous plants. DaSuSy1 expressed only in non-photosynthetic organs of yam was not only strongly expressed in the underground tubers, but also its expression abundances progressively increased from the initiation of early stage to the part of middle stage of the underground tuber bulking, and thereafter gradually decreased. 【Conclusion】 DaSuSy1 belonging in yam SuSy gene family members was assigned to the monocot SuSy gene group, which was expressed to encode SuSy isoform responsible for the conversion of sucrose to starch only in non-photosynthetic organs of yam (D. alata).

    A Summary of Pepper Research in China
    WU Hua-song,YANG Jian-feng,LIN Li-yun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2469-2480 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.027
    Abstract ( 1014 )   PDF (421KB) ( 1537 )   Save
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    Introduced in 1947, pepper is mainly planted in Hainan, Guangdong, Yunnan, Guangxi and other provinces in China. Along with the development of pepper production in China, studies on pepper are going on gradually. In order to provide a reference to the researchers and planters, the paper summarized the main results of pepper research in China on germplasm resources, reproductive technology, physiological characteristics, characteristics of rhizospheric microorganism, cultivating and planting, disease and insect pest management, processing of product, utilization of product, tactic of industry development, etc, and proposals on pepper studies in China in the future are presented.

    Research of Apple Florescence Spectral Features Based on Hyperspectral Data and Digital Photos#br#
    LEI Tong,ZHAO Geng-xing,ZHU Xi-cun,ZHAN Bing,ZHANG Yang-yang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2481-2490 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.028
    Abstract ( 996 )   PDF (717KB) ( 822 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aims on the spectral features and sensitive spectrum wave band in the apple florescence. 【Method】Taking Qixia City as the research region, using supervised classification of the flowering apple digital photos to extract the target information of the ratio of apple flower/leaf and apple flower/tree, this paper carries out the correlation analysis of the ratio data with synchronization hyperspectral detection data, to determine the spectral features and sensitive spectrum wave band of the apple florescence. 【Result】 The spectral features of apple florescence mainly presented as absorption of blue light and red light, reflection of green light, and the strong reflection of near-infrared between 750 nm to 1 300 nm. The change of apple florescence spectral features and the target information of apple flower/leaf and apple flower/tree present a good correlation, and it indicates that the sensitive wave band range is 400-530 nm cyan light, 570-700 nm orange-red light, and the 760-1 350 nm nearly infrared of medium flower/tree of apple trees. 【Conclusion】 This study puts forward an effective way of the hyperspectral remote sensing with the combination of digital photos, preliminaryly proved the spectral characteristics of flowering apple trees, and it has provided a theoretical basis and technical support for the extracting apple's field information, nutrition diagnosis and apple production and management of real-time and informationization.

    STORAGE·FRESH-KEEPING·PROCESSING
    A Rapid HPLC Method for Determination of 12 Isoflavone Components in Soybean Seeds#br#
    SUN Jun-ming,SUN Bao-li,HAN Fen-xia,YAN Shu-rong,YANG Hua,KIKUCHI Akio
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2491-2498 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.029
    Abstract ( 884 )   PDF (355KB) ( 1397 )   Save
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    【Objective】 It is highly important and has utilization values to determine the isoflavone components by HPLC as it can provide bases for molecular assistant selection of isoflavone in soybean breeding. 【Method】 Based on the standard samples of 12 isoflavone components, the isoflavone components were analyzed using the determination of absorbance peaks method by HPLC. 【Result】 The results showed that there were different maximum absorbance wavelengths for the daidzein, glycitein, and genistein, which were 250 nm, 257 nm and 260 nm, respectively. A linear gradient elution of acetonitrile (13%-30%) containing 0.1% acetic acid using a mobile phase was applied on a YMC-C18 column at 35 ℃. The 12 isoflavone components were determined using the UV detector by HPLC. 【Conclusion】 It is concluded that this is a rapid, precise method which adapted to determine the large numbers of samples with microanalysis.

