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    农业生态环境-肥料及施用合辑Agro-ecosystem & Environment—Fertilizer

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    Change of soil productivity in three different soils after long-term field fertilization treatments
    LIU Kai-lou, HAN Tian-fu, HUANG Jing, ZHANG Shui-qing, GAO Hong-jun, ZHANG Lu, Asad SHAH, HUANG Shao-min, ZHU Ping, GAO Su-duan, MA Chang-bao, XUE Yan-dong, ZHANG Hui-min
    2020, 19 (3): 848-858.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62742-5
    Abstract82)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Soil productivity (SP) without external fertilization influence is an important indicator for the capacity of a soil to support crop yield. However, there have been difficulties in estimating values of SPs for soils after various long-term field treatments because the treatment without external fertilization is used but is depleted in soil nutrients, leading to erroneous estimation. The objectives of this study were to estimate the change of SP across different cropping seasons using pot experiments, and to evaluate the steady SP value (which is defined by the basal contribution of soil itself to crop yield) after various longterm fertilization treatments in soils at different geographical locations. The pot experiments were conducted in Jinxian of Jiangxi Province with paddy soil, Zhengzhou of Henan Province with fluvo-aquic soil, and Gongzhuling of Jilin Province with black soils, China. Soils were collected after long-term field fertilization treatments of no fertilizer (control; CK-F), chemical fertilizer (NPK-F), and combined chemical fertilizer with manure (NPKM-F). The soils received either no fertilizer (F0) or chemical fertilizer (F1) for 3–6 cropping seasons in pots, which include CK-P (control; no fertilizer from long-term field experiments for pot experiments), NPK-P (chemical fertilizer from long-term field experiments for pot experiments), and NPKM-P (combined chemical and organic fertilizers from long-term field experiments for pot experiments). The yield data were used to calculate SP values. The initial SP values were high, but decreased rapidly until a relatively steady SP was achieved at or after about three cropping seasons for paddy and fluvo-aquic soils. The steady SP values in the third cropping season from CK-P, NPK-P, and NPKM-P treatments were 37.7, 44.1, and 50.0% in the paddy soil, 34.2, 38.1, and 50.0% in the fluvo-aquic soil, with the highest value observed in the NPKM-P treatment for all soils. However, further research is required in the black soils to incorporate more than three cropping seasons. The partial least squares path mode (PLS-PM) showed that total N (nitrogen) and C/N ratio (the ratio of soil organic carbon and total N) had positive effects on the steady SP for all three soils. These findings confirm the significance of the incorporation of manure for attaining high soil productivity. Regulation of the soil C/N ratio was the other main factor for steady SP through fertilization management.
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    Management of rice straw with relay cropping of Chinese milk vetch improved double-rice cropping system production in southern China
    ZHOU Xing, LIAO Yu-lin, LU Yan-hong, Robert M. REES, CAO Wei-dong, NIE Jun, LI Mei
    2020, 19 (8): 2103-2115.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63206-3
    Abstract77)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Improved utilization of rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw and Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L., vetch) has positive effects on rice production.  So far, few studies have investigated the productivity of vetch under different residue management practices in double-rice cropping system.  The effects of rice straw on the growth and nutrient accumulation of vetch across seven years (2011–2017) and the subsequent effects of rice straw and vetch on two succeeding rice crops in a vetch–rice–rice cropping system, with the vetch established by relay cropping, were examined.  The seven-year double-rice experiment consisted of the following treatments: (1) 100% chemical fertilizer (F-F100); (2) only vetch without chemical fertilizer (M-Con); (3) 80% chemical fertilizer plus vetch plus a low-cutting height (low-retained stubble) with the removal of straw (M-F80); (4) 80% chemical fertilizer plus vetch plus a low-cutting height with the retention of straw (M-F80-LR); (5) 80% chemical fertilizer plus vetch plus a high-cutting height (high-retained stubble) with the retention of straw (M-F80-HR); and (6) no fertilizer (F-Con).   The yields of the two rice crops after vetch were not affected by either the cutting height of stubble with retention of straw or by the management of straw (retention vs. removal) with low-cutting height of stubble.  The yields of the two rice crops after vetch were significantly higher for M-F80-HR than for M-F80-LR, but the relative contributions of the high-cutting height and straw retention to the higher rice yield could not be determined in this study.  The yield stability of the double-rice grain in M-F80-HR was also increased, as determined by a sustainable yield index.  Significant increases in vetch biomass and nutrient uptake were observed in the fertilized treatments during the rice season compared with the unfertilized treatments.  In M-F80-HR plots, improvements in the growing environment of the vetch by conserving soil water content were associated with the highest vetch biomass, nutrient uptake, and yield stability of vetch biomass.  These increased nutrient inputs partially replaced the demand for chemical fertilizer and stimulated the rice yields.  It can be concluded that retaining higher-cutting stubble residues with straw retention could be the best straw management practice for increasing the vetch biomass and nutrient use efficiency, thereby allowing utilization of high-cutting height with retention of straw and vetch to improve the stability of rice productivity in a double-rice cropping system.
