Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2020, Vol. 19 Issue (8): 2027-2034    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63209-9
Special Issue: 园艺-栽培生理/资源品质合辑Horticulture — Physiology · Biochemistry · Cultivation
Horticulture Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
The effect of artificial solar spectrum on growth of cucumber and lettuce under controlled environment
ZOU Jie1, ZHOU Cheng-bo1, XU Hong2, CHENG Rui-feng1, YANG Qi-chang1, LI Tao1
1 Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, P.R.China
2 Sonneteck Technology Co., Ltd., Xiamen 361000, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been widely applied in the controlled environment agriculture, which are characterized by relatively narrow-band spectra and energetical efficiency.  Most recently, the spectrum of Sunlike LEDs has been engineered and it closely resembles solar spectrum in the range of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm).  To investigate how plant growth responses to the spectrum of Sunlike LEDs, cucumber and lettuce plants were cultivated and their responses were compared with the conventional white LEDs as well as composite of red and blue LEDs (RB, R/B ratio was 9:1).  We observed that although Sunlike LEDs resulted in a longer stem in cucumber, dry weight and leaf area were similar as those under RB LEDs, and significantly higher than those under white LEDs.  Moreover, cucumber leaves grown under Sunlike and white LEDs showed higher photosynthetic capacity than those grown under RB LEDs.  For lettuce, plants grown under Sunlike LEDs showed larger leaf area and higher dry weight than the other two treatments.  However, the leaf photosynthetic capacity of lettuce grown under Sunlike LEDs was the lowest.  In this context, the spectrum induced plant functions are species-dependent.  Furthermore, the three types of LEDs show distinct light spectra and they are different in many aspects.  Therefore, it is difficult to attribute the different plant responses to certain specific light spectra.  We conclude that plants grown under Sunlike LEDs exhibit larger leaf area, which may be due to some specific spectrum distributions (such as more far-red radiation), and consequently are favorable for light interception and therefore result in greater production.
Keywords:  cucumber        leaf photosynthesis        lettuce        plant morphology        Sunlike LEDs  
Received: 19 May 2019   Accepted:
Fund: This work was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFB0403902), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31872955) and the Central Public-interest Scientific Institution Basal Research Fund, China (BSRF201911).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence LI Tao, Tel: +86-10-82105983, E-mail:    

Cite this article: 

ZOU Jie, ZHOU Cheng-bo, XU Hong, CHENG Rui-feng, YANG Qi-chang, LI Tao. 2020. The effect of artificial solar spectrum on growth of cucumber and lettuce under controlled environment. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(8): 2027-2034.

Bantis F, Smirnakou S, Ouzounis T, Koukounaras A, Ntagkas N, Radoglou K. 2018. Current status and recent achievements in the field of horticulture with the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Scientia Horticulturae, 235, 437–451.
Behar-Cohen F, Martinsons C, Viénot F, Zissis G, Barlier-Salsi A, Cesarini J P, Enouf O, Garcia M, Picaud S, Attia D. 2011. Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: Any risks for the eye? Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 30, 239–257.
Demotes-Mainard S, Péron T, Corot A, Bertheloot J, Le Gourrierec J, Pelleschi-Travier S, Crespel L, Morel P, Huché-Thélier L, Boumaza R, Vian A, Guérin V, Leduc N, Sakr S. 2016. Plant responses to red and far-red lights, applications in horticulture. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 121, 4–21.
Fankhauser C, Batschauer A. 2016. Shadow on the Plant: A strategy to exit. Cell, 164, 15–17.
Franklin K A. 2008. Shade avoidance. New Phytologist, 179, 930–944.
Franklin K A, Whitelam G C. 2005. Phytochromes and shade-avoidance responses in plants. Annals of Botany, 96, 169–175.
Hernández R, Kubota C. 2016. Physiological responses of cucumber seedlings under different blue and red photon flux ratios using LEDs. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 121, 66–74.
Hogewoning S W, Douwstra P, Trouwborst G, van Ieperen W, Harbinson J. 2010a. An artificial solar spectrum substantially alters plant development compared with usual climate room irradiance spectra. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61, 1267–1276.