    Effect of Glycosylation on Molecular Characteristics and Emulsifying Properties of Ovalbumin#br#
    YU Bin,CHI Yu-jie
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2499-2504 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.030
    Abstract ( 836 )   PDF (512KB) ( 961 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Molecular characteristics and emulsifying properties of glycosylated ovalbumin were studied to investigate the relationship between them. 【Method】 Content of free amino group, Zeta potential, hydrophobicity, emulsifying activity and average droplet size of emulsion (d32) during glycosylation process were investigated. Correlation analysis of referred factors and microscopic observation of emulsion of glycosylated ovalbumin were also conducted. 【Result】 Glycosylation reaction resulted in decrease of 41.56% of free amino group, 20 mV of Zeta potential, 2.0 μm of average droplet size of emulsion (d32) , and increase of 2.3 times of hydrophobicity and 3.9 times of emulsifying activity. Obvious correlation showed the investigated factors were key points of emulsifying properties. Microscopic observation indicated glycosylated ovalbumin was prone to form small droplet of emulsion. 【Conclusion】 Emulsify properties were improved by glycosylation through change of surface charge and formation of amphiphilic structure.

    Preservative Effects of Various Chemical Decontamination Treatments on Broiler Chicken Cuts During Refrigerated Storage#br#
    LI Hong-min,XU Xing-lian,ZHU Zhi-yuan,MENG Yong,WU Guang-hong,ZHOU Guang-hong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2505-2512 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.031
    Abstract ( 921 )   PDF (380KB) ( 1048 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The preservation effects of trisodium phosphate (TSP), acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) , citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) on chicken breast cuts were studied in this paper. Changes of natural microflora and biogenic amines (tyramine, histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine) levels during refrigerated storage were determined. 【Method】Broiler chicken cuts were dipped respectively in various chemical solution after division, the microflora counts and content of biogenic amines as well as some other physiochemical values were determined during (4±1)℃ storage. 【Result】 For all groups similar microbial counts and biogenic amines contents were observed on early days of storage, the difference between groups increased with storage time. At the end of refrigerated storage(9 d), samples subjected to chemical treatments were considerably lower than untreated samples in accordance with microbial group and biogenic amines. LA and CA showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, with a reduction of more than 2.0 log CFU?g-1 for mesophilic aerobic flora, coliform bacteria and pseudomonas, respectively. The contents of biogenic amines in relation with putridity were on a low level all through the storage after dipping in LA and CA solution, and histamine was undetectable. Color, TVB-N value and pH value showed some consistency with bacteria level and biogenic amines content. 【Conclusion】 All the treatments tested, especially LA treatments and CA treatments, were effective in reducing microbial populations, prolonging shelf-life of chilled chicken, and inhibiting the producing of adverse biogenic amines. As a result, all the preservatives had some inhibitory effects on the producing of putridity characteristics, as well as some positive effects on improving the food safety of chilled chicken products.

    ANIMAL SCIENCE·RESOURCE INSECT
    Effect of Aspartate and Glutamine on a Part of the Fatty Traits and the Levels of Adipogenesis Genes mRNA Expression of Broiler#br#
    MENG De-lian,SUN Chao,YAO Jun-hu,YANG Gong-she,FANG Jun
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2513-2522 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.032
    Abstract ( 1179 )   PDF (507KB) ( 814 )   Save
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    【Objective】 An experiment was conducted using a total of 320 one day old AA male broiler chickens to investigate the effect of dietary supplemented with glutamine and aspartic on fatty traits, blood fat levels, adipogenesis genes mRNA level in liver and coelo-grease and the possible mechanism of their function to lipid metabolism of broiler. 【Method】 The broilers were randomly tested by one of four treatments in a completely randomized design of treatments. They were fed by basic corn-soybean diet and basic diet supplemented with 1% glutamine and 1% aspartic, respectively, for a duration of 42 days. The rate of abdominal fat, the breadth of subcutaneous fat and the thickness of intermuscular fat was measured by vernier caliper. The levels of serum TG, TC, HDL-C were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometer and the adipogenesis genes (ACC, FAS, CPT-1, LPL, PPARα) mRNA levels in liver and abdominal fat tissue were detected by RT-PCR technology after slaughtered. 【Result】 The addition of a mixed diet with aspartic acid and glutamine significantly improved the broiler weight gain (P<0.05) but not for feed conversion rate(P>0.05), significantly increased the width of intermuscular fat and subcutaneous fat thickness (P<0.05), but not for the percentage of abdominal fat and percentage of dressing (P>0.05). Supplemented with glutamine and the aspartic solo significantly reduced the rate of abdominal fat compared to control group (P<0.05), the two substances significantly increased in subcutaneous fat thickness and the width of intermuscular fat respectively (P<0.05). The addition of glutamine and aspartic had impact on lipid metabolism by significantly reducting the level of TG and HDL-C in blood (P<0.05), they also raised the content of TC level significantly at the same time (P<0.05). ACC, FAS, CPT-1, PPARα mRNA level of the three trial groups was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05); the glutamine group LPL mRNA level increased significantly in liver (P<0.05). For adipose tissue, compared to the control group, the transcription expression of PPARα significantly increased in all three trial groups (P<0.05), glutamine group ACC mRNA level significantly decreased (P<0.05), FAS, LPL gene transcription level significantly reduced in the mixed group lower (P<0.05) but CPT-1 mRNA level significantly increased (P<0.05). The others did not change significantly (P>0.05). 【Conclusions】 The results indicate that the addition of glutamine and aspartate in dietary can raise growth performance of broiler, reduce abdominal fat deposition and improve the carcass fatty traits to a certain extent.

