Rice molecular markers and genetic mapping: Current status and prospects
Ghulam Shabir1, 3, Kashif Aslam1, 3, Abdul Rehman Khan2, Muhammad Shahid5, Hamid Manzoor3, Sibgha Noreen6, Mueen Alam Khan7, 8, Muhammad Baber3, Muhammad Sabar1, 4, Shahid Masood Shah2, Muhammad Arif1
1 National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan 2 Biotechnology Program, Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22010, Pakistan 3 Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60000, Pakistan 4 Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku 39020, Pakistan 5 Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan 6 Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60000, Pakistan 7 Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan 8 National Center for Soybean Improvement, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P.R.China
Abstract Dramatic changes in climatic conditions that supplement the biotic and abiotic stresses pose severe threat to the sustainable rice production and have made it a difficult task for rice molecular breeders to enhance production and productivity under these stress factors. The main focus of rice molecular breeders is to understand the fundamentals of molecular pathways involved in complex agronomic traits to increase the yield. The availability of complete rice genome sequence and recent improvements in rice genomics research has made it possible to detect and map accurately a large number of genes by using linkage to DNA markers. Linkage mapping is an effective approach to identify the genetic markers which are co-segregating with target traits within the family. The ideas of genetic diversity, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) are evolving into more efficient concepts of linkage disequilibrium (LD) also called association mapping and genomic selection (GS), respectively. The use of cost-effective DNA markers derived from the fine mapped position of the genes for important agronomic traits will provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yielding, stress-resistant, and better quality rice cultivars. Here we focus on the progress of molecular marker technologies, their application in genetic mapping and evolution of association mapping techniques in rice.
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