2019 Vol. 18 No. 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Crop Science
    Plant Protection
    Animal Science · Veterinary Medicine
    Agro-ecosystem & Environment
    Food Science
    Short Communication

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    Crop Science
    Ethanol production and mitochondrial-related gene expression of maize (Zea mays) seed during storage
    Chalisa Chaengsakul, Damrongvudhi Onwimol, Pasajee Kongsil,Sawita Suwannarat
    2019, 18(11): 2435-2445.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62558-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Mitochondrial degradation plays a vital role in seed deterioration. Novel markers were investigated based on a new method for quantifying maize seed deterioration during 12 months’ storage under ambient (lab bench, ~27°C and 50–80% relative humidity (RH)) or controlled ((15±1)°C and (50±5)% RH in bags with low oxygen permeability) conditions involving two techniques: 1) fast ethanol assay and 2) quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) with four mitochondrial-related genes in maize seed: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1), alternative oxidase (AOX1), cytochrome c oxidase (COXc), and ATPase. Ethanol production during imbibition and the expression of genes using the new method were compared to the results of two conventional methods: a germination test and an accelerated ageing test. The results showed that germination following ambient seed storage reduced significantly compared to the controlled conditions, especially at 9 months of storage. Ethanol production of maize seed measured by fast ethanol assay increased during storage. After 6 months, the mean (n=4) ethanol production from seed under ambient conditions was 400 µg L–1 which was higher than under the controlled conditions (240 µg L–1). Stored mRNA level of COXc and ATPase significantly decreased over time in ambient storage but were quite stable under the controlled conditions. Maize seed was also treated for artificial ageing at 42°C in 100% RH for 12, 24, and 48 h. At 24 h after treatment (HAT), maize seed produced significantly more headspace ethanol than at 12 HAT and more than the control (non-treated seed). The transcription level of ADH1 and ethanol production increased. The transcription level of COXc was directly related to the severity of the ageing treatment. In conclusion, a combination of fast ethanol assay and qPCR enhanced understanding of maize seed deterioration and provided new possibilities for the evaluation of seed storability based on transcriptional levels.
    Genome-wide association study for starch content and constitution in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)
    CHEN Bing-ru, WANG Chun-yu, WANG Ping, ZHU Zhen-xing, XU Ning, SHI Gui-shan, YU Miao, WANG Nai, LI Ji-hong, HOU Jia-ming, LI Shu-jie, ZHOU Yu-fei, GAO Shi-jie, LU Xiao-chun, HUANG Rui
    2019, 18(11): 2446-2456.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62631-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Starch is the most important component in endosperm of sorghum grain.  Usually, two types of starch are present: amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP).  The levels of AM and AP contents play a significant role in the appearance, structure, and quality of sorghum grains and in marketing applications.  In the present study, a panel of 634 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) accessions were evaluated for starch, AM, and AP contents of grain, which included a mini core collection of 242 accessions from the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in India, and 252 landraces and 140 cultivars from China.  The average starch content was 67.64% and the average AM and AP contents were 20.19 and 79.81%, respectively.  We developed a total of 260 000 high-confidence single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the panel of 634 accessions of S. bicolor using specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq).  We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of starch, AM, and AM/AP of grain and SNP markers based on a mixed linear model (MLM).  In total, 70 significant association signals were detected for starch, AM, and AM/AP ratio of grain with P<4.452×10–7, of which 10 SNPs were identified with significant starch, 51 SNPs were associated with AM, and nine SNPs were associated with the AM/AP ratio.  The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis identified 12 candidate genes at five QTLs associated with starch metabolism within the 200-kb intervals, located on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, and 9.  Of these genes, Sobic.006G036500.1 encodes peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerase CYP38 responsible for hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) and Sobic.009G071800 encodes 6-phospho-fructokinase (PFK), which is involved in the embden-meyerhof pathway (EMP).  Kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) markers were developed to validate the GWAS results.  The C allele is correlated with a high starch content, while the T allele is linked with a low level of starch content, and provides reliable haplotypes for MAS in sorghum quality improvement.