    Measurement of Liver Performance, Histology and Adipogenic Genes Transcriptional Expresstion of Landes Goose Liver in Response to Overfeeding#br#
    SU Sheng-yan,LI Qi-fa,CHEN Rui,ZENG Yi,ZHU Hong-sheng,ZHANG Xiang,WANG Yan-ping,XIE Zhuang,WU Song-qing,LIU Yu-di
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2523-2530 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.033
    Abstract ( 953 )   PDF (568KB) ( 748 )   Save
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    【Objective】 An experiment was conducted to study the candidate gene and early breeding projects of the fattty liver of Landes goose. 【Method】 Histological examination and analysis of fatty acids of the fatty liver were done using H & E stain and gas chromatography, respectively. The mRNA expression level of lipogenic genes was detected by real-time PCR. CT was used to investigate the fat deposition of living Landes goose. 【Result】 The result shown that compared to control group, overfeeding increased the liver weight, liver index, serum ALT, TG, Che, HDL levels and changed the positive ratio of liver and spleen to negative. Swelling of hepatocyte were observed within the cytoplasm of liver cells in goose treated with overfeeding compared to control. The values for the SFA and PUFA were significantly higher in control group than in overfeeding group. Higher values (P<0.05) for MUFA and UFA in liver were found in goose in overfeeding group. Compared to the control group, the mRNA expression level of C/EBPα、ACCα increased in overfeeding group (P<0.05). The positive correlation between the transcriptional level of ACCα and serum TG was observed (P<0.01). 【Conclusion】 overfeeding can make the hepatocyte swelled and change the composition of fatty acids. The mRNA expression level of lipogenic genes increased, such as C/EBPα, ACCα. CT can be used to investigate the fat deposition of living Landes goose.
    Estimation of Pairwise Relationship Using Molecular Marker#br#
    LIU Gui-yang,SUN Xiao-yan,LIU Gui-qiong,CHEN Feng-jian,JIANG Xun-ping
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2531-2538 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.034
    Abstract ( 895 )   PDF (491KB) ( 571 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Using molecular marker to rebuild the relationship to make effective mating plans and estimate the genetic parameters. 【Method】 The research proposed a novel model (Liu Model) for estimating pairwise relationship from randomly mating population with genetic markers, comparing the four alleles from two loci in two individuals. In order to evaluate Liu model, the research also set up Monte Carlo which can simulate the ideal population of four actual relationships. 【Result】 The result indicates that Liu model is well behaved, and comparing with the previous, the new one also has stable property and is generally much more advantageous than the others. 【Conclusion】 Totally, a novel estimation of pairwise relationship using molecular marker was proposed, and comparing with the previous, Liu model is the best one of all.

