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    Genetic Analysis on Characteristics to Measure Drought Resistance Using Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufupogon Griff.) and Its Derived Backcross Inbred Lines Population at Seedling Stage 
    HU Biao-lin, FU Xue-qin, ZHANG Tao, WAN Yong, LI Xia, HUANG Yun-hong, DAI Liang-fang, LUO Xiang-dong , XIE Jian-kun
    2011, 10(11): 1653-1664.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60164-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Drought stress is one of the major constraints to rice (Oryza sativa L.) production and yield stability especially in rainfed ecosystems and is getting worse as the climate changes worldwide. Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) Oryza rufipogon Griff., contains drought resistant gene. Improving drought resistance of cultivars is crucial to increase and stabilize rice grain yield via transferring resistant gene from species related to rice. In this paper, four upland rice, sixty backcross inbred lines (BILs) derived from BC1F5 of R974//DXWR/R974, and their parents were employed to evaluate drought-resistance at seedling stage in the greenhouse. Nine traits were recorded for assessment of drought resistance, including maximum root length (MRL), number of roots (NR), shoot length (SL), dry root weight (DRW), fresh root weight (FRW), root relative water content (RRWC), leaf relative water content (LRWC), level for rolling leaf (LRL), and seedling survivability under repeat drought (SSRD). Using more than 88% of accumulative contribution resulted from the principal component analysis (PCA), the nine traits were classified into five independent principal components and the line 1949 showed the highest resistance. Analysis on the stepwise regression equation and correlation demonstrated that MRL, RN, FRW, and RRWC significantly influenced the drought resistance, thus could be used as comprehensive index for drought resistance at the seedling stage. Using the major gene plus polygene mixed inheritance model of quantitative traits, the inheritance of drought-resistance of BIL population at seedling stage was mostly controlled by two independent genes plus polygene. As a result, the DXWR could be precious resources for genetic improvement of drought resistance in cultivated rice.
    Identification of QTLs for Yield-Related Traits in the Recombinant Inbred Line Population Derived from the Cross Between a Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat- Derived Variety Chuanmai 42 and a Chinese Elite Variety Chuannong 16 
    TANG Yong-lu, LI Jun, WU Yuan-qi, WEI Hui-ting, LI Chao-su, YANG Wu-yun , CHEN Fang
    2011, 10(11): 1665-1680.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60165-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) represents a valuable source of new resistances to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population with 127 recombinant inbred lines derived from a SHW-derived variety Chuanmai 42 crossing with a Chinese spring wheat variety Chuannong 16 was used to map QTLs for agronomic traits including grain yield, grains per square meter, thousand-kernel weight, spikes per square meter, grain number per spike, grains weight per spike, and biomass yield. The population was genotyped using 184 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 34 sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. Of 76 QTLs (LOD>2.5) identified, 42 were found to have a positive effect from Chuanmai 42. The QTL QGy.saas-4D.2 associated with grain yield on chromosome 4D was detected in four of the six environments and the combined analysis, and the mean yield, across six environments, of individuals carrying the Chuanmai 42 allele at this locus was 8.9% higher than that of those lines carrying the Chuannong 16 allele. Seven clusters of the yield-coincident QTLs were detected on 1A, 4A, 3B, 5B, 4D, and 7D.
    An Integrated Quantitative Trait Locus Map of Oil Content in Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., Generated Using a Meta-Analysis Method for Mining Genes 
    QI Zhao-ming, HAN Xue, SUN Ya-nan, WU Qiong, SHAN Da-peng, DU Xiang-yu, LIU Chun-yan, JIANG Hong-wei, HU Guo-hua , CHEN Qing-shan
    2011, 10(11): 1681-1692.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60166-1
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Soybean is a major cash crop in the world, and its oil content was one of the very important traits. Therefore, the study of gene mapping for oil content in soybean is very important for breeding application. At present, at least 130 QTL loci for soybean oil content have been published; however, the mapping results of oil content were dispersed and a coalescent public map should be established to integrate the published QTLs, and to more efficiently mine genes based on the metaanalysis method of the bioinformatics tools. This study was to construct an integrated map of QTLs for soybean oil content and accelerate the application of bioinformation resource related to oil content improvement in the practice of soybean breeding. We collected information of 130 QTLs reported over the past 20 yr for soybean oil content and used the Software BioMercator 2.1 to project QTLs from their own maps onto a reference map, which was an early-integrated map constructed by Song (2004) for oil-content quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in soybean. Gene mining was performed based on the meta-analysis by running the local ver. GENSCAN and InterProScan. The confidence interval of QTLs was efficaciously narrowed using the meta-analysis method, and 25 consensus QTLs were mapped on the reference map. Using a local version of GENSCAN, 12 805 sequences in the consensus QTL intervals were predicted. With BLAST, these predicted sequences were aligned to gene sequences from the International Protein Index database using InterProScan locally. Thirteen predicted genes were in the class of the geme ontology (GO) accession (0006631), which were involved in the fatty acid metabolic process. These genes were analyzed using BLAST at the NCBI website to examine whether they were related to oil content. Six genes were found in the oil-synthesis pathway. Twenty-five consensus QTLs and six genes were found in the oil-synthesis pathway. These results would lay the foundation for marker-assisted selection and mapping QTL precisely, and these genes will facilitate the researches on the gene mining of oil synthesis and molecular breeding in soybean.
