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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2023, Vol. 22 Issue (6): 1883-1895    DOI: 10.1016/j.jia.2022.12.008
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Significant reduction of ammonia emissions while increasing crop yields using the 4R nutrient stewardship in an intensive cropping system
ZHANG Chong1, WANG Dan-dan1, ZHAO Yong-jian1, XIAO Yu-lin1, CHEN Huan-xuan1, LIU He-pu2, FENG Li-yuan2, YU Chang-hao2, JU Xiao-tang1#

1 College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, P.R.China

2 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, P.R.China

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减少氨排放是提高大气环境质量的重要途径之一,农田是全球重要氨排放来源合理的农田管理是减少氨排放并获得较高目标产量的基础本研究基于不同施肥措施的冬小麦-夏玉米轮作长期定位试验,定量氨排放、作物产量和土壤肥力变化,研究全面实施4R养分管理能否显著降低土壤氨排放至较低水平,并研究4R养分管理与有机肥投入的交互作用。结果表明,与传统的高施氮量化肥处理相比4R养分管理显着降低排放量至6 kg N ha-1 yr-1排放因子1.72%),同时维持较高的籽粒产量(12.37 Mg ha-1 yr-1)和土壤肥力(土壤有机碳7.58 g kg-1)将4R养分管理与有机肥结合其NH3排放量(7 kg N ha-1 yr-1)和排放因子(1.74%)与4R养分管理相当,同时粮食产量和土壤有机碳分别增加到14.79 Mg ha-1 yr-1 10.09 g kg-1。与传统的高施氮量化肥处理相比,部分有机肥替代不仅显著减少NH3排放,而且还提高作物产量和土壤肥力,而秸秆还田对NH3排放无显著影响本研究结果强调了通过将4R养分管理与有机肥投入相结合实现碳氮耦合,能够同时实现较高的作物产量和低的环境代价


Ammonia (NH3) emissions should be mitigated to improve environmental quality.  Croplands are one of the largest NH3 sources, they must be managed properly to reduce their emissions while achieving the target yields.  Herein, we report the NH3 emissions, crop yield and changes in soil fertility in a long-term trial with various fertilization regimes, to explore whether NH3 emissions can be significantly reduced using the 4R nutrient stewardship (4Rs), and its interaction with the organic amendments (i.e., manure and straw) in a wheat–maize rotation.  Implementing the 4Rs significantly reduced NH3 emissions to 6 kg N ha–1 yr–1 and the emission factor to 1.72%, without compromising grain yield (12.37 Mg ha–1 yr–1) and soil fertility (soil organic carbon of 7.58 g kg–1) compared to the conventional chemical N management.  When using the 4R plus manure, NH3 emissions (7 kg N ha–1 yr–1) and the emission factor (1.74%) were as low as 4Rs, and grain yield and soil organic carbon increased to 14.79 Mg ha–1 yr–1 and 10.09 g kg–1, respectively.  Partial manure substitution not only significantly reduced NH3 emissions but also increased crop yields and improved soil fertility, compared to conventional chemical N management.  Straw return exerted a minor effect on NH3 emissions.  These results highlight that 4R plus manure, which couples nitrogen and carbon management can help achieve both high yields and low environmental costs.

Keywords:  ammonia emission        crop yield        4R nutrient stewardship        partial manure substitution        winter wheat-summer maize cropping system  
Received: 12 August 2022   Online: 27 December 2022   Accepted: 14 November 2022

This work was supported by the Hainan Key Research and Development Project, China (ZDYF2021XDNY184), the Hainan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (422RC597), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41830751), the Hainan Major Science and Technology Program, China (ZDKJ2021008), and the Hainan University Startup Fund, China (KYQD(ZR)-20098).

About author:  ZHANG Chong, E-mail:; #Correspondence JU Xiao-tang, Mobile: +86-13426072652, E-mail:

Cite this article: 

ZHANG Chong, WANG Dan-dan, ZHAO Yong-jian, XIAO Yu-lin, CHEN Huan-xuan, LIU He-pu, FENG Li-yuan, YU Chang-hao, JU Xiao-tang. 2023. Significant reduction of ammonia emissions while increasing crop yields using the 4R nutrient stewardship in an intensive cropping system. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 22(6): 1883-1895.

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