Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2018, Vol. 17 Issue (03): 539-553    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61727-1
Crop Science Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a soybean GmGMP1 gene reveals its involvement in ascorbic acid biosynthesis and multiple abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic plants
XUE Chen-chen*, XU Jin-yan*, WANG Can, GUO Na, HOU Jin-feng, XUE Dong, ZHAO Jin-ming, XING Han
National Center for Soybean Improvement/Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetics and Breeding for Soybean, Ministry of Agriculture/State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
Abstract  L-Ascorbic acid (AsA) plays an important role in plants and animals.  In plants, GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP) is essential in the AsA biosynthetic pathway.  However, little is known about the genes encoding GMP in soybean and here we report genetic and functional analysis of the GmGMP1 (Glycine max GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase 1) gene in this species.  GmGMP1 encoded a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase and exhibited higher transcript levels in the leaf than in the root, stem, flower, and seed.  Transcript of this gene was ubiquitous in the vegetative and reproductive organs, and was induced by abiotic stress and light.  Increasing expression of GmGMP1 in Arabidopsis and soybean through an overexpressing approach caused pronounced enhancement of AsA content, and was implicated in lowering the superoxide anion radical content and lipid peroxidation levels in Arabidopsis, and conferring tolerance to osmotic and high salt stresses during seed germination.  The present study represents the first systematic determination of soybean genes encoding GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase and provides useful evidence for the functional involvement of GmGMP1 in control of AsA content and conferring tolerance to osmotic and salt stress.
Keywords:  GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase        L-ascorbic acid        superoxide anion radical        chlorophyll contents        salt stress  
Received: 02 March 2017   Accepted:

This work was supported by the Genetically Modified Organisms Breeding Major Projects, China (2016ZX08004), the earmarked fund for China Agriculture Research System (CARS-004-PS10), and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (PCSIRT13073).

Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence XING Han, Tel/Fax: +86-25-84399526, E-mail:    
About author:  XUE Chen-chen, E-mail:; XU Jin-yan, E-mail:; * These authors contributed equally to this study.

Cite this article: 

XUE Chen-chen, XU Jin-yan, WANG Can, GUO Na, HOU Jin-feng, XUE Dong, ZHAO Jin-ming, XING Han. 2018. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a soybean GmGMP1 gene reveals its involvement in ascorbic acid biosynthesis and multiple abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic plants. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17(03): 539-553.

Agaphonov M O, Packeiser A N, Chechenova M B, Choi E S, Ter-Avanesyan M D. 2001. Mutation of the homologue of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase alters cell wall structure, protein glycosylation and secretion in Hansenula polymorpha. Yeast, 18, 391–402.

Agius F, González-Lamothe R, Caballero J L, Muñoz-Blanco J, Botella M A, Valpuesta V. 2003. Engineering increased vitamin C levels in plants by overexpression of a D-galacturonic acid reductase. Nature Biotechnology, 21, 177–181.

Badejo A A, Fujikawa Y, Esaka M. 2009. Gene expression of ascorbic acid biosynthesis related enzymes of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway in acerola (Malpighia glabra). Journal of Plant Physiology, 166, 652–660.

Badejo A A, Jeong S T, Goto-Yamamoto N, Esaka M. 2007. Cloning and expression of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase gene and ascorbic acid content of acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) fruit at ripening stages. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 45, 665–672.

Badejo A A, Tanaka N, Esaka M. 2008. Analysis of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase gene promoter from acerola (Malpighia glabra) and increase in ascorbate content of transgenic tobacco expressing the acerola gene. Plant and Cell Physiology, 49, 126–132.

Barth C, Gouzd Z A, Steele H P, Imperio R M. 2010. A mutation in GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase causes conditional hypersensitivity to ammonium, resulting in Arabidopsis root growth inhibition, altered ammonium metabolism, and hormone homeostasis. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61, 379–394.