    Transformation of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) with Bt cry1Ba3 Gene for Control of Diamondback Moth 
    YI Deng-xia, CUI Lei, LIU Yu-mei, ZHUANG Mu, ZHANG Yang-yong, FANG Zhi-yuan , YANG Li-mei
    2011, 10(11): 1693-1700.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60167-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    To obtain transgenic cabbage line with broad insect resistance, a new synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ba3 gene was introduced into white cabbage via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and 37 transformants were obtained. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed that cry1Ba3 was successfully inserted into the genome of cabbage. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated that cry1Ba3 was expressed. Western blot results confirmed the production of insecticidal protein encoded by cry1Ba3. Insect bioassays showed that transgenic cabbages effectively controlled both susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant diamondback moth (DBM) larvae.
    Characterization of Growth and Light Utilization for Rice Genotypes with Different Tiller Angles
    OUYANG You-nan, ZENG Fan-rong, ZHAN Ling, ZHANG Guo-ping
    2011, 10(11): 1701-1709.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60168-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Tiller angle is very important for plant architecture and canopy structure in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Physiological and ecological characteristics of three rice genotypes with different tiller angle habits were compared in the paper. DI508, a genotype with changing tiller angle during the growth, has semi-erect tillers at early tillering stage, similar to genotype M09, and had erect tillers at late stage, similar to genotype 9308. In terms of dry biomass per plant, DI508 was consistently higher than those of M09 and 9308 throughout the growth. It was also a distinct difference of leaf area per plant that DI508 was larger than two others. From booting stage, DI508 and 9308 maintained higher photosynthetic ability of the topmost three leaves, while M09 showed rapid decline in photosynthesis during grain filling. It may be concluded that the genotype DI508 with dynamic tiller angle habit has a comprehensive advantage of fast growth and high weed competition at early stage and slow decline in photosynthesis at late stage.
    Contents of D-chiro-Inositol, Vitexin, and Isovitexin in Various Varieties of Mung Bean and Its Products
    YAO Yang, CHENG Xu-zhen , REN Gui-xing
    2011, 10(11): 1710-1715.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60169-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is rich in bioactive compounds including D-chiro-inositol (DCI), vitexin, and isovitexin, which have beneficial effects on patients with diabetes. To find a better source for these valuable chemicals, we have collected 110 varieties of mung bean seed samples and 8 mung bean products to determine the levels of these bioactive compounds. We also measured the DCI content in mung bean sprouts at different germination stages. Content of DCI, vitexin, and isovitexin in all mung bean varieties ranged from 0.43 to 5.79, 0.12 to 3.00, and 0.03 to 1.16 mg g-1, respectively. The varieties of C0001321, C0003522, and C0004485 have the highest DCI, vitexin, and isovitexin contents, respectively. The mung bean products in the market contained relatively lower level of these bioactive components. Contents of DCI, vitexin, and isovitexin in all mung bean products ranged from 0.119 to 0.717, 0 to 0.547, and 0 to 0.923 mg g-1, respectively. During the 112 h of germination test, DCI level steadily increased at first stage and reached the highest level at 80 h of germination (4.79 mg g-1). These results provide useful information for the selection of suitable varieties and proper germination stages to obtain functional ingredients from mung beans.