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    Interactions between phosphorus availability and microbes in a wheat–maize double cropping system: a reduced fertilization scheme
    YU Xiao-jing, CHEN Qi, SHI Wen-cong, GAO Zheng, SUN Xiao, DONG Jing-jing, LI Juan, WANG Heng-tao, GAO Jian-guo, LIU Zhi-guang, ZHANG Min
    2022, 21 (3): 840-854.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63599-7
    Abstract118)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Mechanisms controlling phosphorus (P) availability and the roles of microorganisms in the efficient utilization of soil P in the wheat–maize double cropping system are poorly understood.  In the present study, we conducted a pot experiment for four consecutive wheat–maize seasons (2016–2018) using calcareous soils with high (30.36 mg kg–1) and low (9.78 mg kg–1) initial Olsen-P content to evaluate the effects of conventional P fertilizer application to both wheat and maize (Pwm) along with a reduced P fertilizer application only to wheat (Pw).  The microbial community structure along with soil P availability parameters and crop yield were determined.  The results showed that the Pw treatment reduces the annual P input by 33.3% without affecting the total yield for at least two consecutive years as compared with the Pwm treatment in the high Olsen-P soil.  Soil water-soluble P concentrations in the Pw treatment were similar to those in the Pwm treatment at the 12-leaf collar stage when maize requires the most P.  Furthermore, the soil P content significantly affected soil microbial communities, especially fungal communities.  Meanwhile, the relative abundances of Proteobacteria and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of Pw were significantly higher (by 11.4 and 13.3%) than those of Pwm in soil with high Olsen-P.  The microfloral contribution to yield was greater than that of soil P content in soil with high Olsen-P.  Relative abundances of Bacillus and Rhizobium were enriched in the Pw treatment compared with the Pwm treatment.  Bacillus showed a significant positive correlation with acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, and Rhizobium displayed significant positive correlations with ACP and ALP in soil with high Olsen-P, which may enhance P availability.  Our findings suggested that the application of P fertilization only to wheat is practical in high P soils to ensure optimal production in the wheat and maize double cropping system and that the soil P availability and microbial community may collaborate to maintain optimal yield in a wheat–maize double cropping system.

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    Synergistic effect of Si and K in improving the growth, ion distribution and partitioning of Lolium perenne L. under saline-alkali stress
    FAN Yuan, SHEN Wu-yan, Pino VANESSA, CHENG Fang-qin
    2021, 20 (6): 1660-1673.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63277-4
    Abstract73)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    The application of Si or K has proven to be beneficial for the growth of plants under saline-alkali stress.  However, the synergistic effect of Si and K in improving the growth, ion distribution, and partitioning in Lolium perenne L. under saline-alkali stress remains unclear.  In this study, the growth characteristics and ion-selective absorption of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) exposed to different levels of saline-alkali stress were evaluated.  The growth parameters of ryegrass were significantly improved when Si was applied by itself or coupled with K under low saline-alkali stress.  Under a high saline-alkali level, only simultaneous application of Si and K could significantly improve the growth of ryegrass.  When Si and K were applied together, the K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios in root, stem, and leaf of ryegrass were maximally improved as compared to the individual treatments and control.  The K+ and Ca2+ concentrations in the vacuole, cell wall, and organelle of leaf were increased dramatically.  This improvement was due to the ability of applied ions to compete with Na+, allowing the plant to maintain osmotic potential and leaf water content.  The concentration of Na+ was significantly reduced when Si and K were applied and mainly concentrated in the soluble fraction and cell wall.  The Si concentration in ryegrass increased markedly by the combined application of Si and K, and most of it was accumulated in the cell wall and soluble fraction, which could help in chlorophyll synthesis, reduce membrane injury, and increase water absorption under saline-alkali stress.  This study emphasized the advantage of Si and/or K on the growth of plants under different saline-alkaline levels and provided a guide for the production of Si-K fertilizer and its application in saline-alkali soil. 