Chen Z, Gallie D R. 2005. Increasing tolerance to ozone by elevating foliar ascorbic acid confers greater protection against ozone than increasing avoidance. Plant Physiology, 138, 1673–1689.

Clough S J, Bent A F. 1998. Floral dip: A simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. The Plant Journal, 16, 735–743.

Colville L, Smirnoff N. 2008. Antioxidant status, peroxidase activity, and PR protein transcript levels in ascorbate-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana vtc mutants. Journal of Experimental Botany, 59, 3857–3868.

Conklin P L. 2001. Recent advances in the role and biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in plants. Plant, Cell & Environment, 24, 383–394.

Conklin P L, Barth C. 2004. Ascorbic acid, a familiar small molecule intertwined in the response of plants to ozone, pathogens, and the onset of senescence. Plant, Cell & Environment, 27, 959–970.

Conklin P L, Norris S R, Wheeler G L, Williams E H, Smirnoff N, Last R L. 1999. Genetic evidence for the role of GDP-mannose in plant ascorbic acid (vitamin C) biosynthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 4198–4203.

Conklin P L, Pallanca J E, Last R L, Smirnoff N. 1997. L-ascorbic acid metabolism in the ascorbate-deficient Arabidopsis mutant vtc1. Plant Physiology, 115, 1277–1285.

Conklin P L, Saracco S A, Norris S R, Last R L. 2000. Identification of ascorbic acid-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Genetics, 154, 847–856.

Conklin P L, Williams E H, Last R L. 1996. Environmental stress sensitivity of an ascorbic acid-deficient Arabidopsis mutant. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93, 9970–9974.

Córdoba F, Gonzalez-Reyes J A. 1994. Ascorbate and plant cell growth. Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, 26, 399–405.

Dat J F, Foyer C H, Scott I M. 1998. Changes in salicylic acid and antioxidants during induced thermotolerance in mustard seedlings. Plant Physiology, 118, 1455–1461.

Davey M W, Montagu M, Inzé D, Sanmartin M, Kanellis A, Smirnoff N, Benzie I J J, Strain J J, Favell D, Fletcher J. 2000. Plant L-ascorbic acid: chemistry, function, metabolism, bioavailability and effects of processing. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80, 825–860.

Elstner E F, Heupel A. 1976. Inhibition of nitrite formation from hydroxylammoniumchloride: A simple assay for superoxide dismutase. Analytical Biochemistry, 70, 616.

Eltayeb A E, Kawano N, Badawi G H, Kaminaka H, Sanekata T, Shibahara T, Inanaga S, Tanaka K. 2007. Overexpression of monodehydroascorbate reductase in transgenic tobacco confers enhanced tolerance to ozone, salt and polyethylene glycol stresses. Planta, 225, 1255–1264.

Foyer C, Rowell J, Walker D. 1983. Measurement of the ascorbate content of spinach leaf protoplasts and chloroplasts during illumination. Planta, 157, 239–244.

Foyer C H, Theodoulou F L, Delrot S. 2001. The functions of inter- and intracellular glutathione transport systems in plants. Trends in Plant Science, 6, 486–492.

Gao Q, Zhang L. 2008. Ultraviolet-B-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system responses in ascorbate-deficient vtc1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Plant Physiology, 165, 138–148.

GB/T.181-2003. 2003. Determination of Propyldialdehyde in Lard. Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China. (in Chinese)

Hashimoto H, Sakakibara A, Yamasaki M, Yoda K. 1997. Saccharomyces cerevisiae VIG9 encodes GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, which is essential for protein glycosylation.

Journal of Biological Chemistry, 272, 16308–16314.

Hodges D M, DeLong J M, Forney C F, Prange R K. 1999. Improving the thiobarbituric acid-reactive-substances assay for estimating lipid peroxidation in plant tissues containing anthocyanin and other interfering compounds. Planta, 207, 604–611.