Hogewoning S W, Trouwborst G, Maljaars H, Poorter H, van Ieperen W, Harbinson J. 2010b. Blue light dose-responses of leaf photosynthesis, morphology, and chemical composition of Cucumis sativus grown under different combinations of red and blue light. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61, 3107–3117.
Hogewoning S W, Wientjes E, Douwstra P, Trouwborst G, van Ieperen W, Croce R, Harbinson J. 2012. Photosynthetic quantum yield dynamics: From photosystems to leaves. The Plant Cell, 24, 1921–1935.
Johkan M, Shoji K, Goto F, Hahida S, Yoshihara T. 2012. Effect of green light wavelength and intensity on photomorphogenesis and photosynthesis in Lactuca sativa. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 75, 128–133.
Kaiser E, Ouzounis T, Giday H, Schipper R, Heuvelink E, Marcelis L F M. 2019. Adding blue to red supplemental light increases biomass and yield of greenhouse-grown tomatoes, but only to an optimum. Frontiers in Plant Science, doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.02002
Kim H H, Goins G D, Wheeler R M, Sager J C. 2004. Green-light supplementation for enhanced lettuce growth under red- and blue-light-emitting diodes. HortScience, 39, 1617–1622.
Kwack Y, Kim K K, Hwang H, Chun C. 2015. Growth and quality of sprouts of six vegetables cultivated under different light intensity and quality. Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology, 56, 437–443.
Lin K H, Huang M Y, Huang W D, Hsu M H, Yang Z W, Yang C M. 2013. The effects of red, blue, and white light-emitting diodes on the growth, development, and edible quality of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata). Scientia Horticulturae, 150, 86–91.
McCree K J. 1972. The action spectrum, absorptance and quantum yield of photosynthesis in crop plants. Agricultural Meteorology, 9, 191–216.
Morrow R C. 2008. LED lighting in horticulture. HortScience, 43, 1947–1950.
Park Y, Runkle E S. 2017. Far-red radiation promotes growth of seedlings by increasing leaf expansion and whole-plant net assimilation. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 136, 41–49.
Rehman M, Ullah S, Bao Y, Wang B, Peng D, Liu L. 2017. Light-emitting diodes: Whether an efficient source of light for indoor plants? Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24, 24743–24752.
Sager J C, Smith W O, Edwards J L, Cyr K L. 1988. Photosynthetic efficiency and phytochrome photoequilibria determination using spectral data. Transactions of the ASAE, 31, 1882–1889.
Sarlikioti V, de Visser P H B, Buck-Sorlin G H, Marcelis L F M. 2011. How plant architecture affects light absorption and photosynthesis in tomato: Towards an ideotype for plant architecture using a functional–structural plant model. Annals of Botany, 108, 1065–1073.
Smith H. 1982. Light quality, photoperception, and plant strategy. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 33, 481–518.
Terfa M T, Solhaug K A, Gislerød H R, Olsen J E, Torre S. 2013. A high proportion of blue light increases the photosynthesis capacity and leaf formation rate of Rosa × hybrida but does not affect time to flower opening. Physiologia Plantarum, 148, 146–159.
Wellburn R W. 1994. The spectral determination of chlorophylls a and b, as well as total carotenoids, using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution. Journal of Plant Physiology, 144, 307–313.
Wright H R, Lack L C, Partridge K J. 2001. Light emitting diodes can be used to phase delay the melatonin rhythm. Journal of Pineal Research, 31, 350–355.
Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Yang Q, Li T. 2019. Overhead supplemental far-red light stimulates tomato growth under intra-canopy lighting with LEDs. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 18, 62–69.
Zou J, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Bian Z, Fanourakis D, Yang Q, Li T. 2019. Morphological and physiological properties of indoor cultivated lettuce in response to additional far-red light. Scientia Horticulturae, 257, 108725.
[1] WANG Cui, SUN Jin-jing, YANG Xue-yong, WAN Li, ZHANG Zhong-hua, ZHANG Hui-min. An optimized protocol using Steedman’s wax for high-sensitivity RNA in situ hybridization in shoot apical meristems and flower buds of cucumber[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(2): 464-470.