    Molecular Biology Detection of 5-Aza Inducing BMSC into Cadiocyte#br#
    GONG Yi-chao,DONG Ya-juan,BAI Xue-jin,FENG Ji-wu,LI Xing-fang,LIU Chang-ju
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2539-2545 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.035
    Abstract ( 908 )   PDF (496KB) ( 817 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This research aimed to explore 5-Aza inducing BMSC into cadiocyte utilizing molecular biology technology so as to provide seed cells for genetically modified varieties of beef cattle and elevating transgenic efficiency. 【Method】 Test is divided into three groups,they were the P4, P8, P12 BMSC of purification and stability. Each group utilized L-DMEM containing 5, 10, 15 μmol?L-1 5-Aza to undertake respectively derivation,statistics and calculate transformation efficiency of cadiocyte, accredit cadiocyte by observation of morphology and RT-PCR.【Result】 Most cells after differentiation showed fusiform shape, orientating with one accord, forming myotubule-like structure. The inductivity of same passage BMSC was the highest in 10 μmol?L-1 5-Aza role.The conversion rate of BMSC to cadiocyte decreased with the increasing passage number at the same concentration of 5-Aza. RT-PCR results showed that cells after induction clearly expressed cardiac four specific genes, they are α-actin (378 bp), desmin (601 bp), cardiac troponin T (331 bp), β-myosin heavy chain (β -MHC) (273 bp). 【Conclusion】 5-Aza can induce bovine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into cadiocyte in vitro. Effect of derivation is obvious utilizing P4 BMSC with 10 μmol?L-1 5-Aza.

    Cloning and Protein Release of Cytochrome C in the Apoptosis Cells of Silkworm, Bombyx mori#br#
    PAN Min-hui,CHEN Mo,HUANG Shu-jing,YU Zi-shu,CHENG Chuan-gang,LU Cheng
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2546-2551 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.036
    Abstract ( 1187 )   PDF (367KB) ( 790 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Cytochrome c plays a key role in the pathway of mitochondria apoptosis. This study on the cloning and protein release of cytochrome c in the apoptosis cells of silkworm can lay a foundation for the apoptosis research of Bombyx mori. 【Method】 Cytochrome c gene was cloned by bioinformation and molecular biology method. Apoptosis of silkworm cells was induced by UVC. The change of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c in apoptosis cells of silkworm were detected by flow cytometry and western-blotting, respectively. 【Result】 The cytochrome c gene was cloned in silkworm (Bombyx mori). The gene contains 3 exons and the length of its cDNA is 570 bp and ORF is 324 bp. The deduced protein has 108 aa and has conservative points for cytochrome c and Apaf-1 interaction related to apoptosis in silkworm. After UVC treated BmE-SWU1 cells for 12 h, the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased and cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytoplasm. 【Conclusion】 The cytochrome c may release from mitochondria to cytoplasm in the apoptosis cells in silkworm.

    Comparative Analysis of Proteome Between Drone Eggs of High Royal Jelly Producing Bees (Apis mellifera L.) and Native Italian Bees (Apis mellifera L.)#br#
    FANG Yu,LI Jian-ke
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2552-2563 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.037
    Abstract ( 973 )   PDF (723KB) ( 645 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The objective of this study is to compare the protein complements of the high producing royal jelly bees (Apis mellifera L.) with the native Italian bees (Apis mellifera L.) during the three days of egg development of the drone bees. 【Method】 The pI, molecular weight, expression of the dedected protein were analyzed by the profile of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of the drone at different egg development phases from the two bee strains. 【Result】 332, 377 and 339 proteins were detected in the proteome profile of high royal jelly producing drone eggs on day 1, day 2 and day 3, respectively, which was significantly higher than those detected in native Italian drones, 283, 305 and 293 (P<0.05), accordingly. Two hundred and fifty-four proteins were resolved at all the images within two bee strains. Meanwhile, 274, 298, 285 proteins presented on day 1, day 2 and day 3 between the two bee strains, respectively. Among them 54, 42 and 47 proteins in high royal jelly producing bees significant higher than those of native Italian bees in expressional volume (P<0.05), respectively; while 18, 75, 61 proteins showed a reverse relations (P<0.05). Furthermore, 58, 79, 54 proteins expressed specifically in high production royal jelly bees and 9, 7, 8 in native Italian bees. 【Conclusion】 Significant differences had been found in the drone egg proteome profile between the high royal jelly producing bees and the native Italian bees, while both the two strains express the most active at 2-day-old eggs; The protein expressed at all images suggests that it should be indispensable for drone egg development, but their expression pattern is different within two bee species. The proteins expressed at a specific egg time-piont suggest that different developmental stages need specific proteins to be involved in; A further research will be needed to identify the function of the detected proteins and to investigate whether the specific proteins are related to high royal jelly production.