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    Increase in yield and nitrogen use efficiency of double rice with long-term application of controlled-release urea
    TIAN Chang, SUN Ming-xue, ZHOU Xuan, LI Juan, XIE Gui-xian, YANG Xiang-dong, PENG Jian-wei
    2022, 21 (7): 2106-2118.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(21)63734-6
    Abstract150)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Controlled-release urea (CRU) has better characteristics than conventional urea for synchronizing nitrogen (N) release with plant uptake.  Understanding the effects of CRU on crop yield and N use efficiency (NUE) has long been the key to evaluate the performance of CRU.  A long-term experiment over five consecutive years was conducted in Changsha, Hunan Province, China, to investigate the effects of polyethylene-coated urea with a 90-d release period on the yield and NUE of double rice (early and late crops are grown in the same year), the amount of residual soil mineral N and the soil–plant N balance, as well as on the economic benefits.  Four N fertilizer treatments including CK (no N fertilizer), U (conventional urea), CRU1 (polyethylene-coated urea with equal N application rate to U) and CRU2 (20% reduction in N application rate of CRU1) were established.  The results indicated that CRU1 application increased the yield and NUE of double rice by 11.0 and 13.5%, respectively, compared with U.  Higher yield and NUE of late rice were found than in early rice in CRU treatments.  Compared with conventional U, the yield and NUE of early rice in the CRU1 treatment were increased by 6.0 and 10.2%, respectively, and those of late rice were increased by 15.4 and 13.8%, respectively.  There was no significant difference between CRU1 and CRU2 in double rice yield.  Furthermore, CRU treatments (including CRU1 and CRU2) had higher apparent residual Nmin rate (ARNR) and apparent N recovery rate (ANRR), but lower apparent N loss (NS) than the conventional U treatment.  Concentrations of NH4+-N and NO3-N were greater in the surface soil (0–20 cm) and lower in the deeper soil layer (40–60 cm) with CRU treatments than in the U treatment after harvest.  Moreover, CRU application produced a greater economic benefit than conventional U application.  In general, CRU outperformed U fertilizer in terms of rice yield, NUE, soil–plant N balance, economic benefit, and CRU2 provided greater comprehensive benefits than CRU1.  It is suggested that CRU application is beneficial for solving N management challenges in the production of rice.

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    Molecular characteristics and structure–activity relationships of food-derived bioactive peptides
    YANG Fu-jia, CHEN Xu, HUANG Mu-chen, YANG Qian, CAI Xi-xi, CHEN Xuan, DU Ming, HUANG Jian-lian, WANG Shao-yun
    2021, 20 (9): 2313-2332.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63463-3
    Abstract86)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Peptides are functional active fragments of proteins which can provide nutrients needed for human growth and development, and they also have unique physiological activity characteristics relative to proteins.  Bioactive peptides contain a great deal of development potential.  More specifically, food-derived bioactive peptides have the advantages of a wide variety of sources, unique structures, high efficiency and safety, so they have broad development prospects.  This review provides an overview of the current advances regarding the preparation, functional characteristics, and structure–activity relationships of food-derived bioactive peptides.  Moreover, the prospects for the future development and application of food-derived bioactive peptides are discussed.  This review may provide a better understanding of food-derived bioactive peptides, and some constructive inspirations for further research and applications in the food industry.
