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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2020, Vol. 19 Issue (7): 1802-1812    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63212-9
Special Issue: 园艺-栽培生理/资源品质合辑Horticulture — Physiology · Biochemistry · Cultivation
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The effects of rootstocks on performances of three late-ripening navel orange varieties
ZHU Shi-ping1, 2, HUANG Tao-jiang3, YU Xin1, 2, HONG Qi-bin1, 2, XIANG Jin-song3, ZENG An-zhong3, GONG Gui-zhi1, 2, ZHAO Xiao-chun1, 2
1 Citrus Research Institute, Southwest University/Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing 400712, P.R.China
2 National Citrus Engineering Research Center, Chongqing 400712, P.R.China
3 Fengjie Navel Orange Research Institute, Chongqing 404699, P.R.China
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Selection of rootstock is very important for citrus production.  Besides its major role on resistance, the rootstock also can affect fruit production and quality.  Currently, the main concerns on selection of rootstock for citrus production are compatibility and resistance, due to less information on the impacts of rootstock to the performance of scion varieties.  This study aims to provide information on performances of navel orange varieties on different rootstocks.  Three late-ripening navel orange varieties (Citrus sinensis var. Powell, Chislett and Banfield) grafted on seven rootstocks (Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi×P. trifoliata), Carrizo citrange (C. sinensis×P. trifoliata), X639 (C. reticulata×P. trifoliata), MXT (C. sinensis×P. trifoliata), Hongju (C. reticulata), Ziyang Xiangcheng (C. junos) and trifoliate orange (P. trifoliata)) were used as plant materials for comprehensive comparison of the performances on tree growth, fruit yield and quality in 21 scion–stock combinations.  Investigation was carried out in these combinations in field nine years after planting.  Vigorous growth of all the three late-ripening navel orange varieties was observed on Carrizo citrange with the largest canopy volume at 33.34 m3 and the highest yield at 29.43 kg per tree, but a low yield efficiency at 2.87 kg m–3.  On the contrary, those on trifoliate orange had the smallest canopy volume at 10.79 m3 and the lowest fruit yield at 12.51 kg per tree, but the highest yield efficiency at 3.95 kg m–3. Rootstocks did not show significant effects on fruit size, fruit shape index, peel thickness and the edible rate of the fruits, but fruit quality was significantly affected by the rootstocks.  Fruits from the trees grafted on trifoliate orange presented the best quality with significantly higher total soluble solids (TSS) content than those on Ziyang Xiangcheng and Hongju, and also the highest ratio of TSS/titratable acidity (TA).  The TA content was observed from the fruits on X639 at 0.59 g 100 mL–1.  Vitamin C (Vc) content of fruits on Hongju was the highest at 49.25 mg 100 mL–1.  Growth vigor of the trees was positively correlated with fruit yield at an extremely significant level.  The canopy volume was negatively correlated with yield efficiency, but positively correlated with compatibility index.  Results of this study indicated that the rootstock has great impacts on the growth vigor of the tree, yield efficiency and quality of the fruit.  In order to achieve good quality and yield efficiency for navel orange production, less growth vigor rootstock such as trifoliate orange is highly recommended. 
Keywords:  rootstock        late-ripening navel orange        growth vigour        yield        fruit quality   
Received: 26 August 2019   Accepted:
Fund: This research was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFD1000101 and 2018YFD0201503), the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-26), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (XDJK2016B024), the National Citrus Engineering Research Center, China (NCERC), the earmarked fund for Chongqing Special & Economic Agriculture Research System on Late Maturation Citrus, China, and the Basic Research and Frontier Exploration Projects in Chongqing, China (cstc2018jcyjAX0400).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence ZHAO Xiao-chun, Tel: +86-23-68349026, E-mail:   
About author:  ZHU Shi-ping, E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

ZHU Shi-ping, HUANG Tao-jiang, YU Xin, HONG Qi-bin, XIANG Jin-song, ZENG An-zhong, GONG Gui-zhi, ZHAO Xiao-chun. 2020. The effects of rootstocks on performances of three late-ripening navel orange varieties. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(7): 1802-1812.

This research was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFD1000101 and 2018YFD0201503), the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-26), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (XDJK2016B024), the National Citrus Engineering Research Center, China (NCERC), the earmarked fund for Chongqing Special & Economic Agriculture Research System on Late Maturation Citrus, China, and the Basic Research and Frontier Exploration Projects in Chongqing, China (cstc2018jcyjAX0400).
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