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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2020, Vol. 19 Issue (4): 1019-1032    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62712-7
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Single-seed sowing increased pod yield at a reduced seeding rate by improving root physiological state of Arachis hypogaea
LIANG Xiao-yan1, 2*, GUO Feng2, 3*, FENG Ye4, ZHANG Jia-lei2, 3, YANG Sha2, 3, MENG Jing-jing2, 3, LI Xin-guo2, 3, WAN Shu-bo3, 5   
1 Shandong Institute of Sericulture, Yantai 264002, P.R.China
2 Biotechnology Research Center, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, P.R.China
3 Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Ecology and Physiology, Jinan 250100, P.R.China
4 Agriculture Bureau of Yiyuan, Zibo 256100, P.R.China
5 Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, P.R.China
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Abstract  
Double-seed sowing (two seeds per hole) is the dominant pattern of peanut sowing in China, but within-hole plant competition usually limits their growth and yield formation.  Besides, the traditional double-seed sowing method does not facilitate mechanization during sowing.  The objective of this study was to determine if single-seed sowing at a proper seeding rate yielded better than traditional double-seed sowing pattern and the differences of physiological metabolism of roots.  A field experiment was conducted in two consecutive years to compare pod yields of single-seed sowing at 180 000 (S180), 225 000 (S225), and 270 000 seeds ha–1 (S270) with that of double-seed sowing at 270 000 seeds ha–1 (D270) using a completely randomized block design with four replications.  And the root bleeding sap rate, nutrient content, and the main hormone contents in root bleeding sap were also comparatively investigated.  Although the pod yields of single-seed sowing at the three densities were higher than that of traditional double-seed sowing (D270), S225 yielded better than the other two single-seed sowing treatments (S180 and S270).  The increased pod yield in single-seed sowing at 225 000 seeds ha–1 was mainly due to the higher pod dry weight per plant and harvest index.  The improved pod dry weight and shoot growth had closely relationship with the enhanced root physiological traits such as the increased root bleeding sap rate, content of free amino acids, soluble sugars, K+, Mg2+, Zn2+, and Ca2+ of the individual plant root.  The improved activity of root reductive, nitrate reductase (NR) and ATPase and higher zeatin and zeatin riboside (Z+ZR) content of root bleeding sap were also crucial to the pod and shoot growth of peanut.  Single-seed sowing at a moderate seeding rate (S225) is a potential practice to increase pod yield and to save seed cost.
 
Keywords:  peanut        sowing pattern        seeding rate        root traits        yield  
Received: 07 December 2018   Accepted: 04 March 2020
Fund: This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFD1000900), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31571605, 31801276), the Major Basic Research Project of Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (2018GHZ007), the Major Scientific and Technological Innovation Project in Shandong Province, China (2018YFJH0601), the Science and Technology Innovation Project of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China (CXGC2018D04, CXGC2016B03-1), the Agricultural Scientific and Technological Innovation Project of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China (CXGC2018E13, CXGC2016B10, CXGC2018F6), the Major Agricultural Application Technology Innovation Project in Shandong Province, China (201706), and the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-13).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence LI Xin-guo, Tel: +86-531-66659047, E-mail: lixinguo@tom.com; WAN Shu-bo, Tel: +86-531-83178127, E-mail: wansb@saas.ac.cn   
About author:  LIANG Xiao-yan, E-mail: liangxiaoyan1001@163.com; * These authors contributed equally to this study.

Cite this article: 

LIANG Xiao-yan, GUO Feng, FENG Ye, ZHANG Jia-lei, YANG Sha, MENG Jing-jing, LI Xin-guo, WAN Shu-bo. 2020. Single-seed sowing increased pod yield at a reduced seeding rate by improving root physiological state of Arachis hypogaea. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19(4): 1019-1032.

 
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