    The Yield and Water Use Efficiency to First Cutting Date of Siberian Wildrye in North China 
    LI Zi-zhong, ZHANG Wei-hua , GONG Yuan-shi
    2011, 10(11): 1716-1722.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60170-3
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    A field experiment study was conducted in Bashang Plateau in North China in 2008 to determine the effect of three first cutting dates on the growth and water use efficiency (WUE) of Siberian wildrye (Elymus sibiricus L.) in the agropastoral ecotone of North China (APENC). The experiment was conducted in a split plot design with three replications with water supply regime as the main plot treatment and first cutting date as the subplot treatment. Two water supply regimes were used, which included rain-fed treatment as control (CK) and a single irrigation and straw mulch treatment (W). Three first cutting date treatments were conducted at early heading stage on July 1 (E), at late heading stage on July 12 (L), and at flowering stage on July 27 (F), respectively. The results showed that the forage yield and WUE were the lowest at early heading stage harvest, while the highest at flowering stage either in CK or W treatment. Under combined CK and W treatments, average forage yields of the F subplots were 2 900 and 6 703 kg ha-1, and the values of WUE were 0.82 and 2.28 kg m-3, respectively. Under the CK treatment, forage yields of the E and L subplots were 43.8 and 41.9% lower than the F subplots, and their values of WUE were 46.2 and 50.3% lower than F, respectively. Under the W treatment, the forage yields of the E and L subplots were 74.9 and 61.6% lower, and their values of WUE were 78.1 and 63.3% lower, respectively, as compared with F subplots. Therefore, earlier first cutting did not increase the regrowth of Siberian wildrye and improve the mismatch between rainy season and the period of high growth potential of the grass in the semiarid APENC.
    Postulation of Seedlings Resistance Genes to Yellow Rust in Commercial Wheat Cultivars from Yunnan Province in China 
    LI Ming-ju, FENG Jing, CAO Shi-qin, LIN Rui-ming, CHENG Geng, YU Ya-xiong, CHEN Wan-quan , XU Shi-chang
    2011, 10(11): 1723-1731.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60171-5
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The objective of this study was to characterize yellow (stripe) rust resistance gene(s) in 52 commercial wheat cultivars from Yunnan Province in China, and to provide information for their rational deployment in field. Seedlings of wheat cultivars were inoculated with 25 differential isolates of Puccinia striiformis from foreign and home to postulate resistance genes to yellow rust, and then validated by pedigree. There were 10 probable resistance genes characterized in these cultivars, in which, Yr9 was most commonly postulated to be present in thirteen cultivars. Yr21, the second, was present in four cultivars. Yr8, the third, were present in three cultivars. Yr6, Yr17 and Yr26, the fourth, was present in two cultivars respectively. The other gene(s) such as, Yr2+YrA, Yr7 and Yr27, were only present in single cultivar(s); unknown gene(s) or gene(s) combination(s) were present in 22 cultivars. One cultivar (Yunmai 42) had no resistance gene tested in this study. Cultivars such as Yunmai 52, Mian 1971-98, Kunmai 4, and Yunmai 56 carried effective genes and can be popularized mainly; Yr9 should be planted with other Yr genes. In the meantime other effective genes should be introduced to realize gene diversity for controlling wheat yellow rust. Yunmai 42 should be reduced to avoid rust breakout. Unknown gene cultivars should be utilized and be researched deeply.
    TaRAR1 is Required for Lr24-Mediated Wheat Leaf Rust Resistance
    ZHANG Li-rong, YANG Wen-xiang , LIU Da-qun
    2011, 10(11): 1732-1738.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60173-9
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) offers a rapid and high throughout technology platform for the analysis of gene function in plants. The barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) VIGS system was optimized in studies silencing phytoene desaturase expression in wheat, and demonstrated that infection with BSMV construct carrying a 412 bp fragment of TaRAR1 caused conversion of incompatible to compatible interactions to Lr24-mediated resistance in wheat TcLr24 and cultivar 5R615 harboring Lr24 whereas infection with a control construct had no effect on resistance or susceptibility. RTPCR analysis showed that BSMV-induced gene silencing could be detected at mRNA levels. These studies indicated that TaRAR1 was a required component for Lr24-mediated race-specific resistance and the BSMV-VIGS was a powerful tool for dissecting the genetic pathways of disease resistance in hexaploid wheat.
