农业生态环境-肥料及施用合辑Agro-ecosystem & Environment—Fertilizer
Most agricultural soils in sub-Saharan Africa are degraded, compromising the grain yield of rice and farmers return on investment. A 3-year field study was undertaken to explore the effect of the application of compost or inorganic NPK fertilizer applied alone or in combination with biochar on soil quality, grain yield of rice and net income. The five treatments were laid out using a randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments were applied to supply approximately 75 kg N ha–1. The best fertilizer input was compost+biochar which resulted in the greatest improvement in soil physico-chemical properties by reducing bulk density and increasing porosity and moisture retention, organic matter content, percent nitrogen, available phosphorus and cation exchange capacity. Apart from treatment with inorganic fertilizer alone, treated soils showed a decrease in pH. Bacterial and fungal counts and basal respiration decreased in soils in the following order: compost+biochar>compost only>inorganic NPK fertilizer+biochar>inorganic NPK fertilizer>control. The increase in pooled grain yield and net income in response to treatment followed the order: compost+biochar>NPK+biochar>NPK>compost>control. The findings suggest that the use of compost or NPK alone might improve soil quality and increase grain yield and net income, but it is greatly recommended to co-apply these fertilisers with biochar.
Investigating the dynamics and distribution of soil phosphorus (P) fractions can provide a basis for enhancing P utilization by crops. Four treatments from a 29-year long-term experiment in black soil with maize cropping were involved in this study: no fertilizer (CK), inorganic nitrogen and potassium (NK), inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK), and NPK plus manure (NPKM). We analyzed soil P fractions in different soil layers using a modified Hedley sequential method. The long-term NPKM treatment significantly increased total P by 0.6–1.6 times in the different soil layers. The Olsen-P concentration far exceeded the environmental threshold for soil Olsen-P (50.6 mg kg–1) in the NPKM treatment in the 0–60 cm soil profile. Moreover, the concentrations and proportion of labile and partially labile inorganic P (Pi) fractions (i.e., NaHCO3-extracted Pi, NaOH-extracted Pi, and dilute HCl-extracted Pi) to the sum of all P fractions (Pt) in the 0–60 cm soil profile were higher in the NPKM treatment than in the NPK treatment, indicating that manure could promote the transformation of non-labile into more labile forms of P in soil, possibly by manure reducing P fixation by soil particles. Soil organic matter, Mehlich-3 extractable iron (Fe), and organic-bound aluminum were increased by fertilization, and were the main factors influencing the differences in the P fractions in the 0–20 cm soil layer. Soil mineral components, i.e., free Fe oxide and CaCO3, were the main factors influencing the P fractions in the subsoil. The soil P transformation process varied with soil layer and fertilization. Application of manure fertilizer can increase the labile (Olsen) P concentrations of the various soil layers, and thus should reduce the mineral P fertilizer requirement for crop growth and reduce potential environmental damage
Understanding the characteristics and influences of various factors on phosphorus (P) fractions is of significance for promoting the efficiency of soil P. Based on long-term experiments on black soil, fluvo-aquic soil, and loess soil, which belong to Phaeozems, Cambisols, and Anthrosols in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), respectively, five fertilization practices were selected and divided into three groups: no P fertilizer (CK/NK), balanced fertilizer (NPK/NPKS), and manure plus mineral fertilizer (NPKM). Soil inorganic P (Pi) fractions and soil properties were analyzed to investigate the characteristics of the Pi fractions and the relationships between Pi fractions and various soil properties. The results showed that the proportion of Ca10-P in the sum of total Pi fractions was the highest in the three soils, accounting for 33.5% in black soil, 48.8% in fluvo-aquic soil, and 44.8% in loess soil. Long-term fertilization practices resulted in periodic changes in soil Pi accumulation or depletion. For black soil and fluvo-aquic soil, the Pi accumulation was higher in the late period (10–20 years) of fertilization than in the early period (0–10 years) under NPK/NPKS and NPKM, whereas the opposite result was found in loess soil. The Pi accumulation occurred in all Pi fractions in black soil; mainly in Ca8-P, Fe-P, and Ca10-P in fluvo-aquic soil; and in Ca2-P, Ca8-P, and O-P in loess soil. Under CK/NK, the soil Pi was depleted mainly in the early period in each of the three soils. In addition to the labile Pi (Ca2-P) and moderately labile Pi (Ca8-P, Fe-P, Al-P), the Ca10-P in black soil and fluvo-aquic soil and O-P in loess soil could also be used by crops. Redundancy analysis showed that soil properties explained more than 90% of the variation in the Pi fractions in each soil, and the explanatory percentages of soil organic matter (SOM) were 43.6% in black soil, 74.6% in fluvo-aquic, and 38.2% in loess soil. Consequently, decisions regarding the application of P fertilizer should consider the accumulation rate and the variations in Pi fractions driven by soil properties in non-acidic soils.
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Co-sponsored by China Association of Agricultural Science Societies (CAASS)
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