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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2021, Vol. 20 Issue (9): 2343-2359    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63352-4
Special Issue: 麦类遗传育种合辑Triticeae Crops Genetics · Breeding · Germplasm Resources 麦类耕作栽培合辑Triticeae Crops Physiology · Biochemistry · Cultivation · Tillage
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Physiological response of flag leaf and yield formation of winter wheat under different spring restrictive irrigation regimes in the Haihe Plain, China
LIU Xue-jing1, 2, 3*, YIN Bao-zhong2, 3*, HU Zhao-hui2, 4*, BAO Xiao-yuan1, 2, 3, WANG Yan-dong1, 2, 3, ZHEN Wen-chao1, 2, 3  
1 College of Agronomy, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001, P.R.China
2 State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation, Baoding 071001, P.R.China
3 Key Laboratory of Crop Growth Regulation of Hebei Province, Baoding 071001, P.R.China
4 College of Life Science, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001, P.R.China
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为了阐明海河平原冬小麦春季限制灌溉的最佳时期及其对旗叶衰老和产量形成的影响,2016年至2019年,研究组在河北农业大学辛集试验站进行了不同灌溉模式的田间试验,试验包括两种灌溉模式:对照(CK,分别在3叶展开期和开花期浇水)和单一限制灌溉(SRI),后者又包括3叶展开期(3LI)、4叶展开期(4LI)、5叶展开期(5LI)和6叶展开期(6LI)灌溉。结果表明:(1)与对照相比,4LI处理组在一定程度上衰老进程(用绿叶面积表示)提前,而5LI和6LI处理组之间的差异不显著,衰老发生明显晚于3LI处理组;(2)与其他SRI处理组相比,4LI处理组的GLA值和光合速率分别提高了14.82%和20.1%。旗叶显微结构分析还表明,干旱胁迫下3LI和6LI处理组的叶肉细胞和叶绿体排列不规则,但这种胁迫对4LI和5LI处理组的微观结构的负面影响很小;(3)春季延迟灌溉在籽粒灌浆前期可显著增加超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性,随后酶的活性逐渐降低。在4个SRI处理组中,4LI处理组的总酶活性最高,4LI和5LI处理组的旗叶MDA含量平均比3LI和6LI处理组的MDA含量低14.5%;(4) 可溶性糖(SS)和脯氨酸(Pro)含量以4LI处理组最高,但低于CK组。4LI和5LI处理组的ABA激素含量低于3LI和6LI处理组,说明4LI和5LI处理组遭受的干旱胁迫程度较小;(5)在两个生长季,4LI处理组的单位面积穗数较多(比5LI和6LI处理组高13.4%),且千粒重最高(比其他三种SRI处理组高6.0%)。因此,4LI处理组的冬小麦产量在四个SRI处理组中最高。综合分析,建议4LI处理组(即在春季4叶期进行一次灌水)能有效延缓旗叶衰老进程,并使冬小麦保持相对较高的产量。

In order to identify the optimum period of spring water-restrictive irrigation for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Haihe Plain, China and elucidate its effects on flag leaf senescence and yield formation, field experiments were conducted at the Xinji Experimental Station of Hebei Agricultural University from 2016 to 2019 by using different irrigation regimes in spring, including the conventional regime involving two irrigation periods (control (CK), the 3-leaf unfolding stage and the anthesis stage) and a series of single, restrictive irrigation regimes (SRI) comprising irrigation at the 3-leaf unfolding stage (3LI), 4LI, 5LI, and 6LI.  There are five major findings: (1) The senescence (determined by the green leaf area, GLA) in the 4LI treatment occurred moderately earlier than that in CK, showed no significant difference with that in 5LI and 6LI, and occurred significantly later than that in 3LI.  (2) Compared with other SRI treatments, the GLA value and photosynthetic rate in 4LI were 14.82 and 20.1% higher, respectively.  Microstructural analysis of flag leaf also revealed that the mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were irregularly arranged under drought stress in 3LI and 6LI; however, drought stress had minimal negative effects on the microstructure in 4LI and 5LI.  (3) Postponed irrigation in spring could significantly increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the early stage of grain filling; however, these activities would subsequently decrease.  Among the four SRI treatments, the overall enzyme activities were the highest in 4LI, and the combined malondialdehyde (MDA) content in flag leaves in 4LI and 5LI was 14.5% lower on average than that in 3LI and 6LI.  (4) The soluble sugar (SS) and proline (Pro) contents in 4LI were the highest among the four SRI treatments; however, they were lower than those in CK.  The abscisic acid (ABA) hormone content in 4LI and 5LI was lower than that in 3LI and 6LI, respectively, suggesting a smaller drought stress effect in 4LI and 5LI.  (5) In two growing seasons, there was a larger number of spikes per unit area in 4LI (i.e., 13.4% higher than that in 5LI and 6LI) and the 1 000-grain weight in 4LI was the highest among the four SRI treatments (i.e., 6.0% higher than that in the other three SRI treatments).  Therefore, a single restrictive irrigation regime at the 4-leaf unfolding stage is recommended to be effective in slowing down the senescence process of flag leaves and achieving high yield.
Keywords:  winter wheat        restrictive irrigation        flag leaf        physiological response        yield formation  
Received: 13 February 2020   Accepted:
Fund: This research was jointly funded by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFD0300906) and the National Key Technologies R&D Program of China during the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2012BAD04B06).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence ZHEN Wen-chao, Tel: +86-312-7528996, Fax: +86-312-7528507, E-mail:    
About author:  LIU Xue-jing, E-mail:; * These authors contributed equally to this study.

Cite this article: 

LIU Xue-jing, YIN Bao-zhong, HU Zhao-hui, BAO Xiao-yuan, WANG Yan-dong, ZHEN Wen-chao. 2021. Physiological response of flag leaf and yield formation of winter wheat under different spring restrictive irrigation regimes in the Haihe Plain, China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(9): 2343-2359.

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