    The Influence of Transgenic cry1Ab/cry1Ac, cry1C and cry2A Rice on Non- Target Planthoppers and Their Main Predators Under Field Conditions 
    HAN Yu, XU Xue-liang, MA Wei-hua, YUAN Ben-qi, WANG Hui, LIU Fang-zhou, WANG Man-qun, WU
    2011, 10(11): 1739-1747.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60172-7
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Transgenic Bt rice has been shown to be an effective means of controlling Lepidoptera pests of rice. However, the potential roles of transgenic rice on planthoppers and their predators need to be investigated before its commercialization. Population density, species dominance and population dynamics are important parameters of arthropods populations in field. So the impacts of three transgenic Bt rice strains expressing cry1Ab/cry1Ac, cry1C and cry2A on population density, species dominance and population dynamics of three species of planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens, Sogatella furcifera and Laodelphax striatellus) and their three main predators (Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Pirata subpiraticus and Theridium octomaculatum) were evaluated at three sites in Hubei Province, China, in the current study. The results showed that among three species of planthoppers, both in transgenic and non-transgenic rice field, the predominant species of planthoppers within phytophagous guild was S. furcifera at any site either growing season (46-50%). Significantly higher population density of N. lugens was observed in T2A-1 field relative to Minghui 63 field at Wuxue in 2010. The species dominance of predator, P. subpiraticus, in TT51 field was significantly higher than that in T1C-19 and T2A-1 fields in 2009 at Xiaogan site. Sampling date significantly influenced six arthropods except for P. subpiraticus in 2010. The interaction between rice strain×sampling date had no significant adverse effects on the population dynamics of three species of planthoppers and their predators, except for several individual species in 2009. The interaction among rice strain×sampling date×sampling site also had no significant effect on six arthropods except for S. furcifera in 2009. The results indicated that transgenic Bt rice expressing cry1Ab/cry1Ac, cry2A and cry1C had no significant adverse effects on the population dynamics of three planthoppers and their predators in most investigated data and sampling site.
    Long-Term Application of Organic Manure and Mineral Fertilizer on N2O and CO2 Emissions in a Red Soil from Cultivated Maize-Wheat Rotation in China 
    ZHAI Li-mei, LIU Hong-bin, ZHANG Ji-zong, HUANG Jing , WANG Bo-ren
    2011, 10(11): 1748-1757.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60174-0
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    A long-term field experiment was established to determine the influence of mineral fertilizer and organic manure on soil fertility. A tract of red soil (Ferralic Cambisol) in Qiyang Red Soil Experimental Station (Qiyang County, Hunan Province, China) was fertilized beginning in 1990 and N2O and CO2 were examined during the maize and wheat growth season of 2007-2008. The study involved five treatments: organic manure (NPKM), fertilizer NPK (NPK), fertilizer NP (NP), fertilizer NK (NK), and control (CK). Manured soils had higher crop biomass, organic C, and pH than soils receiving the various mineralized fertilizers indicating that long-term application of manures could efficiently prevent red soil acidification and increase crop productivity. The application of manures and fertilizers at a rate of 300 kg N ha-1 yr-1 obviously increased N2O and CO2 emissions from 0.58 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 and 10 565 kg C ha-1 yr-1 in the CK treatment soil to 3.01 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 and 28 663 kg C ha-1 yr-1 in the NPKM treatment. There were also obvious different effects on N2O and CO2 emissions between applying fertilizer and manure. More N2O and CO2 released during the 184-d maize growing season than the 125- d wheat growth season in the manure fertilized soils but not in mineral fertilizer treatments. N2O emission was significantly affected by soil moisture only during the wheat growing season, and CO2 emission was affected by soil temperature only in CK and NP treatment during the wheat and maize growing season. In sum, this study indicates the application of organic manure may be a preferred strategy for maintaining red soil productivity, but may result in greater N2O and CO2 emissions than treatments only with mineral fertilizer.