    Transcriptome profiling using RNA-seq to provide insights into foxtail millet seedling tolerance to short-term water deficit stress induced by PEG-6000
    XU Bing-qin, GAO Xiao-li, GAO Jin-feng, LI Jing, YANG Pu, FENG Bai-li
    2019, 18(11): 2457-2471.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62576-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) with high drought resistance, is grown widely in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, and it is a new model plant for genetic and molecular studies.  To uncover the molecular mechanisms of stress-tolerance in different genotypes of foxtail millet, physiological analyses combined with transcriptional profiling were conducted using a time-course analysis on two foxtail millet genotypes Damaomao (DM) and Hongnian (HN).  The genotype DM performed better than HN under water deficiency, with more moderate relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll decline.  Further physiological and RNA-seq investigations revealed that the two genotypes possessed high conservatism in some vital biological pathways which respond to drought stress, involving hormone synthesis, proline, and soluble sugar synthesis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism.  However, some genes related to these pathways showed different expression profiles.  Likewise, the lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content in HN than DM may be explained by the observation that HN contained more activated genes in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle using KEGG pathway analysis.  Overall, abscisic acid (ABA) response genes, ROS scavengers which were probably involved in signaling responses, a set of enzymes involved in proline and soluble sugar synthesis, channel protein genes, and transcription factors, encompassed the early strategy of foxtail millet response to drought.  These findings provide a comprehensive molecular view of how different foxtail millet genotypes respond to short-term osmotic stress.
    The effects of soil moisture and salinity as functions of groundwater depth on wheat growth and yield in coastal saline soils
    ZHANG He, LI Yan1, MENG Ya-li, CAO Nan, LI Duan-sheng, ZHOU Zhi-guo, CHEN Bing-lin, DOU Fu-gen
    2019, 18(11): 2472-2482.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62713-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    In the coastal saline soils, moisture and salinity are the functions of groundwater depth affecting crop growth and yield. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the combined effects of moisture and salinity stresses on wheat growth as affected by groundwater depth, and 2) find the optimal groundwater depth for wheat growth in coastal saline soils. The groundwater depths (0.7, 1.1, 1.5, 1.9, 2.3, and 2.7 m during 2013–2014 (Y1) and 0.6, 1.0, 1.4, 1.8, 2.2, and 2.6 m during 2014–2015 (Y2)) of the field experiment were maintained by soil columns.  There was a positive correlation between soil moisture and salinity.  Water logging with high salinity (groundwater depth at 0.7 m in Y1 and 0.6 m in Y2) showed a greater decline towards wheat growth than that of slight drought with medium (2.3 m in Y1) or low salinity (2.7 m in Y1, 2.2 and 2.6 m in Y2).  The booting stage was the most sensitive stage of wheat crop under moisture and salinity stresses.  Data showed the most optimal rate of photosynthesis, grain yield, and flour quality were obtained under the groundwater depth (ditch depth) of 1.9 m (standard soil moisture with medium salinity) and 2.3 m (slight drought with medium salinity) in Y1 and 1.8 m (standard soil moisture with medium salinity) and 2.2 m (slight drought with low salinity) in Y2.  The corresponding optimal soil relative moisture content and conductivity with the 1:5 distilled water/soil dilution, in the depth of 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm in coastal saline soils, were equal to 58.67–63.07% and 65.51–72.66% in Y1, 63.09–66.70% and 69.75–74.72% in Y2; 0.86–1.01 dS m–1 and 0.63–0.77 dS m–1 in Y1, 0.57–0.93 dS m–1 and 0.40–0.63 dS m–1 in Y2, respectively.
    Early selection of bread wheat genotypes using morphological and photosynthetic attributes conferring drought tolerance
    Hafiz Ghulam Muhu-Din Ahmed, Abdus Salam khan, LI Ming-ju, Sultan Habibullah Khan, Muhammad Kashif
    2019, 18(11): 2483-2491.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(18)62083-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Genetic diversity is the base of any genetic improvement breeding program aimed at stress breeding.  The variability among breeding materials is of primary importance in the achievements of a good crop production.  Herein, 105 wheat genotypes were screened against drought stress using factorial completely randomized design at seedling stage to determine the genetic diversity and traits association conferring drought tolerance.  Analysis of variances revealed that all the studied parameters differed significantly among all genotypes, indicating the significance genetic variability existed among all genotypes for studied indices. The 10 best performance genotypes G1, G6, G11, G16, G21, G26, G39, G44, G51, and G61 were screened as drought tolerant, while five lowest performance genotypes G3, G77, G91, G98, and G105 were screened as drought susceptible.  Root length, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid contents were significantly correlated among themselves which exhibited the importance of these indices for rainfed areas in future wheat breeding scheme.  Shoot length exhibited non-significant and negative association with other studied traits, and its selection seems not to be a promising criteria for this germplasm for drought stress.  Best performance genotypes under drought stress conditions will be useful in future wheat breeding program and early selection will be effective for developing high yielding and drought tolerant wheat varieties.