Hoeberichts F A, Vaeck E, Kiddle G, Coppens E, Cotte B, Adamantidis A, Ormenese S, Foyer C H, Zabeau M, Inze D, Perilleux C, Breusegem F V, Vuylsteke M. 2008. A temperature-sensitive mutation in the Arabidopsis thaliana phosphomannomutase gene disrupts protein glycosylation and triggers cell death. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283, 5708–5718.

Huang C, He W, Guo J, Chang X, Su P, Zhang L. 2005. Increased sensitivity to salt stress in an ascorbate-deficient Arabidopsis mutant. Journal of Experimental Botany, 56, 3041–3049.

Hu H Q. 2010. Identification of Arabidopsis glucosyltransferase genes involved in plant salt tolerance. Ph D thesis, Shandong University, China. (in Chinese)

Ioannidi E, Kalamaki M S, Engineer C, Pateraki I, Alexandrou D, Mellidou I, Giovannonni J, Kanellis A K. 2009. Expression profiling of ascorbic acid-related genes during tomato fruit development and ripening and in response to stress conditions. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60, 663–678.

Janik A, Sosnowska M, Kruszewska J, Krotkiewski H, Lehle L, Palamarczyk G. 2003. Overexpression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae corrects defects in dolichol-linked saccharide formation and protein glycosylation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (General Subjects), 1621, 22–30.

Jiang H, Ouyang H, Zhou H, Jin C. 2008. GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase is essential for cell wall integrity, morphogenesis and viability of Aspergillus fumigatus. Microbiology, 154, 2730–2739.

Kang J S, Frank J, Kang C H, Kajiura H, Vikram M, Ueda A, Kim S, Bahk J D, Triplett B, Fujiyama K, Lee S Y, von Schaewen A, Koiwa H. 2008. Salt tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana requires maturation of N-glycosylated proteins in the Golgi apparatus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 5933–5938.

Keller R, Renz F S, Kossmann J. 1999. Antisense inhibition of the GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase reduces the ascorbate content in transgenic plants leading to developmental changes during senescence. The Plant Journal, 19, 131–141.

Kempinski C F, Haffar R, Barth C. 2011. Toward the mechanism of NH4+ sensitivity mediated by Arabidopsis GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase. Plant Cell Environment, 34, 847–858.

Kerk N M, Feldman N J. 1995. A biochemical model for the initiation and maintenance of the quiescent center: Implications for organization of root meristems. Development, 121, 2825–2833.

Koiwa H, Li F, McCully M G, Mendoza I, Koizumi N, Manabe Y, Nakagawa Y, Zhu J, Rus A, Pardo J M. 2003. The STT3a subunit isoform of the Arabidopsis oligosaccharyl transferase controls adaptive responses to salt/osmotic stress. The Plant Cell, 15, 2273–2284.

Koornneef M, Hanhart C J, Veen J H. 1991. A genetic and physiological analysis of late flowering mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Molecular and General Genetics, 229, 57–66.

Kotchoni S O, Larrimore K E, Mukherjee M, Kempinski C F, Barth C. 2009. Alterations in the endogenous ascorbic acid content affect flowering time in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 149, 803–815.

Li J, Li M, Liang D, Cui M, Ma F. 2013. Expression patterns and promoter characteristics of the gene encoding Actinidia deliciosa L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase involved in the response to light and abiotic stresses. Molecular Biology Reports, 40, 1473–1485.

Li Q, Li B H, Kronzucker H J, Shi W M. 2010. Root growth inhibition by NH4+ in Arabidopsis is mediated by the root tip and is linked to NH4+ efflux and GMPase activity. Plant Cell Environment, 33, 1529–1542.

Livak K J, Schmittgen T D. 2001. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2−ΔΔCT method. Methods, 25, 402–408.

Lorence A. 2004. Myo-inositol oxygenase offers a possible entry point into plant ascorbate biosynthesis. Plant Physiology, 134, 1200–1205.