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    Fate of low-molecular-weight organic phosphorus compounds in the P-rich and P-poor paddy soils
    LI Bao-zhen, Anna GUNINA, Mostafa ZHRAN, Davey L. JONES, Paul W. HILL, HU Ya-jun, GE Ti-da, WU Jin-shui
    2021, 20 (9): 2526-2534.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63310-X
    Abstract62)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Continuous application of organic fertilizers can cause accumulation of organic phosphorus (P) in soil, especially in the low-molecular-weight organic phosphorus (LMWOP) forms.  This organic P pool represents a potentially important source of P for both plants and microorganisms.  To understand the effect of long-term fertilization (30 years) (P-rich soil) vs. fallowing (P-poor soil) on the bioavailability and fate of LMWOP in subtropical paddy soils, we determined the sorption and mineralization of 14C-labeled adenosine, adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in each soil.  The contents of carbon, nitrogen, and P in the P-rich soil were more than two times greater than those in the P-poor soil.  The mineralization rates of the LMWOP compounds were faster in the P-rich soil compared to the P-poor soil, and followed the order AMP>ADP>ATP.  Using sterilized soil, all forms of adenosine-P were strongly sorbed  to the solid phase and reached saturation in a short time, with the adsorbance increasing with the number of phosphate groups.  We concluded that the mineralization of LMWOP compounds was repressed slightly by sorption to the solid phase, but only in the short term.  Thus, LMWOP compounds serve as readily available sources of C for microorganisms, making P available for themselves as well as for the plants.  However, P accumulation and the progressive saturation of the P sorption sites in highly fertile soils may increase the potential risk of P runoff. 
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    Regional distribution of wheat yield and chemical fertilizer requirements in China
    XU Xin-peng, HE Ping, CHUAN Li-min, LIU Xiao-yan, LIU Ying-xia, ZHANG Jia-jia, HUANG Xiao-meng, QIU Shao-jun, ZHAO Shi-cheng, ZHOU Wei
    2021, 20 (10): 2772-2780.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63338-X
    Abstract93)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Quantification of currently attainable yield and fertilizer requirements can provide detailed information for assessing the food supply capacity and offer data support for agricultural decision-making.  Datasets from a total of 5 408 field experiments were collected from 2000 to 2015 across the major wheat production regions in China to analyze the spatial distribution of wheat yield, the soil nutrient supply capacity (represented by relative yield, defined as the ratio of the yield under the omission of one of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) to the yield under the full NPK fertilizer application), and N, P and K fertilizer requirements by combining the kriging interpolation method with the Nutrient Expert Decision Support System for Wheat.  The results indicated that the average attainable yield was 6.4 t ha−1, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 24.9% across all sites.  The yields in North-central China (NCC) and the northern part of the Middle and Lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR) were generally higher than 7 t ha−1, whereas the yields in Southwest China (SWC), Northeast China (NEC), and the eastern part of Northwest China (NWC) were usually less than 6 t ha−1.  The precentage of area having a relative yield above 0.70, 0.85, and 0.85 for N, P, and K fertilizers accounted for 52.3, 74.7, and 95.9%, respectively.  Variation existed in N, P, and K fertilizer requirements, with a CV of 24.8, 23.9, and 29.9%, respectively, across all sites.  More fertilizer was needed in NCC and the northern part of the MLYR than in other regions.  The average fertilizer requirement was 162, 72, and 57 kg ha−1 for N, P2O5, and K2O fertilizers, respectively, across all sites.  The incorporation of the spatial variation of attainable yield and fertilizer requirements into wheat production practices would benefit sustainable wheat production and environmental safety.