    Spatial distribution of bolls affects yield formation in different genotypes of Bt cotton varieties
    NIE Jun-jun, YUAN Yan-chao, QIN Du-lin, LIU Yan-hui, WANG Shuang-lei, LI Jin-pu, ZHANG Mei-ling, ZHAO Na, GUO Wen-jun, QI Jie, MAO Li-li, SONG Xian-liang, SUN Xue-zhen
    2019, 18(11): 2492-2504.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62617-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    To optimize the spatial distribution of cotton bolls and to increase the yield, the relationship between yield components and boll spatial distribution was investigated among different Bt (Bacillus thuringensis) cotton varieties.  A five-year field experiment was conducted to reveal the reasons for the differences in lint yield and fiber quality across three Bt cotton varieties with different yield formations from 2013 to 2017.  The lint yield of Jiman 169 (the average yield from 2013–2017 was 42.2 g/plant) was the highest, i.e., 16.3 and 36.9% higher than Lumianyan 21 (L21) and Daizimian 99B (99B), respectively.  And the differences in boll weight among the three cultivars were similar to the lint yield, while the others yield components were not.  So the increase in lint yield was mainly attributed to the enlargement in boll weight.  However, the change in fiber quality was inconsistent with the lint yield, and the quality of L21 was significantly better than that of Jimian 169 (J169) and 99B, which was caused by the diversity of boll spatial distribution.  Compared with 99B, the loose-type J169 had the highest number of large bolls in inner positions; the tight-type L21 had a few large bolls and the highest number of lower and middle bolls.  And approximately 80.72% of the lint yield was concentrated on the inner nodes in Jiman 169, compared with 77.44% of L21 and 66.73% of 99B during the five-year experiment.  Although lint yield was significantly affected by the interannual changes, the lint yield of J169 was the highest and the most stable, as well as its yield components.  These observations demonstrated the increase in lint yield was due to the increase in boll weight, and the large bolls and high fiber quality were attributed to the optimal distribution of bolls within the canopies.
    Molecular characterization, expression and function analysis of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF1A) in Mangifera indica
    LI Li-shu, LUO Cong, AN Zhen-yu, LIU Zhao-liang, DONG Long, YU Hai-xia, HE Xin-hua
    2019, 18(11): 2505-2513.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62774-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A (eIF1A) functions as an important regulatory factor of protein synthesis and plays a crucial role in responses to abiotic stresses in plants.  However, little is known about the eIF1A gene involved in fruit development and stress response of mango.  In this study, the MieIF1A-b gene was isolated from Mangifera indica, and contains a 435-bp open reading frame, which encodes a putative protein of 144 amino acids (GenBank accession number: KP676599).  The predicted MieIF1A-b protein had a molecular weight of 16.39 kDa with a pI of 4.6.  Sequence homology analysis showed that MieIF1A-b shared high homology with Elaeis guineensis, Manihot esculenta, and Populus trichocarpa, with 96 and 95% identity, respectively.  Quantitative reverse transcriptative PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses indicated that MieIF1A-b was expressed in all tested tissues, and had the highest expression level in fruit 80 d after flowering. The expression of MieIF1A-b was obviously regulated by NaCl and H2O2 treatments in leaves.  Functional analysis indicated that the overexpression of MieIF1A-b in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced the growth, phenotype and salinity tolerance compared with wild-type (WT) plants.  The results indicated that MieIF1A-b may be correlated with the control of fruit development and salt adaptation, and it was a candidate gene for abiotic stress in mango.
    Pre-harvest spraying of oxalic acid improves postharvest quality associated with increase in ascorbic acid and regulation of ethanol fermentation in kiwifruit cv. Bruno during storage
    Maratab Ali, LIU Meng-meng, WANG Zhen-e, LI Sheng-e, JIANG Tian-jia, ZHENG Xiao-lin
    2019, 18(11): 2514-2520.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62791-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The kiwifruit trees (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Bruno) were sprayed with 5 mmol L–1 oxalic acid (OA) or water (as control) at 130, 137 or 144 d after full-blossom, and then the fruit were harvested at commercial maturity and stored at room temperature (20±1)°C for 13 d.  The effect of pre-harvest spraying of OA on postharvest quality of kiwifruit was evaluated during storage.  The OA spraying slowed the increase in soluble solids content (SSC) and decrease in titratable acid (TA), as well as increased contents of ascorbic acid (AsA) and total-AsA accompanied with higher AsA/DHA ratio in kiwifruit during storage.  Moreover, the OA spraying significantly reduced the contents of acetaldehyde and ethanol in kiwifruit, along with significant decrease in activities of enzymes involved in ethanol fermentation metabolism during the later period of storage, which was beneficial to control off-flavor associated with over accumulation of ethanol during postharvest.  It was suggested that pre-harvest spraying of OA might maintain the postharvest quality of kiwifruit in relation to delay in fruit ripening, AsA maintenance and regulation of ethanol fermentation.