Lu H, Han R L, Jiang X N. 2009. Heterologous expression and characterization of a proxidomal ascorbate peroxidase from Populus tomentosa. Molecular Biology Reports, 36, 21–27.

Lukowitz W, Nickle T C, Meinke D W, Last R L, Conklin P L, Somerville C R. 2001. Arabidopsis cyt1 mutants are deficient in a mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase and point to a requirement of N-linked glycosylation for cellulose biosynthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 2262–2267.

Mahajan S, Tuteja N. 2005. Cold, salinity and drought stresses: An overview. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 444, 139–158.

Nairn C J, Lennon D M, Wood-Jones A, Nairn A V, Dean J F. 2008. Carbohydrate-related genes and cell wall biosynthesis in vascular tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Tree Physiology, 28, 1099–1110.

Nickle T C, Meinke D W. 1998. A cytokinesis-defective mutant of Arabidopsis (cyt1) characterized by embryonic lethality, incomplete cell walls, and excessive callose accumulation. The Plant Journal, 15, 321–332.

Ning B, Elbein A D. 1999. Purification and properties of mycobacterial GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 362, 339–345.

Noctor G, Foyer C H. 1998. Ascorbate and glutathione: Keeping active oxygen under control. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 49, 249–279.

Norusis M J. 1990. SPSS Advanced Statistics User’s Guide.SPSS, Chicago.

Olhoft P M, Flagel L E, Donovan C M, Somers D A. 2003. Efficient soybean transformation using hygromycin B selection in the cotyledonary-node method. Planta, 216, 723–735.

Olmos E, Kiddle G, Pellny T, Kumar S, Foyer C H. 2006. Modulation of plant morphology, root architecture, and cell structure by low vitamin C in Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Experimental Botany, 57, 1645–1655.

Pastori G M, Kiddle G, Antoniw J, Bernard S, Veljovic-Jovanovic S, Verrier P J, Noctor G, Foyer C H. 2003. Leaf vitamin C contents modulate plant defense transcripts and regulate genes that control development through hormone signaling. The Plant Cell, 15, 939–951.

Pavet V, Olmos E, Kiddle G, Mowla S, Kumar S, Antoniw J, Alvarez M E, Foyer C H. 2005. Ascorbic acid deficiency activates cell death and disease resistance responses in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 139, 1291–1303.

Porra R J, Thompson W A, Kriedemann P E. 1989. Determination of accurate extinction coefficients and simultaneous equations for assaying chlorophylls a and b extracted with four different solvents: verification of the concentration of chlorophyll standards by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Bioenergetics), 975, 384–394.

Qin C, Qian W, Wang W, Wu Y, Yu C, Jiang X, Wang D, Wu P. 2008. GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase is a genetic determinant of ammonium sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 18308–18313.

Del Rio D, Stewart A J, Pellegrini N. 2005. A review of recent studies on malondialdehyde as toxic molecule and biological marker of oxidative stress. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 15, 316–328.

Sanmartin M, Drogoudi P D, Lyons T, Pateraki I, Barnes J, Kanellis A K. 2003. Over-expression of ascorbate oxidase in the apoplast of transgenic tobacco results in altered ascorbate and glutathione redox states and increased sensitivity to ozone. Planta, 216, 918–928.

Schmedes A, Hølmer G. 1989. A new thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method for determining free malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroperoxides selectively as a measure of lipid peroxidation. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 66, 813–817.

Schmittgen T D, Livak K J 2008. Analyzing real-time PCR data by the comparative CT method. Nature Protocols, 3, 1101–1108.

Shalata A, Neumann P M. 2001. Exogenous ascorbic acid (vitamin C) increases resistance to salt stress and reduces lipid peroxidation. Journal of Experimental Botany, 52, 2207–2211.

Smirnoff N. 2000. Ascorbic acid: Metabolism and functions of a multi-facetted molecule. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 3, 229–235.

