The effects of the unsaturated degree of long-chain fatty acids on the rumen microbial protein content and the activities of transaminases and dehydrogenase in vitro
GAO Jian, JING Yu-jia, WANG Meng-zhi, SHI Liang-feng, LIU Shi-min
This study investigated the effects of the degree of unsaturation (unsaturity) of long-chain fatty acids on microbial protein content and the activities of transaminases and dehydrogenase in vitro using goat rumen fluid as the cultural medium. Six types of fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0, group A, control group), oleic acid (C18:1, n-9, group B), linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6, group C), α-linolenic acid (C18:3, n-3, group D), arachidonic acid (C20:4, n-6, group E), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, n-3, group F), were tested, and the inclusion ratio of each fatty acid was 3% (w/w) in total of culture substrate. Samples were taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h, respectively, during culture for analyses. Compared with stearic acid, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid increased the bacterial protein content, while oleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid had no significant effects; the protozoal protein content was reduced for all the unsaturated fatty acids, and the magnitude of the reduction appeared to be associated with the degree of unsaturity of fatty acids. The total microbial protein content was dominantly accounted by the protozoal protein content (about 4–9 folds of the bacterial protein), and only increased by linoleic acid, but reduced by oleic acid, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. There were no significant effects in the activities of both glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) for all the other fatty acids, except for arachidonic acid which enhanced GOT activity and oleic acid which enhanced GPT activity. The total dehydrogenase activity was positively correlated with the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. In conclusion, the inclusion of 3% of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids increased bacterial protein content, whereas reduced protozoal protein content and enhanced dehydrogenase activity. The fatty acids with more than three double bonds had detrimental effects on the microbial protein content. This work demonstrates for the first time the effect rule of the unsaturation degree of long-chain fatty acids on the rumen microbial protein in vitro.