    Modelling seedling development using thermal effectiveness and photosynthetically active radiation
    ZHOU Tian-mei, WU Zhen, WANG Ya-chen, SU Xiao-jun, QIN Chao-xuan, HUO He-qiang, JIANG Fang-ling
    2019, 18(11): 2521-2533.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62671-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Seedling quality is a prerequisite for successful field performance and therefore influences crop yields.  Temperature and illumination are two major factors affecting seedling quality during nursery propagation.  Suboptimal temperature or light of nurseries generally result in leggy or weak seedlings and great economic loss.  However, production of healthy seedlings is challenging due to the lack of knowledge in systemic management of nursery environments.  In this study, we have established simulation models to predict how temperature and illumination coordinately influence the growth of tomato and cabbage seedlings.  Specifically, correlation between seedling quality characteristics (root-shoot ratio, G value (growth function: defined as ratio of whole plant dry weight to days of seedling), healthy indexes) and TEP (thermal effectiveness and photosynthetically active radiation) were explored to establish the models, which were validated with independent test data.  Our results suggested that the curve of healthy index 1 (HI1) and TEP fitted well with high coefficient of determination (R2) in both species, indicating that the model is highly reliable.  The HI1 simulation models for tomato and cabbage are HI1=0.0009e0.0308TEP−0.0015 and HI1= 0.0003e0.0671TEP−0.0003, respectively, which can be used for predicting vigors of tomato and cabbage seedlings grown under different temperature and light conditions. 
    Plant Protection
    Physicochemical properties and release characteristics of calcium alginate microspheres loaded with Trichoderma viride spores
    Slaven Jurić,Edyta Đermić,Snježana Topolovec-Pintarić, Marta Bedek,Marko Vinceković
    2019, 18(11): 2534-2548.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62634-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Novel agroformulations for simultaneous delivery of chemical and biologically active agents to the plants were prepared by encapsulation of Trichoderma viride spores in calcium alginate microspheres.  The impact of calcium ions concentration on the viability and sporulation of T. viride spores as well as on the microsphere important physicochemical properties were investigated.  Intermolecular interactions in microspheres are complex including mainly hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. T. viride germination inside matrix and germ tubes penetration out of microspheres revealed calcium alginate microspheres provide a supportive environment for T. viride growth.  Differences in physicochemical properties and bioactive agents release behaviour from microspheres were ascribed to the changes in microsphere structure.  Fitting to Korsmeyer-Peppas empirical model revealed the underlying T. viride release mechanism as anomalous transport kinetics (a combination of two diffusion mechanisms and the Type II transport (polymer swelling and relaxation of the polymeric matrix)).  The increasing amount of T. viride spores in the surrounding medium is closely related to the release from microspheres and germination.  The rate controlling mechanism of calcium release is Fickian diffusion.  A decrease in the release rate with increasing calcium ion concentrations is in accordance with the calcium ions effect on the strength of the alginate network structure.  T. viride germination inside microsphere diminished the amount of released calcium ions and slowed release kinetics in comparison with microspheres prepared without T. viride.  The results indicated investigated agroformulations have a great potential to be used for plant protection and nutrition.
    Molecular, serological and biological characterization of a novel Apple stem pitting virus strain from a local pear variety grown in China
    LI Liu, ZHENG Meng-meng, MA Xiao-fang, LI Yuan-jun, LI Qing-yu, WANG Guo-ping, HONG Ni
    2019, 18(11): 2549-2560.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62636-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) is an important causal agent of pear diseases.  Nowadays, the infection status and molecular characteristics of the virus in old pear trees have never been investigated.  In this study, we provide the first complete genome sequence of an ASPV isolate LYC from an over 300-year-old tree of a local Pyrus bretschneideri cultivar ‘Chili’ specifically grown at Laiyang area in China.  ASPV-LYC possesses a chimeric genome consisting of 9 273 nucleotides excluding a poly(A) tail at its 3´ end and harboring a recombination region in its open reading frame (ORF1) with Aurora-1 and KL9 identified as the major and minor parents.  Western blot analysis with antisera against recombinant coat proteins (CPs) of three ASPV isolates from pear indicates that ASPV-LYC is serologically related to these ASPV isolates, but with differential activities.  Further biological tests on indicator plants of Pyronia veitchii show that ASPV-LYC can induce serious leaf and stem symptoms as other ASPV isolates.  The results provide an important information for understanding molecular evolution of ASPV and suggest a need to prevent dissemination of the isolate among pear trees.