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    Yield performance and optimal nitrogen and phosphorus application rates in wheat and faba bean intercropping
    XIAO Jing-xiu, ZHU Ying-an, BAI Wen-lian, LIU Zhen-yang, TANG Li, ZHENG Yi
    2021, 20 (11): 3012-3025.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63489-X
    Abstract107)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Yield performance in cereal and legume intercropping is related to nutrient management, however, the yield response of companion crops to nitrogen (N) input is inconclusive and only limited efforts have focused on rationed phosphorous (P) fertilization.  In this study, two multi-year field experiments were implemented from 2014–2019 under identical conditions.  Two factors in a randomized complete block design were adopted in both experiments.  In field experiment 1, the two factors included three planting patterns (mono-cropped wheat (MW), mono-cropped faba bean (MF), and wheat and faba bean intercropping (W//F)) and four N application rates (N0, 0 kg N ha–1; N1, 90 and 45 kg N ha–1 for wheat and faba beans, respectively; N2, 180 and 90 kg N ha–1 for wheat and faba beans, respectively; and N3, 270 and 135 kg N ha–1 for wheat and faba beans, respectively).  In field experiment 2, the two factors included three P application rates (P0, 0 kg P2O5 ha–1; P1, 45 kg P2O5 ha–1; and P2, 90 kg P2O5 ha–1) and the same three planting patterns (MW, MF, and W//F).  The yield performances of inter- and mono-cropped wheat and faba beans under different N and P application rates were analyzed and the optimal N and P rates for intercropped wheat (IW) and MW were estimated.  The results revealed that intercropping favored wheat yield and was adverse to faba bean yield.  Wheat yield increased by 18–26%, but faba bean yield decreased by 5–21% in W//F compared to MW and MF, respectively.  The stimulated IW yield drove the yield advantage in W//F with an average land equivalent ratio (LER) of 1.12.  N and P fertilization benefited IW yield, but reduced intercropped faba bean (IF) yield.  Nevertheless, the partial LER of wheat (pLERwheat) decreased with increasing N application rates, and the partial LER of faba bean (pLERfaba bean) decreased with increasing P application rates.  Thus, LER decreased as N input increased and tended to decline as P rates increased.  IW maintained a similar yield as MW, even under reduced 40–50% N fertilizer and 30–40% P fertilizer conditions.  The estimated optimum N application rates for IW and MW were 150 and 168 kg ha–1, respectively, and 63 and 62 kg ha–1 for P2O5, respectively.  In conclusion, W//F exhibited yield advantages due to stimulated IW yield, but the intercropping yield benefit decreased as N and P inputs increased.  Thus, it was concluded that modulated N and P rates could maximize the economic and ecological functions of intercropping.  Based on the results, rates of 150 kg N ha–1 and 60 kg P2O5 ha–1 are recommended for IW production in southwestern China and places with similar conditions.
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    Divergent responses of tiller and grain yield to fertilization and fallow precipitation: Insights from a 28-year long-term experiment in a semiarid winter wheat system
    WANG Rui, WANG Ying, HU Ya-xian, DANG Ting-hui, GUO Sheng-li
    2021, 20 (11): 3003-3011.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63296-8
    Abstract87)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Tillering is an important phenological stage, which is strongly related to the yield in spike components and final grain yield during winter wheat growth.  Precipitation during the fallow season (fallow precipitation) influences tillering in winter wheat on the semi-arid Chinese Loess Plateau.  However, little work has been done regarding tiller number changes under various types of fertilization and amounts of fallow precipitation on a long-term scale.  Effects of fallow precipitation and fertilization on tiller were investigated in a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) system in a 28-year field study (1990 to 2017) in a semiarid agro-ecosystem.  Tiller number, spike number and grain yield were measured in four fertilization conditions: control without fertilizer (CK); mineral nitrogen fertilizer alone (N); mineral phosphorus fertilizer alone (P); mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer together (NP).  Based on the long-term annual fallow precipitation, dry years (<mean annual fallow precipitation) and wet years (>mean annual fallow precipitation) were distinguished.  Phosphorus fertilization alone significantly increased the mean annual tiller number (23%), and the increase in tiller number was higher in wet years (29%) than in the dry years (17%).  However, nitrogen fertilization alone had little effect on mean tiller number, while nitrogen and phosphorus together significantly increased mean annual tiller number (30%), mean tiller number in wet years (45%) and mean tiller number in dry years (17%).  Tiller number was significantly and positively correlated with fallow precipitation in dry years for all fertilizer treatments, whereas it was weakly and either positively or negatively correlated with fallow precipitation in wet years depending on the treatment.  This study found positive correlations between tiller number and fallow precipitation in the CK and NP treatments, and it found negative correlations between tiller number and fallow precipitation in the treatments with nitrogen fertilization alone or phosphorous fertilization alone in wet years.  Understanding the impacts of fallow precipitation and fertilization on tiller development shed light on ways to improve crop production in rain-fed agricultural regions.