    Effect of Intensive Inorganic Fertilizer Application on Microbial Properties in a Paddy Soil of Subtropical China
    LIU Ming, Klemens Ekschmitt, ZHANG Bin, Stephanie I J Holzhauer, LI Zhong-pei, ZHANG Tao-lin , Sabine Rauch
    2011, 10(11): 1758-1764.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60175-2
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    A field experiment with rice-rice rotation was conducted since 2002 in southeast China for investigating the response of soil microbial properties to intensive nitrogen fertilizer application. The tested soil was a subtropical paddy soil derived from Quaternary red clay. Differences between treatments existed in different application rates of urea when the experiment was designed. Urea was applied in five rates, i.e., 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 U, equivalent to 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 times the local average amount of urea application (900 kg urea ha-1 yr-1, equivalent to 414 kg N ha-1 yr-1). In 2007, soil total nitrogen, available nitrogen, and soil organic carbon contents were increased by 10.2-27.9, 8.0-16.0, and 10.2-30.6%, respectively, in treatments with urea application rates of 0.5 to 2 U compared to control (0 U). Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen were also increased by 3.1-30.8 and 1.3-13.9%, respectively, in treatments with urea application. Basal respiration in treatments with urea input were 9.4-29.1% higher than that in control. However, changes of bacterial functional diversity had different trends. Urea fertilization enhanced bacterial functional diversity until treatment of 1 U, but re-decreased it from treatment of 1.5 U. Principal components analysis indicated that there were intimate relationships among soil organic matter, nitrogen nutrient, microbial biomass, and respiration. Nevertheless, microbial diversity was related to soil moisture contents after urea application. We conclude here that the application of N fertilizer improved soil microbial biomass and respiratory activity. But, microbial diversity was reduced when excessive urea was applied in the tested paddy soil.
    Relationship Between Differential Expression of Bax and Bcl-2 Genes and Developmental Differences of Porcine Parthenotes Cultured in PZM-3 and NCSU-23 
    CUI Mao-sheng, LIU Zhen-xing, WANG Xian-long, ZHANG Jing, WU Yi, HAN Guo-cai , ZENG Shen-ming
    2011, 10(11): 1772-1780.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60177-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The developmental competence of porcine parthenotes cultured in porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3) and North Carolina State University-23 (NCSU-23) media was investigated. After in vitro maturation oocytes were electro-activated, and the subsequent developmental competence, rates of apoptotic, fragmented and arrested embryos from the two media were evaluated. Also, the ratio of mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bax gene was determined. Results demonstrated that cleavage, blastocyst, hatched blastocyst rates, and blastocyst cell numbers were significantly higher in PZM-3 than in NCSU-23. The rate of fragmented embryos in PZM-3 was lower than in NCSU-23 on d 1 and 3 (P<0.05) while the percentage of arrested embryo was lower in PZM-3 than in NCSU-23 on d 4 and 5 (P<0.05). TUNEL positive signals were higher in NCSU-23 than in PZM-3 from d 3 to 7 (P<0.05). The ratios of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA expression in embryos were higher on d 5 than on d 3 and 1 in PZM-3 (P<0.05). In contrast, the ratios of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA expression in embryos on d 1 were higher than on d 3 and 5 in NCSU-23 (P<0.05). Additionally, the ratios of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA expression in embryos in PZM-3 were higher than in NCSU-23 on d 3 and 5 (P<0.05). In conclusion, lower apoptotic embryo rates and down-regulating Bax together with up-regulating expression of Bcl-2 transcripts may be responsible for the better developmental competence of porcine parthenotes in PZM-3.
    Generation and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Adenovirus Co-Expressing the E2 Protein of Classical Swine Fever Virus and the GP5 Protein of Porcine Reproduction and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 
    LI Hong-yu, SUN Yuan, ZHANG Xing-juan, CHANG Tian-ming, WANG Xiang-peng, HE Fan, HUANG Junhua , QIU Hua-ji
    2011, 10(11): 1781-1791.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60178-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Classical swine fever (CSF) and porcine reproduction and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) are both economically important, highly contagious diseases of swine worldwide. To develop an effective vaccine to control these two diseases, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus rAdV-GP52AE2, using a replication-defective human adenovirus serotype 5 as a delivery vector, to co-express the GP5 protein of highly pathogenic porcine reproduction and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and the E2 protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A peptide was used as a linker between the GP5 and E2 proteins to allow automatic self-cleavage of the polyprotein. The GP5 and E2 genes were expressed as demonstrated by immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting. Immunization of mice resulted in a CSFV-neutralizing antibody titer of 1:128 and a PRRSV-neutralizing antibody titer of 1:16. The lymphoproliferative responses were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and the stimulation index of CFSV-specific and PRRSV-specific lymphocytes in the rAdV-GP52AE2 group was significantly higher than that in the negative control group. The results show that rAdV-GP52AE2 can induce both effective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in mice. The protective efficacy of the recombinant virus against CSF was evaluated in immunized rabbits, which were protected from fever induced by challenge with C-strain. Our study provides supporting evidence for the use of FMDV 2A to develop a bivalent genetically-engineered vaccine.