    Evaluation of the biocontrol potential of Aspergillus welwitschiae against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
    LIU Ying, DING Zhong, PENG De-liang, LIU Shi-ming, KONG Ling-an, PENG Huan, XIANG Chao, LI Zhong-cai, HUANG Wen-kun
    2019, 18(11): 2561-2570.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62610-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola is considered one of the most devastating pests in rice-producing areas, and nematicides are neither ecofriendly nor cost effective.  More acceptable biological agents are required for controlling this destructive pathogen.  In this study, the biocontrol potential of Aspergillus welwitschiae AW2017 was investigated in laboratory and greenhouse experiments.  The in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities of A. welwitschiae metabolites were tested on M. graminicola in laboratory experiments.  The effect of A. welwitschiae on the attraction of M. graminicola to rice and the infection of rice by M. graminicola was evaluated in a greenhouse.  The bioagent AW2017 displayed good nematicidal potential via its ovicidal and larvicidal action.  The best larvicidal activity was observed at a concentration of 5×AW2017, which caused an 86.2% mortality rate at 48 h post inoculation.  The highest ovicidal activity was recorded at a concentration of 5×AW2017, which resulted in an approximately 47.3% reduction in egg hatching after 8 d compared to the control.  Under greenhouse conditions, the application of A. welwitschiae significantly reduced the root galls and nematodes in rice roots compared to the control.  At a concentration of 5×AW2017, juveniles and root galls in rice roots at 14 d post inoculation (dpi) were reduced by 24.5 and 40.5%, respectively.  In addition, the attraction of M. graminicola to rice roots was significantly decreased in the AW2017 treatment, and the development of nematodes in the AW2017-treated plants was slightly delayed compared with that in the PDB-treated control plants.  The results indicate that A. welwitschiae is a potential biological control agent against M. graminicola in rice.
    Characterization of field-evolved resistance to cyantraniliprole in Bemisia tabaci MED from China
    WANG Ran, WANG Jin-da, CHE Wu-nan, SUN Yan, LI Wen-xiang, LUO Chen
    2019, 18(11): 2571-2578.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62557-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Cyantraniliprole is a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide with significant efficacy against Bemisia tabaci, an important pest insect worldwide.  In this study, we conducted reversion and selection work and genetic analysis, and determined cross-resistance spectrum and synergism of cyantraniliprole resistance based on the reported population, SX population, of B. tabaci collected from Shanxi Province, China.  Compared with a susceptible strain (MED-S), SX population, the field-evolved cyantraniliprole-resistant population exhibited 26.4-fold higher resistance to cyantraniliprole.  In SX, a sharp decline of cyantraniliprole resistance was shown in the absence of selection.  Another tested strain, SX-R, was established from SX population after successive selection with cyantraniliprole and recently developed 138.4-fold high resistance to cyantraniliprole.  SX-R had no cross-resistance to abamectin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, sulfoxaflor, or bifenthrin.  Genetic analysis illustrated that cyantraniliprole resistance in SX-R was autosomally inherited and incompletely dominant.  Additionally, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) significantly inhibited cyantraniliprole resistance in the SX-R strain.  In conclusion, the selection of SX with cyantraniliprole led to high resistance to cyantraniliprole which is incompletely dominant and no cross-resistance to several common types of insecticides.  Enhanced oxidative metabolism is possibly involved in the resistance of SX-R, yet target-site resistance could not be excluded. 
    Identification of diapause-associated proteins in migratory locust, Locusta migratoria L. (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) by label-free quantification analysis
    CUI Dong-nan, TU Xiong-bing, HAO Kun, Aftab Raza, CHEN Jun, Mark McNeill, ZHANG Ze-hua
    2019, 18(11): 2579-2588.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62607-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Maternal photoperiodic response is a key factor that affects offspring diapause in migratory locust, Locusta migratoria L. (Orthoptera: Acridoidea).  Although many aspects of insect diapause have been studied, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of maternal photoperiodic response that influence diapause regulation.  To gain insight into the possible mechanisms of maternal photoperiod influence on diapause regulation, proteomics data by label-free quantification analysis were generated from non-diapause and diapause eggs.  A total of 175 proteins were differentially expressed between diapause and non-diapause eggs.  Among them, 24 proteins were upregulated, and 151 proteins were downregulated.  Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichments were performed on all differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) and showed that peroxisome, insect hormone biosynthesis, and longevity regulating pathway may be related to diapause of migratory locust.  Furthermore, we used qRT-PCR to verify some results of the proteomic analysis.  Proteins such as hexamerin-like protein 4, juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase 1
    (JHEH1), cytochrome P450 and heat shock protein (HSP) 20.7 were predicted to be involved in diapause.  This study provides an important reference for future research that will explore the mechanisms of diapause induced by maternal effects in migratory locust.