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    Distribution and accumulation of zinc and nitrogen in wheat grain pearling fractions in response to foliar zinc and soil nitrogen applications
    ZHANG Pan-pan, CHEN Yu-lu, WANG Chen-yang, MA Geng, LÜ Jun-jie, LIU Jing-bao, GUO Tian-cai
    2021, 20 (12): 3277-3288.   DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63491-8
    Abstract99)      PDF in ScienceDirect      
    Increasing zinc (Zn) concentration in wheat grain is important to minimize human dietary Zn deficiency.  This study aimed to investigate the effect of foliar Zn and soil nitrogen (N) applications on the accumulation and distribution of N and Zn in grain pearling fractions, N remobilization, and the relationships between nutrient concentration in the vegetative tissues and grain or its fractions in two cropping years in the North China Plain.  The results showed a progressive decrease in N and Zn concentrations from the outer to the inner parts of grain, with most of the accumulation in the core endosperm.  Foliar Zn application significantly increased N concentration in the pericarp, and soil N application increased N concentration in each grain fraction.  Both treatments significantly increased core endosperm Zn concentration.  Foliar Zn had no effect on grain N and Zn distribution.  Soil N application made N concentrated in the aleurone, promoted Zn translocation to the core endosperm and also increased N remobilization and its efficiency from the shoot to the grain, but no improved contribution to grain was found.  N concentration in grain and its fractions were positively correlated with N in vegetative organs at anthesis and maturity, while positive correlations were obtained between N concentration in the pericarp and progressive central area of the endosperm and Zn concentration in the core endosperm.  Thus, foliar Zn and soil N applications effectively increased yield and N and Zn concentrations in the wheat grain, particularly in the endosperm, and could be promising strategies to address Zn deficiency.
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    Co-application of compost or inorganic NPK fertilizer with biochar influenced soil quality, grain yield and net income of rice
    Christian Adler PHARES, Selorm AKABA
    2022, 21 (12): 3600-3610.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.041
    Abstract111)      PDF in ScienceDirect      

    Most agricultural soils in sub-Saharan Africa are degraded, compromising the grain yield of rice and farmers return on investment.  A 3-year field study was undertaken to explore the effect of the application of compost or inorganic NPK fertilizer applied alone or in combination with biochar on soil quality, grain yield of rice and net income.  The five treatments were laid out using a randomized complete block design with four replications.  The treatments were applied to supply approximately 75 kg N ha–1.  The best fertilizer input was compost+biochar which resulted in the greatest improvement in soil physico-chemical properties by reducing bulk density and increasing porosity and moisture retention, organic matter content, percent nitrogen, available phosphorus and cation exchange capacity.  Apart from treatment with inorganic fertilizer alone, treated soils showed a decrease in pH. Bacterial and fungal counts and basal respiration decreased in soils in the following order: compost+biochar>compost only>inorganic NPK fertilizer+biochar>inorganic NPK fertilizer>control.  The increase in pooled grain yield and net income in response to treatment followed the order: compost+biochar>NPK+biochar>NPK>compost>control.  The findings suggest that the use of compost or NPK alone might improve soil quality and increase grain yield and net income, but it is greatly recommended to co-apply these fertilisers with biochar. 

