Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2022, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (19): 3841-3853.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2022.19.013

• FOOD SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Characterization of Chilled Mutton by ATP from Different Sources

SU YuanYuan1(),ZHANG DeQuan1,GU MingHui1,ZHANG ChunJuan1,2,LI ShaoBo1,ZHENG XiaoChun1(),CHEN Li1()   

  1. 1Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100193
    2School of Food and Wine, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021
  • Received:2022-02-24 Accepted:2022-06-06 Online:2022-10-01 Published:2022-10-10
  • Contact: XiaoChun ZHENG,Li CHEN;;


【Objective】 In order to explore a new method for predicting the freshness of chilled mutton, the changes of adenosine triphosphate (ATP in meat, microbial ATP and ATP of meat surface) from different sources during storage were systematically studied, then the ATP that could characterize the change of chilled mutton was screened, and finally the prediction models for the total viable counts and volatile base nitrogen were established. 【Method】 The longissimus dorsi muscle of Small Tailed Han sheep was stored in air sealed packaging at 0℃ for 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 21 days, respectively. The freshness indexes (pH, color, volatile base nitrogen, and total viable counts) and ATP from three sources (ATP in meat, microbial ATP, and ATP of meat surface) of chilled mutton were analyzed during storage. The changes of ATP from different sources were evaluated, and the predictive models of freshness indicators were built. 【Result】 The freshness index of total viable counts and volatile base nitrogen in chilled mutton showed an upward trend during storage, and both of them exceeded the national standard limit after 17 days; the ATP in meat showed a decreasing trend, while the microbial ATP and the ATP of meat surface were increased, which was consistent with the change trend of the freshness index; the correlation coefficients (R) between ATP in meat, microbial ATP, ATP of meat surface and total viable counts, total volatile base nitrogen were -0.399, 0.910, 0.943 and -0.357, 0.725, 0.907, respectively. The optimal model for predicting the total viable counts in chilled mutton by ATP of meat surface was Boltzmann, which the formula was TVC (lg cfu/g)=7.649-4.069/(1+exp(x-5.807)/0.632), (R2 =0.903, P<0.001); the optimal model for predicting total volatile base nitrogen in chilled mutton by ATP of meat surface was Expedc1, which the formula was TVB-N (mg/100 g)=2.493*exp(x/3.745)+ 3.057 (R2=0.888, P<0.001). 【Conclusion】 The results showed that the ATP of meat surface of chilled mutton had the significant positive correlations with the total viable counts and volatile basic nitrogen, and then confirmed that the ATP of meat surface could be used as an indicator to characterize the freshness of chilled mutton. The optimal prediction model of the total viable counts and volatile base nitrogen could provide a new idea for rapid detection of chilled mutton freshness.

Key words: chilled mutton, ATP of meat surface, prediction model, freshness

Table 1

The change of color and pH of chilled mutton during storage"

Storage time (d)
指标 Index
L* a* b* pH
0 36.72±1.99b 11.09±0.66ef 9.75±0.98b 5.54±0.02c
1 42.41±2.02b 11.25±0.80def 13.61±1.53a 5.56±0.03c
3 38.32±0.74b 14.27±0.44ab 11.42±1.96ab 5.66±0.04bc
5 40.89±0.6b 12.47±0.22bcde 12.86±0.52a 5.69±0.15bc
7 41.02±0.82b 14.53±1.05a 12.58±0.75a 5.73±0.07bc
9 41.36±0.76b 13.60±1.04abc 12.89±1.27a 5.85±0.10b
11 41.78±0.96b 13.20±2.26abcd 12.06±0.61ab 5.98±0.17a
13 41.85±0.41b 12.17±0.44cde 12.89±1.31a 5.75±0.17bc
15 45.55±0.01a 11.57±1.19de 13.71±1.89a 6.01±0.13a
17 38.43±2.54b 9.52±0.50f 11.98±1.94ab 6.01±0.26a
19 41.08±0.83b 10.84±1.21ef 11.77±0.82ab 5.69±0.08bc
21 37.68±0.60b 10.51±1.58ef 11.83±1.79ab 6.02±0.14a

Fig. 1

The change of TVB-N of chilled mutton during storage Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at different storage time (P<0.05). The same as below"

Fig. 2

The change of TVC of chilled mutton during storage"

Fig. 3

The change of ATP in meat of chilled mutton during storage"

Fig. 4

The standard curve of ATP"

Fig. 5

The change of microbial ATP of chilled mutton during storage"

Fig. 6

The change of ATP of meat surface of chilled mutton during storage"

Table 2

Correlation analysis"

Microbial ATP
ATP of meat surface
ATP in meat
菌落总数 TVC 1
挥发性盐基氮 TVB-N 0.965** 1
微生物ATP Microbial ATP 0.910** 0.725** 1
表面ATP ATP of meat surface 0.943** 0.907** 0.979** 1
肉中ATP ATP in meat -0.399 -0.357 -0.371 -0.455 1

Table 3

Mathematical simulation"

预测名称 Forecast name 拟合模型 Fitted model 模型公式 Model formula 决定系数 R2
Boltzmann y=A2+(A1-A2)/(1+exp((x-x0)/dx)) 0.903
Logistic y=A1+Section1+Section2 0.897
Line y=ax+b 0.694
DoseResp y=A1+(A2-A1)/(1+10^((LOGx0-x)*p)) 0.899

Fig. 7

Boltzmann simulation model for predicting TVC of chilled mutton by ATP of meat surface Figure a shows the Boltzmann fitting model for predicting TVC by ATP of meat surface of chilled mutton, and Figure b shows the linear relationship between the measured and predicted TVC in the fitting model"

Table 4

Mathematical simulation"

Forecast name
Fitted model
Model formula
Line y=ax+b 0.852
ExpDec1 y=a*exp(x/b)+c 0.888
Exp2P y=a*x^b 0.885
Exponential y=y0+A*exp(R0*x) 0.885

Fig. 8

ExpDec1 simulation model for predicting TVB-N of chilled mutton by ATP of meat surface Figure a shows the ExpDec 1 fitting model for predicting TVB-N by ATP of meat surface of chilled mutton, and Figure b shows the linear relationship between the measured and predicted TVB-N values in the fitting model"

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