    Animal Science · Veterinary Medicine
    Two new lncRNAs regulate the key immune factor NOD1 and TRAF5 in chicken lymphocyte  
    BI Yu-lin, YUAN Xiao-ya, CHEN Ying, CHANG Guo-bin, CHEN Guo-hong
    2019, 18(11): 2589-2597.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62722-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) causes the atrophy of immune organs and immuno-suppression in chickens, but the underlying molecular mechanism of the immune response after infection by REV is not well understood.  Presently, the RNA-seq was used to analyze the regulation of immune response to REV in chicken lymphocytes from peripheral blood.  Overall, 134 differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) between cells with REV infection or without  in vitro were screened.  Based on the differentially expressed protein-coding genes, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor pathway related to immune regulation was enriched.  Two lncRNAs (L11530 and L09863) were predicted to target the NOD1 and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 5 (TRAF5) gene, respectively, which are involved in the NOD-like receptor pathway with cis-regulation way.  The in vitro results revealed the significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) levels of lncRNA-L11530 and its target gene, NOD1, and the significantly down-regulated (P<0.05) levels of lncRNA-L09863 and its target gene, TRAF5, in lymphocytes after REV infection.  These changes also occurred in vivo in blood lymphocytes of chickens infected with REV.  Further, L09863 and L11530 were respectively interfered, the expression levels of their target genes NOD1 or TRAF5 were significantly down-regulated, accompanied by the change of IL-8 and IL-18 secretions in lymphocytes.  The NOD-like receptor pathway appears to be important in the immune response to REV, LncRNA-11530 and lncRNA-09863 might involve in the immune regulation on REV infection by targeting NOD1 or TRAF5 in blood lymphocytes of chickens.  Our findings reveal a new regulation of lncRNAs (L11530 and L09863) on immunity in chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes for REV infection by changing the expression of the target genes via the NOD-like receptor pathway. 
    Baculovirus-expressed FAdV-4 penton base protein protects chicken against hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome
    ZHANG Jun-qin, WEI Yan-ming, HUANG Kun, SUN Xiao-mei, ZOU Zhong, JIN Mei-lin
    2019, 18(11): 2598-2604.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62739-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) is an infectious disease caused by fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4).  Several structural and non-structural proteins of FAdV-4 have been expressed in Escherichia coli and baculovirus expression system to develop candidate subunit vaccines.  However, the protective efficiency of baculovirus-expressed penton base protein has not been assessed.  In this study, two recombinant capsid proteins, penton base and fiber-2, were constructed.  And then, penton base and fiber-2 were administrated alone or together to specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens at 14 days of life and boosted at 28 days of life.  At 42 days of life, the immunized groups and the control group were challenged with FAdV-4 virulent strain.  Results show that inoculating penton base or penton base+fiber-2 provided 100% protection to the chickens.  All groups vaccinated with the recombinant protein produced detectable antibodies and showed no apparent lesions.  Thus, baculovirus-expressed penton base protein is a promising candidate subunit vaccine.
    Agro-ecosystem & Environment
    Soil macroaggregates and organic-matter content regulate microbial communities and enzymatic activity in a Chinese Mollisol
    CHEN Xu, HAN Xiao-zeng, YOU Meng-yang, YAN Jun, LU Xin-chun, William R. Horwath, ZOU Wen-xiu
    2019, 18(11): 2605-2618.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62759-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The formation and turnover of macroaggregates are critical processes influencing the dynamics and stabilization of soil organic carbon (SOC).  Soil aggregate size distribution is directly related to the makeup and activity of microbial communities.  We incubated soils managed for >30 years as restored grassland (GL), farmland (FL) and bare fallow (BF) for 60 days using both intact and reduced aggregate size distributions (intact aggregate distribution (IAD)<6 mm; reduced aggregate distribution (RAD)<1 mm), in treatments with added glucose, alanine or inorganic N, to reveal activity and microbial community structure as a function of aggregate size and makeup.  Over a 60-day incubation period, the highest phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) abundance was on day 7 for bacteria and fungi, on day 15 for actinomycete.  The majority of the variation in enzymatic activities was likely related to PLFA abundance.  GL had higher microbial abundance and enzyme activity.  Mechanically reducing macroaggregates (>0.25 mm) by 34.7% in GL soil with no substrate additions increased the abundance of PLFAs (average increase of 15.7%) and activities of β-glucosidase (increase of 17.4%) and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (increase of 7.6%).  The addition of C substrates increased PLFA abundance in FL and BF by averages of 18.8 and 33.4%, respectively, but not in GL soil.  The results show that the effect of habitat destruction on microorganisms depends on the soil aggregates, due to a release of bioavailable C, and the addition of substrates for soils with limited nutrient availability.  The protection of SOC is promoted by larger size soil aggregate structures that are important to different aggregate size classes in affecting soil C stabilization and microbial community structure and activity. 