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    Effect of long-term fertilization on phosphorus fractions in different soil layers and their quantitative relationships with soil properties
    WANG Qiong, QIN Zhen-han, ZHANG Wei-wei, CHEN Yan-hua, ZHU Ping, PENG Chang, WANG Le, ZHANG Shu-xiang, Gilles COLINET
    2022, 21 (9): 2720-2733.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.07.018
    Abstract116)      PDF in ScienceDirect      

    Investigating the dynamics and distribution of soil phosphorus (P) fractions can provide a basis for enhancing P utilization by crops.  Four treatments from a 29-year long-term experiment in black soil with maize cropping were involved in this study: no fertilizer (CK), inorganic nitrogen and potassium (NK), inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK), and NPK plus manure (NPKM).  We analyzed soil P fractions in different soil layers using a modified Hedley sequential method.  The long-term NPKM treatment significantly increased total P by 0.6–1.6 times in the different soil layers.  The Olsen-P concentration far exceeded the environmental threshold for soil Olsen-P (50.6 mg kg–1) in the NPKM treatment in the 0–60 cm soil profile.  Moreover, the concentrations and proportion of labile and partially labile inorganic P (Pi) fractions (i.e., NaHCO3-extracted Pi, NaOH-extracted Pi, and dilute HCl-extracted Pi) to the sum of all P fractions (Pt) in the 0–60 cm soil profile were higher in the NPKM treatment than in the NPK treatment, indicating that manure could promote the transformation of non-labile into more labile forms of P in soil, possibly by manure reducing P fixation by soil particles.  Soil organic matter, Mehlich-3 extractable iron (Fe), and organic-bound aluminum were increased by fertilization, and were the main factors influencing the differences in the P fractions in the 0–20 cm soil layer.  Soil mineral components, i.e., free Fe oxide and CaCO3, were the main factors influencing the P fractions in the subsoil.  The soil P transformation process varied with soil layer and fertilization.  Application of manure fertilizer can increase the labile (Olsen) P concentrations of the various soil layers, and thus should reduce the mineral P fertilizer requirement for crop growth and reduce potential environmental damage

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    Characteristics of inorganic phosphorus fractions and their correlations with soil properties in three non-acidic soils
    ZHANG Nai-yu, WANG Qiong, ZHAN Xiao-ying, WU Qi-hua, HUANG Shao-min, ZHU Ping, YANG Xue-yun, ZHANG Shu-xiang
    2022, 21 (12): 3626-3636.   DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.08.012
    Abstract74)      PDF in ScienceDirect      

    Understanding the characteristics and influences of various factors on phosphorus (P) fractions is of significance for promoting the efficiency of soil P.  Based on long-term experiments on black soil, fluvo-aquic soil, and loess soil, which belong to Phaeozems, Cambisols, and Anthrosols in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), respectively, five fertilization practices were selected and divided into three groups: no P fertilizer (CK/NK), balanced fertilizer (NPK/NPKS), and manure plus mineral fertilizer (NPKM).  Soil inorganic P (Pi) fractions and soil properties were analyzed to investigate the characteristics of the Pi fractions and the relationships between Pi fractions and various soil properties.  The results showed that the proportion of Ca10-P in the sum of total Pi fractions was the highest in the three soils, accounting for 33.5% in black soil, 48.8% in fluvo-aquic soil, and 44.8% in loess soil.  Long-term fertilization practices resulted in periodic changes in soil Pi accumulation or depletion.  For black soil and fluvo-aquic soil, the Pi accumulation was higher in the late period (10–20 years) of fertilization than in the early period (0–10 years) under NPK/NPKS and NPKM, whereas the opposite result was found in loess soil.  The Pi accumulation occurred in all Pi fractions in black soil; mainly in Ca8-P, Fe-P, and Ca10-P in fluvo-aquic soil; and in Ca2-P, Ca8-P, and O-P in loess soil.  Under CK/NK, the soil Pi was depleted mainly in the early period in each of the three soils.  In addition to the labile Pi (Ca2-P) and moderately labile Pi (Ca8-P, Fe-P, Al-P), the Ca10-P in black soil and fluvo-aquic soil and O-P in loess soil could also be used by crops.  Redundancy analysis showed that soil properties explained more than 90% of the variation in the Pi fractions in each soil, and the explanatory percentages of soil organic matter (SOM) were 43.6% in black soil, 74.6% in fluvo-aquic, and 38.2% in loess soil.  Consequently, decisions regarding the application of P fertilizer should consider the accumulation rate and the variations in Pi fractions driven by soil properties in non-acidic soils.

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