    VETERINARY SCIENCE
    Influence of MHC Genotype on the Bacterial Community in the Layer Gastrointestinal Tract Analyzed by PCR-DGGE#br#
    NI Xue-qin,Joshua Gong,Hai Yu,Shayan Sharif,ZENG Dong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2564-2571 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.038
    Abstract ( 974 )   PDF (624KB) ( 866 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of MHC(Major Histocompatibility Complex) gene on the predominant bacteria community in the layer gastrointestinal tract. 【Method】 The bacterial community and diversity in the crop, duodenal, jejunal, ileal and ceacal digesta at the age of 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of commercial layers and line 15I5 layers was studied by using 16S rDNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and identification of some common and special bands in DGGE profile at 8 weeks. 【Result】 The highest level of diversity was found in cecum of commercial layers and line 15I5 layers, followed by ileum and jejunum, while the lowest levels of diversity were found in crop and duodenum. The diversity of bacteria increased with the age at every region of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. MHC gene didn’t influence the diversity of bacteria. The dendrograms revealed that MHC gene heavily influenced the bacteria composition at the age of 4 weeks and 6 weeks, followed by 8 weeks, while the highest level of similarity was found in 2 weeks. At the same time significant differences were observed between two lines in the lower GI tract than that in the upper GI tract. In addition, some amplicons in the DGGE pattern of two layer lines were identified by cloning and sequence analysis. Lactobacillus suntoryeus were predominant in the upper GI tract of two layer lines. The special bacterial in jejunal, ileal and ceacal digesta of commercial layers were Ochrobactrum spp,Clostridium sordellii,Megamonas hypermegale and plenty of uncultured bacterial. Most of the special bacteria in 15I5 layers were uncultured bacteria. 【Conclusion】 The results of this study indicate that MHC gene influence the composition of the dominant bacterial population in every region of GI tract of layers at different ages.

    Cloning of Cysticercus cellulosae AgB Gene by Using Splicing Overlap Extension PCR Method and Expression in BHK Cells#br#
    GUO Ai-jiang,CAI Xue-peng,JIA Wan-zhong,FANG Yong-xiang,QIAO Jun,LIU Hong-xia,PAN Xiao-mei,JING Zhi-zhong
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2572-2578 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.039
    Abstract ( 959 )   PDF (473KB) ( 633 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To clone Cysticercus cellulosae AgB gene and express in vitro. 【Method】 The upper and downer fragments of AgB gene were amplified by RT-PCR, respectively. Then, the complete gene of AgB was cloned by splicing overlap extension PCR method using 35 nucleotides overlap between the upper and downer fragments and inserted into the vector pVAX1. This recombinant plasmid pVAX1/B was identified by digestion of endonuclease,PCR and sequencing.Then,it was transfected into BHK-21 cell line mediated by liposome 2000. Specific AgB protein expressed in BHK-21 cell line was detected by SDS-PAGE, Western-blotting and indirect immunofluorescence test. 【Result】 Electrophoresis analysis showed that the specific sequences were amplified and the sizes of products were accord with expectation, respectively. AgB was expressed in BHK-21 cells and was recognized by cysticercosis cellulosae positive serum. 【Conclusion】 Cysticercus cellulosae AgB gene has been cloned using splicing overlap extension PCR method, and expressed in BHK-21 cell line successfully.