    Assessment of the contribution percentage of inherent soil productivity of cultivated land in China
    WANG Shi-chao, WANG Jin-zhou, ZHAO Ya-wen, REN Yi, XU Ming-gang, ZHANG Shu-xiang, LU Chang-ai
    2019, 18(11): 2619-2627.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(18)62152-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The contribution percentage of inherent soil productivity (CPISP) refers to the ratio of crop yields under no-fertilization versus under conventional fertilization with the same field management.  CPISP is a comprehensive measure of soil fertility.  This study used 1 086 on-farm trials (from 1984–2013) and 27 long-term field experiments (from 1979–2013) to quantify changes in CPISP.  Here, we present CPISP3 values, which reflect the CPISP states during the first three years after site establishment, for a series of sites at different locations in China collected in 1984–1990 (the 1980s), 1996–2000 (the 1990s), and 2004–2013 (the 2000s).  The results showed that the average CPISP3 value for three crops (wheat, rice, and maize) was 53.8%.  Historically, the CPISP3 in the 1990s (57.5%) was much higher than those in the 1980s (50.3%), and the 2000s (52.0%) (P≤0.05).  Long-term no-fertilization caused CPISP levels to gradually decline and then stabilize; for example, in a mono-cropping system with irrigation, the CPISP values in Northwest and Northeast China declined by 4.5 and 4.0%, respectively, each year for the first ten years, but subsequently, the CPISP values stabilized.  In contrast, the CPISP for upland crops in double-cropping systems continued to decrease at a rate of 1.1% per year.  The CPISP for upland-paddy cropping decreased very slowly (0.07% per year), whereas the CPISP for paddy cropping decreased sharply (3.1% per year, on average) for the first two years and then remained steady during the following years.  Therefore, upland crops in double-cropping systems consume the most inherent soil productivity, whereas paddy fields are favourable for maintaining a high level of CPISP.  Overall, our results demonstrate a need to further improve China’s CPISP3 values to meet growing productivity demands. 
    Winter wheat identification by integrating spectral and temporal information derived from multi-resolution remote sensing data
    ZHANG Xi-wang, LIU Jian-feng, Zhenyue Qin, QIN Fen
    2019, 18(11): 2628-2643.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62615-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Timely crop acreage and distribution information are the basic data which drive many agriculture related applications.  For identifying crop types based on remote sensing, methods using only a single image type have significant limitations.  Current research that integrates fine and coarser spatial resolution images, using techniques such as unmixing methods, regression models, and others, usually results in coarse resolution abundance without sufficient detail within pixels, and limited attention has been paid to the spatial relationship between the pixels from these two kinds of images.  Here we propose a new solution to identify winter wheat by integrating spectral and temporal information derived from multi-resolution remote sensing data and determine the spatial distribution of sub-pixels within the coarse resolution pixels.  Firstly, the membership of pixels which belong to winter wheat is calculated using a 25-m resolution resampled Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image based on the Bayesian equation.  Then, the winter wheat abundance (acreage fraction in a pixel) is assessed by using a multiple regression model based on the unique temporal change features from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time series data.  Finally, winter wheat is identified by the proposed Abundance-Membership (AM) model based on the spatial relationship between the two types of pixels.  Specifically, winter wheat is identified by comparing the spatially corresponding 10×10 membership pixels of each abundance pixel.  In other words, this method takes advantage of the relative size of membership in a local space, rather than the absolute size in the entire study area.  This method is tested in the major agricultural area of Yiluo Basin, China, and the results show that acreage accuracy (Aa) is 93.01% and sampling accuracy (As) is 91.40%.  Confusion matrix shows that overall accuracy (OA) is 91.4% and the kappa coefficient (Kappa) is 0.755.  These values are significantly improved compared to the traditional Maximum Likelihood classification (MLC) and Random Forest classification (RFC) which rely on spectral features.  The results demonstrate that the identification accuracy can be improved by integrating spectral and temporal information.  Since the identification of winter wheat is performed in the space corresponding to each MODIS pixel, the influence of differences of environmental conditions is greatly reduced.  This advantage allows the proposed method to be effectively applied in other places.
    Food Science
    Changes of moisture distribution and migration in fresh ear corn during storage
    WANG Hao, LIU Jing-sheng, MIN Wei-hong, ZHENG Ming-zhu, LI Hao
    2019, 18(11): 2644-2651.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62715-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Understanding of moisture changes in fresh ear corn (Zea mays L.) during storage is imperative for maintaining fresh corn quality.  The changes of moisture distribution and migration in fresh ear corn during storage were investigated using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).  Water loss was greater than water migration in fresh ear corn within the first hour of storage; thereafter, water loss was weaker than water migration.  With the extension of storage time, the signal intensity of MRI in different parts of sliced fresh corn with cob showed a downward trend, and the rate of signal intensity reduction was higher in the peripheral area than at the central part of sliced fresh corn with cob.  The relative proportion of bound water increased with a concomitant drop in that of free water, when the total water content reduced in fresh ear corn under storage.  In conclusion, NMR and MRI are useful and non-destructive tools for real-time monitoring of moisture distribution, migration, and loss in fresh ear corn during storage to assess its quality.  These results can be used for future design of the preserving and processing conditions for fresh ear corn.
