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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2023, Vol. 22 Issue (7): 2221-2232    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2023.02.037
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Improvement of soil fertility and rice yield after long-term application of cow manure combined with inorganic fertilizers
GAO Peng1, 2*, ZHANG Tuo3*, LEI Xing-yu4, CUI Xin-wei2, LU Yao-xiong2, FAN Peng-fei1, LONG Shi-ping4, HUANG Jing5, GAO Ju-sheng5, ZHANG Zhen-hua1#, ZHANG Hui-min5#

1 College of Resources, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, P.R.China

2 Institute of Agro-environment and Ecology, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125, P.R.China

3 College of Environmental Science and Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637002, P.R.China

4 Institute of Nuclear Agriculture Science and Space Breeding, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125, P.R.China

5 Qiyang Farmland Ecosystem National Observation and Research Station, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qiyang 426182, P.R.China

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施肥是提升土壤肥力促进作物增产的有效措施,长期不同施肥对土壤培肥的效果差别很大,依托中国农科院红壤实验站双季稻田连续38年不同施肥定位试验,研究了7种不同施肥处理CK(不施肥);NPK(化学氮、磷、钾肥料);M(腐熟牛粪);NPKM(化学氮、磷、钾和牛粪);NPM(化学氮、磷和牛粪);NKM(化学氮、钾和牛粪);PKM(化学磷、钾和牛粪)对水稻产量、稻田土壤肥力与养分表观平衡的影响。结果表明,各处理水稻年均产量由高到低为NPKMNPMNKMPKMMNPKCK,范围在6214-11562 kg hm2长期有机无机配施处理(NPKMNPMNKMPKMNPK的增产率分别为:22.58%15.35%10.53%4.41%长期有机无机配施处理(NPKMNPMNKMPKM)的土壤有机碳、全氮、有效氮、速效钾含量均显著高于CKNPK,其中有机肥配施氮磷肥处理的NPKMNPMPKM土壤全磷和有效磷含量显著高于CKNPKNPKM处理的水稻年均产量11562 kg hm2、有机碳20.88 g kg-1)、土壤全氮2.30 g kg-1)、全磷0.95 g kg-1)、全钾22.5 g kg-1)、有效磷含量38.94 mg kg-1)均为各处理中最高,NKM处理土壤碱解氮含量(152.4mg kg-1)和速效钾含量(151.00 mg kg-1)为各处理最高。氮、磷施用量的增加导致土壤中氮、磷养分出现盈余,但NPKM处理相比其他处理能够有效降低盈余量;各处理土壤中钾素均表现为亏缺。相关性分析表明土壤SOCTNANTPAP含量均与水稻产量显著相关(P<0.05),相关系数分别为0.4280.4960.5180.5010.438。本研究表明,相比单施化肥,长期有机肥配施化肥通过提升土壤肥力,促进土壤养分平衡,显著增加水稻产量,其中有机肥配施氮磷钾肥(NPKM)对于土壤肥力和水稻产量的提升效果最好。

Abstract  Fertilization is an effective technique to improve soil fertility and increase crop yield. The long-term effects of different fertilizers on soil considerably vary. Over 38 consecutive years of different fertilization positioning experiments in a double cropping rice field of Qiyang Red Soil Experimental Station, seven different fertilization treatments including CK (no fertilization), NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizer), M (cow manure), NPKM (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium with cow manure), NPM (nitrogen and phosphorus with cow manure), NKM (nitrogen and potassium with cow manure), and PKM (phosphorus and potassium with cow manure) were applied to study the effects on rice yield, soil fertility, and nutrient apparent balance in a paddy field. The results showed that the annual average yields of rice in NPKM, NPM, NKM, PKM, M, NPK and CK treatments ranged from 6 214 to 11 562 kg ha–1. Yields under longterm organic and inorganic treatments (NPKM, NPM, NKM and PKM) were 22.58, 15.35, 10.53 and 4.41%, respectively, greater than under the NPK treatment. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN) and available potassium (AK) concentration with long-term organic and inorganic treatment (NPKM, NPM, NKM and PKM) were significantly higher than in inorganic fertilizer (NPK) treatments. Soil total phosphorus (TP) and available phosphorus (AP) contentration with organic fertilizer combined with inorganic N and P fertilizer treatment (NPKM, NPM and PKM) were significantly higher than with inorganic fertilizer alone (NPK treatments). The average annual rice yield (11 562 kg ha–1), SOC (20.88 g kg–1), TN (2.30 g kg–1), TP (0.95 g kg–1), TK (22.50 g kg–1) and AP (38.94 mg kg–1) concentrations were the highest in the NPKM treatment. The soil AN concentration (152.40 mg kg–1) and AK contentration (151.00 mg kg–1) were the highest in the NKM treatment. N and P application led to a surplus of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil, but NPKM treatment effectively reduced the surplus compared with other treatments. Soils under all treatments were deficient in potassium. Correlation analysis showed that SOC, TN, AN, TP, and AP contentration was significantly correlated with rice yield; the correlation coefficients were 0.428, 0.496, 0.518, 0.501, and 0.438, respectively. This study showed that the combined application of N, P, and K with cow manure had important effects on rice yield and soil fertility, but balanced application of N, P, and K with cow manure was required.
Keywords:  long-term fertilization        rice yield        soil fertility        nutrient balance  
Received: 05 September 2022   Accepted: 07 December 2022

This study was financially supported by the ear-marked fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-01-02A), the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (2022NK2009), the Science and Technology Innovation Program of Hunan Province, China (2021RC2081), the Natural Science Foundation of Sichuan Province, China (2022NSFSC1059) and the Development Program of Hunan Province, China (2021NK2029).

About author:  #Correspondence ZHANG Zhen-hua, E-mail: zhzh1468@163. com; ZHANG Hui-min, E-mail: * These authors contributed equally to this study.

Cite this article: 

GAO Peng, ZHANG Tuo, LEI Xing-yu, CUI Xin-wei, LU Yao-xiong, FAN Peng-fei, LONG Shi-ping, HUANG Jing, GAO Ju-sheng, ZHANG Zhen-hua, ZHANG Hui-min. 2023. Improvement of soil fertility and rice yield after long-term application of cow manure combined with inorganic fertilizers. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 22(7): 2221-2232.

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