    Effects of Transportation Stress on Immune Function and Regulation of Cytokines in Pigs#br#
    Lü Qiong-xia,ZHANG Shu-xia,ZHAO Ru-qian
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2579-2585 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.040
    Abstract ( 1187 )   PDF (413KB) ( 761 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The objective of this study was to explore the changes of immune function and regulation of cytokines in pigs during truck-transportation. 【Method】 The peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) proliferation of normal pigs were stimulated by the serum of stressed pigs alone in different dilution times or with plant haemagglutinin A (PHA) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) separately. The influence of the stressed serum on peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes proliferation of normal pigs was determined by MTT assay. The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-a in sera were measured with homologous specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The correlations between lymphocyte proliferative activity and cytokines expression were analyzed with SPSS 11.0. 【Result】 After 1 h, 2 h and 4 h of transportation, the serum of transported pigs could obviously affect the activity of T, B-lymphocyte proliferation in PBLs from normal pigs at 1:32 dilution. The data was increased following transportation stress and reached to the peak level at 1 h (P<0.05), then slowly decreased and reached the lowest level at 4 h. The levels of IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in sera were increased with transportation stress and reached the peak after 1 h of transportation, then slowly decreased and reached the lowest level 4 h after transportation. The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in the sera at 4 h were significantly decreased (P<0.01) compared with the control. The level of IL-2 in sera at 4 h was significantly decreased (P<0.05) compared with that at 1 h of transportation stress. But there were no significant changes with respect to the IL-1β, IL-4 and TNF-a.【Conclusion】 The immune function could be altered by transportation stress and was also related to the timing of post-stress in pigs. The statistical analysis suggested that IL-6 level in serum may be as a typical biomarker to respond the change of immune function in pigs during truck-transportation.

    Anti-Bacterial Mechanism of Soybean Isoflavone on Staphylococcus aureus#br#
    WANG Hai-tao,Wang Qian,XIE Ming-jie
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2586-2591 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.041
    Abstract ( 1091 )   PDF (380KB) ( 1142 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To investigate the anti-bacterial mechanism of soybean isoflavone (SI) and provide a theoretical basis for the development of high-performance and low toxicity of antibacterial drugs. 【Method】 Respiratory metabolism test and 4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining assay were used to investigate the antibacterial mechanism of SI. 【Result】 The results indicated that the malic dehydrogenase (MDH) activity of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly inhibited by 0.8 mg?ml-1 SI and the malic dehydrogenase (MDH) activity of Staphylococcus aureus was remarkably reduced by 74.97% compared to the control group. The fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectrophotometer studies manifested that 4'6-diamidino-2- phenylindole (DAPI) could integrate with Staphylococcus aureus, and the quantity of DNA and RNA were significantly reduced by 33.53% and 39.82% after incubation with SI for 28 hours. 【Conclusion】 The results showed that SI could inhibit the growth of curtain bacteria significantly, the mechanisms of the inhibition activity may include inhibiting both respiratory metabolism and synthesis of nucleic acid.

    RESEARCH NOTES
    Characteristics of Soil Temperature and Response to Air Temperature Under Different Tillage Systems ——Diurnal Dynamic of Soil Temperature and Its Response to Air Temperature#br#
    CHEN Ji-kang,LI Su-juan,ZHANG Yu,CHEN Fu,ZHANG Hai-lin
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2592-2600 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.042
    Abstract ( 978 )   PDF (292KB) ( 1064 )   Save
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    【Objective】Earlier techniques made the measurement and analysis of soil temperature uncertain. Tillage effects on soil temperature are insufficiency at previously studies. An experiment was conducted to characterize the tillage effects of diurnal dynamic of soil temperature and its response to air temperature in winter wheat field, North China Plain. 【Method】 Conventional tillage (CT), rotary tillage (RT) and no tillage with stubble covered (NT) were treated from 2004 to 2005 at Luancheng Station of Hebei Province. Temperature was measured continuously by thermo-time domain reflectometry. 【Result】 Results showed that the diurnal dynamic of each layer soil was a sine wave; the diurnal temperature fluctuation was a taper and soil temperature was delayed by 1.2 h per 5 cm increment of soil depth from 2.5-80 cm; diurnal highest and lowest soil temperature was significantly affected by different tillage systems with one of the reason was residue covering ratio; diurnal highest soil temperature at 2.5 cm layer was decreased by 0.66-4.85℃ under NT at active stages of winter wheat, but it was increased by 0.64-0.87℃ at overwintering stage; diurnal soil temperature fluctuation range at the 2.5 cm layer was decreased significantly by 0.65-5.21℃ and 0.48-3.89℃ at early stages (emergence -jointing) of winter wheat under NT, compared with CT and RT, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Soil temperature responses to air temperature significantly under different tillage systems. The main characteristic of tillage effects on soil temperature is that the extentence of soil temperature fluctuation is changed significantly at early stages of winter wheat. More decrease in high temperature and less increase in low temperature are the reasons that NT shows a lower temperature effect at active stages. NT with higher temperature at each time of day results in higher temperature effect at hibernation of winter wheat.