    The Relationship Between Chinese Raw Dumpling Quality and Flour Characteristics of Shandong Winter Wheat Cultivars 
    ZHANG Yan, YE Yi-li, LIU Jian-jun, XIAO Yong-gui, SUN Qi-xin , HE Zhong-hu
    2011, 10(11): 1792-1800.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60179-X
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    Dumpling is one of the most important traditional wheat products in China. Dumpling quality is determined by the characteristics of both flour and filling, thus improvement of flour quality plays an important role in improving dumpling quality. Thirty-nine Shandong winter wheat cultivars and advanced lines sown in Jinan, Shandong Province, China, in the 2008-2009 cropping season were used to determine genetic variation in Chinese raw dumpling quality and its relationship with flour characteristics. Large variations were observed for protein quality parameters in comparison with starch properties. Variation in color of the raw dumpling sheet was broader than that of sensory evaluation parameters of boiled dumpling among tested wheat cultivars, indicating the large influence of filling on dumpling color. Two cultivars, Jimai 20 and Zimai 12, were identified as possessing very good quality of raw dumpling, and 21 cultivars and advanced lines showed good quality. Protein and total starch content influenced the L* value of raw dumpling sheets. L* value at 0 and 2 h after sheeting were significantly influenced by protein content (r=-0.46 and -0.52, P<0.01) and total starch content (r=0.55 and 0.57, P<0.01), respectively. Flour yellow pigment was significantly corrected with a* (r=-0.67 and -0.62, P<0.01) and b* (r=0.87 and 0.84, P<0.01) value of raw dumpling sheets at 0 and 2 h after sheeting, respectively. Gluten strength parameters such as farinograph mixing tolerance index (MTI, r=-0.55, P<0.01) were positively associated with appearance. MTI and energy were also significantly and positively correlated with elasticity of raw dumpling, with r=-0.54 and 0.47 (P<0.01). The positive relationships between peak viscosity (r=0.51, P<0.01), breakdown (r=0.54, P<0.01), and smoothness of raw dumpling were also observed. Therefore, it is suggested that breeding programs should give more attention to gluten strength and starch pasting parameters for raw dumpling quality improvement.
    The Effect of Soaking with Wooden Ash and Malting upon Some Nutritional Properties of Sorghum Flour Used for Impeke, a Traditional Burundian Malt- Based Sorghum Beverage
    Irakoze Pierre Claver, ZHOU Hui-ming, ZHANG Hai-hua, ZHU Ke-xue, LI Qin , Murekatete Nicole
    2011, 10(11): 1801-1811.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60180-6
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    The objective of the present work was to determine the effect of wooden ash extract on anti-nutritional factors and to assess the effect of soaking with malting on nutritional properties of sorghum flour used for impeke. The addition of wooden ash extract during 24 h of soaking resulted in significant decrease in tannin by 50.2% and the decrease was observed to be progressive as malting time increases. 5 d of malting resulted in significant decrease in tannin by 69.3% and in phytic acid by 66.4% with slight decrease in ash, lipid, fiber, and starch. Malting showed an increased percentage of protein, essential amino acids, and then in vitro protein digestibility were markedly improved with increasing malting time. Sugars analysis proved a significant increase in maltose, glucose, fructose, and structural analysis of sorghum starch displayed porosity on granule’s surface susceptible to the amylolysis.
    Vertical Price Transmission in the China’s Layer Industry Chain: an Application of FDL Approach 
    XU Shi-wei, DONG Xiao-xia, LI Zhe-min, LI Gan-qiong
    2011, 10(11): 1812-1823.  DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60181-8
    Abstract ( )   PDF in ScienceDirect  
    This paper examines the vertical price relationship between upstream and downstream products in China’s layer industry chain by estimating elasticity coefficients of the price transmission. We use cointegration tests, error correction models and finite distributed lag models to analyze vertical price shifts between corn, layer feed, egg-laying chicken and egg prices. With monthly data from 1994 to 2010, our results show that various prices in China’s layer industry chain are well integrated. In addition, our results indicate that both long-run and short-run price relationships between upstream and downstream products in layer industry chain exist and the long-run equilibrium, to a certain extent, may eliminate the short-run dynamics price deviation. We also found that the influence of corn and feed prices on egg prices is still more remarkable than egg-laying chicken prices. Our findings imply that governments should pay more attention to corn and layer feed prices in order to stabilize egg prices under the conditions of market integration.