    Relationship between physicochemical characteristics of Korean wheat flour and quality attributes of steamed bread
    Ji-Eun Kim, Byung-Kee Baik, Chul Soo Park, Jae-Han Son, Chang-Hyun Choi, Youngjun Mo, Tae-Il Park, Chon-Sik Kang, Seong-Woo Cho
    2019, 18(11): 2652-2663.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62668-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The purpose of this study is to identify major factors affecting the manufacture and quality of steamed bread, consumed in Southeast Asia including China, Japan, and Korea.  Hence, flours of 11 Korean wheat cultivars were used to evaluate quality attributes of two different styles of steamed bread, Korean style steamed bread (KSSB) and northern-style Chinese steamed bread (NSCSB).  KSSB prepared more ingredients and higher optimum water absorption of dough than NSCSB because Korean consumers prefer white and glossy surface and soft crumb.  KSSB showed lower height, larger diameter and volume of steamed bread, higher stress relaxation, and softer texture of crumb than NSCSB.  The correlation between flour characteristics and quality of steamed bread was different in KSSB and NSCSB.  About 90% of variability in the height and volume of KSSB could be predicted from protein content, mixing tolerance of Mixograph, average particle size of flour, final viscosity and solvent retention capacity.  Protein content and quality parameters also could explain the variation of steamed bread height in NSCSB.  Korean wheat carrying Glu-A3c allele produced higher volume of steamed bread (704.7 mL) than Glu-A3d allele (645.8 mL) in KSSB, although there was no significant difference in volume of NSCSB by glutenin compositions.  Glu-D1d and Glu-A3c alleles had softer texture of crumb than Glu-D1f and Glu-A3d alleles in KSSB, Glu-B3i allele also showed lower hardness of crumb than their counterpart allele in NSCSB.  Hard wheat showed higher height and volume of steamed bread, and lower stress relaxation and hardness of crumb than soft wheat in KSSB.
    Short Communication
    First detection and complete genome of Soybean chlorotic mottle virus naturally infecting soybean in China by deep sequencing
    HU Qian-qian, LIU Xue-jian, HAN Xue-dong, LIU Yong, JIANG Jun-xi, XIE Yan
    2019, 18(11): 2664-2667.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62665-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Soybean chlorotic mottle virus (SbCMV) was first detected from soybean plants in Jiangxi Province of China by high throughput sequencing and was confirmed by PCR.  The complete nucleotide sequence of NC113 was determined to be 8 210 nucleotides, and shared the highest similarity (91.7%) with sequences of SbCMV that was only reported in Japan.  It encodes nine putative open reading frames (ORFs Ia, Ib and II–VIII), and contains a large intergenic region located at nucleotide 5 976–6 512 between ORFs VI and VII.  Sequence analysis and phylogenetic tree indicated that NC113 is an isolate of SbCMV, and is more related to the soymoviruses Blueberry red ringspot virus (BRRSV), Peanut chlorotic streak virus (PCSV) and Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV) than to other representative members in the Caulimoviridae family.  Field survey of 472 legume plants from Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces showed SbCMV was only detected from soybean in Nanchang City with a low incidence rate.  This is the first report of Soybean chlorotic mottle virus identified in China.
    Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens YP6, a plant growth rhizobacterium efficiently degrading a wide range of organophosphorus pesticides
    MENG Di, ZHAI Li-xin, TIAN Qiao-peng, GUAN Zheng-bing, CAI Yu-jie, LIAO Xiang-ru
    2019, 18(11): 2668-2672.  DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62658-4
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens YP6, a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, is capable of efficiently degrading a wide range of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs).  Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium with a genome size of 4 009 619 bp, 4 210 protein-coding genes and an average GC content of 45.9%.  Based on the genome sequence, several genes previously described as being involved in solubilizing-phosphorus, OPs-degradation, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores synthesis.  Interestingly, compared with the genomes of B. amyloliquefaciens species, strain YP6 had larger genome size and the most protein-coding genes.  Moreover, the four categories of “cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane (M),” “translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis (J),” “transcription (K),” and “signal transduction mechanisms (T)” were fewer.  These differences may be related to extensive environmental adaptability of the genus B. amyloliquefaciens.  These results expand the application potential of strain YP6 for environmental bioremediation, provide gene resources involved in OPs degradation for biotechnology and gene engineering, and contribute to provide insights into the relationship between microorganism and living environment.