    Cloning and Expression Analysis of A Wheat Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene of TaMPK1a-1 That Responding to Deficienct-Pi#br#
    LU Wen-jing,LI Rui-juan,WANG Xiao-ying,LI Xiao-juan,GUO Cheng-jin,GU Jun-tao,XIAO Kai
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2601-2607 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.043
    Abstract ( 909 )   PDF (667KB) ( 652 )   Save
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    【Objective】 Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in mediating the abiotic stress signal transduction in plants. In this study, the responding characterizations of TaMPK1a-1, a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase gene identified under deficient-Pi condition in wheat, were elucidated. 【Methods】 TaMPK1a-1 with a up-regulated expression pattern under deficienct-Pi was identified based on cDNA-AFLP approach. The gene structure and the protein features were analyzed by bioinformatics tools. The responding characterizations of TaMPK1a-1 to deficient-Pi were explored based on semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. 【Results】 The cDNA length of TaMPK1a-1 was 2 170 bp, containing an open reading frame of 1 737 bp and encoding a polypeptide of 578-aa. There were two dual phosphorylation sites in TaMPK1a-1, including one TEY motif and one TDY motif. Under normal Pi supply condition (2 mmol?L-1 Pi), no transcripts of TaMPK1a-1 in roots and leaves of two wheat cultivars, including high-P efficiency cultivar Shixin8282 and low-P efficiency cultivar Ji7369, were detected. Under deficient-Pi (20 μmol?L-1 Pi) condition, the expression of TaMPK1a-1 in the roots and the leaves of above two cultivars were all induced. Compared with Ji7369, the transcripts of TaMPK1a-1 in roots and leaves in Shixin828 under deficient-Pi condition were much strongly enhancement. 【Conclusion】 The cascade pathway of TaMPK1a-1 in wheat not only affects the responding ability to low-Pi stress signal, but also possibly plays an important role in regulation of plant P use efficiency under deficient-Pi condition.

    Molecular Identification and Characterization of A Rice Gene of OsBTF3 Encoding A Transcriptional Factor Up-Regulated by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae#br#
    LI Guang-xu,WU Mao-sen,WU Jing,HE Chen-yang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2608-2614 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.044
    Abstract ( 936 )   PDF (693KB) ( 961 )   Save
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    【Objective】 To identify and characterize OsBTF3, a rice gene encoding a transcriptional factor up-regulated by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). 【Method】 Identification and isolation of the full length of cDNA sequence of OsBTF3 from rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare) was performed through bioinformatics and RT-PCR analysis. Prokaryotic expression and subcellular localization of OsBTF3 was conducted as well. Expression of OsBTF3 in rice tissues at various developmental stages and in response to Xoo infection was assayed via real-time quantitative PCR (RT-Q-PCR). 【Result】 The cloned OsBTF3 gene encodes a putative protein consisting of 175 amino acids with a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in N-terminal and a conserved NAC domain. OsBTF3 shares a high identity with the BTF3 homologues from other species (79%-88%). Prokaryotic expression analysis shows that an expressed protein (27 kD) is obtained after IPTG induction in E. coli. OsBTF3::GFP fusion protein mainly appears in the nuclear and cell membrane. RT-Q-PCR analysis indicates that OsBTF3 can express in various tissues of rice plants and be significantly induced by Xoo inoculation. 【Conclusion】 The full length cDNA sequence of OsBTF3 is successfully isolated. OsBTF3 is mainly localized in nuclear and cell membrane, and might play an important role in the regulation of susceptibility of rice.