[2] SONG Xiao-fei, GE Dan-feng, XIE Yang, LI Xiao-li, SUN Cheng-zhen, CUI Hao-nan, ZHU Xue-yun, LIU Ren-yi, YAN Li-ying. Genome-scale mRNA and miRNA transcriptomic insights into the regulatory mechanism of cucumber corolla opening[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(9): 2603-2614.
[3] HAN Li-jie, SONG Xiao-fei, WANG Zhong-yi, LIU Xiao-feng, YAN Li-ying, HAN De-guo, ZHOU Zhao-yang, ZHANG Xiao-lan. Genome-wide analysis of OVATE family proteins in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(5): 1321-1331.
[4] DUAN Yao-ke, SU Yan HAN Rong, SUN Hao, GONG Hai-jun. Nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein CsNIP2;2 is a silicon influx transporter in Cucumis sativus L.[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(3): 685-696.
[5] XIN Ming, QIN Zhi-wei, YANG Jing, ZHOU Xiu-yan, WANG Lei. Functional analysis of the nitrogen metabolism-related gene CsGS1 in cucumber[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(6): 1515-1524.
[6] Miilion P MADEBO, LUO Si-ming, WANG Li, ZHENG Yong-hua, JIN Peng. Melatonin treatment induces chilling tolerance by regulating the contents of polyamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and proline in cucumber fruit[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(11): 3060-3074.
[7] WANG Xiu-juan, KANG Meng-zhen, FAN Xing-rong, YANG Li-li, ZHANG Bao-gui, HUANG San-wen, Philippe DE REFFYE, WANG Fei-yue. What are the differences in yield formation among two cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars and their F1 hybrid?[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2020, 19(7): 1789-1801.
[8] HUANG Cheng-zhen, XU Lei, Sun Jin-jing, ZHANG Zhong-hua, FU Mei-lan, TENG Hui-ying, YI Ke-ke.
Allelochemical p-hydroxybenzoic acid inhibits root growth via regulating ROS accumulation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2020, 19(2): 518-527.
[9] LIU Mei, LIU Li-ming, WU Hui-jie, KANG Bao-shan, GU Qin-sheng. Mapping subgenomic promoter of coat protein gene of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2020, 19(1): 153-163.
[10] HUANG Bin, WANG Qian, GUO Mei-xia, FANG Wen-sheng, WANG Xiao-ning, WANG Qiu-xia, YAN Dong-dong, OUYANG Can-bin, LI Yuan, CAO Ao-cheng. The synergistic advantage of combining chloropicrin or dazomet with fosthiazate nematicide to control root-knot nematode in cucumber production[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(9): 2093-2106.
[11] LI Mei, MA Guang-shu, LIAN Hua, SU Xiao-lin, TIAN Ying, HUANG Wen-kun, MEI Jie, JIANG Xi-liang. The effects of Trichoderma on preventing cucumber fusarium wilt and regulating cucumber physiology[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(3): 607-617.
[12] CHEN Chen, CUI Qing-zhi, HUANG San-wen, WANG Shen-hao, LIU Xiao-hong, LU Xiang-yang, CHEN Hui-ming, TIAN Yun. An EMS mutant library for cucumber[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(07): 1612-1619.
[13] LEI Bo, BIAN Zhong-hua, YANG Qi-chang, WANG Jun, CHENG Rui-feng, LI Kun, LIU Wen-ke, ZHANG Yi, FANG Hui, TONG Yun-xin. The positive function of selenium supplementation on reducing nitrate accumulation in hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(04): 837-846.
[14] YANG Peng, GUO Yan-zhi, QIU Ling. Effects of ozone-treated domestic sludge on hydroponic lettuce growth and nutrition[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(03): 593-602.
[15] CHANG Chun-ling, FU Xue-peng, ZHOU Xin-gang, GUO Mei-yu, WU Feng-zhi. Effects of seven different companion plants on cucumber productivity, soil chemical characteristics and Pseudomonas community[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2017, 16(10): 2206-2214.
No Suggested Reading articles found!