    Effects of Supplemental Different Light Qualities on Growth, Photosynthesis, Biomass Partition and Early Yield of Greenhouse Cucumber#br#
    NI Ji-heng,CHEN Xue-hao,CHEN Chun-hong,XU Qiang
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2615-2623 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.045
    Abstract ( 1018 )   PDF (291KB) ( 979 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The purpose is to explore the responses and their mechanisms of cucumber plant to different light qualities in greenhouse. 【Method】 Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Delstar) was planted in greenhouse with 10 h (7:30-17:30) of supplemental different light qualities such as red light (650 nm) and blue light (450 nm), and white light as control. The effects of supplemental different light qualities on plant growth, photosynthesis, biomass partition, early fruit yield were investigated. 【Result】Maximum and minimum temperature under supplemental red lighting was higher than those of supplemental white and blue lighting. The specific leaf area of red and white treatments was lower than that of plants grown under supplemental blue treatment. The chlorophyll content and dry matter production of white treatment was lower than that of red and blue treatments. Red treatment were higher and had more leaves and larger leaf area than that those of plant grown under white and blue treatment. The root, stem and leaf-partitioning index of red treatment were higher than those of blue and white treatments. Leaf photosynthesis rate and Fv/Fm of red treatment were higher than those of white and blue treatments. Fo and maximal ETR under white treatment were higher than those of red and blue treatments. The leaf stomatal conductance, Fo, and fruit-partitioning index under blue treatment were higher than those of white and red treatment. 【Conclusion】 The dry matter production under supplemental red and blue light increased because the photosynthesis rate, leaf area and specific leaf area increased. Greenhouse cucumber under supplemental blue light got highest marketable production per plant because supplemental blue light can promote more assimilation partitioning to fruit.

    Enhancing Embryo Yield in Superovulated Holstein Heifers by Immunization Against Inhibin
    LI Chao,MEI Cheng,ZHU Yu-lin,XUE Jian-hua,ZHONG Shou-kun,MA Zhu,ZHANG Sheng-li,SHI Zhen-dan
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2624-2628 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.046
    Abstract ( 965 )   PDF (277KB) ( 605 )   Save
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    【Objective】 This study aimed to increase embryo production in superovulated heifers by immunization against inhibin. 【Method】 Immunization procedures consisted of primary injection (i.m.) of 1mg recombinant inhibin? α-subunit protein in 1 ml mineral oil adjuvant, and two booster immunizations with 0.5 mg inhibin protein at 28 day intervals. Ten days after the 2nd booster immunization, all animals were superovulated with exogenous FSH, inseminated either with conventional semen (Experiment 1) or sex sorted female semen (Experiment 2). The embryos were collected and evaluated 7 days after insemination.【Result】 Immunization significantly increased blood antibody titres against recombinant inhibin α subunit protein (P<0.01). In experiment 1, the immunized heifers produced more embryos and ova than the control heifers (15.8±2.8 vs 8.3±1.5, P<0.05), and non-significantly more number of transferable embryos (9.6±3.1 vs 5.8±1.6, P>0.05). In experiment 2, inhibin immunized heifers initiated estrus earlier after FSH treatment, and had higher plasma progesterone concentrations on the day of embryo collection. In the inhibin immunized heifers, the total number of embryo/ova were (15.4±1.9), significantly higher than that (9.1±1.2) of control heifers (P<0.05), while the total number of transferable embryo in the former (5.7±0.7) was also higher than in the latter group (3.1±0.5) (P<0.05). Within the transferable embryos, there was (3.8±1.0) or 58% grade 1 embryos in the immunized heifers, higher than the 0.6±0.2 or 19.8% in control heifers (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 These results indicated that immunization against inhibin increased heifer response to superovulation, and led to higher yield of total and transferable embryos, as well as increased the embryo quality.

    Regulation of Fluoride on Osteocalcin Gene Expression in Osteoblasts Cultured in vitro#br#
    WANG Mei,YU Fu-qing,WU Pei-fu,ZHAO De-ming,SU Jing-liang,HAN Bo
    Scientia Agricultura Sinica. 2009, 42(7):  2629-2632 .  doi:10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2009.07.047
    Abstract ( 874 )   PDF (399KB) ( 709 )   Save
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    【Objective】 The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of fluoride on osteocalcin (OCN) gene expression in osteoblasts cultured in vitro.【Method】Osteoblasts were isolated from calvaria in neonatal mice and exposure to different doses of sodium fluoride (0-10-3mol?L-1). RNA was isolated from osteoblasts cultured in vitro and osteocalcin gene expression at different fluoride concentrations were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. 【Result】 The results indicated that treatment of the cells with sodium fluoride (10-7-10-3mol?L-1) up-regulated the expression of osteocalcin gene in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 5×10-4 mol?L-1 sodium fluoride treatment showed a maximal stimulation, which was almost 30 times higher than the control. 【Conclusion】 The results in the current study suggest that sodium fluoride stimulated OCN gene expression, and OCN may play a significant role in skeletal fluorosis.