Smirnoff N, Pallanca J E. 1996. Ascorbate metabolism in relation to oxidative stress. Biochemical Society Transactions, 24, 472–478.

Tabata K, Oba K, Suzuki K, Esaka M. 2001. Generation and properties of ascorbic acid-deficient transgenic tobacco cells expressing antisense RNA for L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase. The Plant Journal, 27, 139–148.

Tabata K, Takaoka T, Esaka M. 2002. Gene expression of ascorbic acid-related enzymes in tobacco. Phytochemistry, 61, 631–635.

Tomlin G C, Hamilton G E, Gardner D C, Walmsley R M, Stateva  I, Oliver S G. 2000. Suppression of sorbitol dependence in a strain bearing a mutation in the SRB1/PSA1/VIG9 gene encoding GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase by PDE2 overexpression suggests a role for the Ras/cAMP signal-transduction pathway in the control of yeast cell-wall biogenesis. Microbiology, 146, 2133–2146.

Uccelletti D, Staneva D, Rufini S, Venkov P, Palleschi C. 2005. Enhanced secretion of heterologous proteins in Kluyveromyces lactis by overexpression of the GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase, KlPsa1p. FEMS Yeast Research, 5, 735–746.

Veljovic-Jovanovic S D, Pignocchi C, Noctor G, Foyer C H. 2001. Low ascorbic acid in the vtc-1 mutant of Arabidopsis is associated with decreased growth and intracellular redistribution of the antioxidant system. Plant Physiology, 127, 426–435.

Vuorio R, Härkönen T, Tolvanen M, Vaara M. 1994. The novel hexapeptide motif found in the acyltransferases LpxA and LpxD of lipid A biosynthesis is conserved in various bacteria. FEBS Letters, 337, 289–292.

Wang H S, Yu C, Zhu Z J, Yu X C. 2011. Overexpression in tobacco of a tomato GMPase gene improves tolerance to both low and high temperature stress by enhancing antioxidation capacity. Plant Cell Reports, 30, 1029–1040.

Wang H S, Zhu Z J, Feng Z, Zhang S G, Yu C. 2012. Antisense-mediated depletion of GMPase gene expression in tobacco decreases plant tolerance to temperature stresses and alters plant development. Molecular Biology Reports, 39, 10413–10420.

Warit S, Zhang N, Short A, Walmsley R M, Oliver S G, Stateva L I. 2000. Glycosylation deficiency phenotypes resulting from depletion of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase in two yeast species. Molecular Microbiology, 36, 1156–1166.

Wheeler G L, Jones M A, Smirnoff N. 1998. The biosynthetic pathway of vitamin C in higher plants. Nature, 393, 365–369.

Wolucka B A, Van Montagu M. 2003. GDP-mannose 3´,5´-epimerase forms GDP-L-gulose, a putative intermediate for the de novo biosynthesis of vitamin C in plants. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278, 47483–47490.

Yabuta Y, Mieda T, Rapolu M, Nakamura A, Motoki T, Maruta T, Yoshimura K, Ishikawa T, Shigeoka S. 2007. Light regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis is dependent on the photosynthetic electron transport chain but independent of sugars in Arabidopsis. Journal of Experimental Botany, 58, 2661–2671.

Yang L, Zheng B, Mao C, Qi X, Liu F, Wu P. 2004. Analysis of transcripts that are differentially expressed in three sectors of the rice root system under water deficit. Molecular Genetics and Genomics, 272, 433–442.

Yang X, Wen X, Gong H, Lu Q, Yang Z, Tang Y, Liang Z, Lu C. 2007. Genetic engineering of the biosynthesis of glycinebetaine enhances thermotolerance of photosystem II in tobacco plants. Planta, 225, 719–733.

Yoda K, Kawada T, Kaibara C, Fujie A, Abe M, Hashimoto H, Shimizu J, Tomishige N, Noda Y, Yamasaki M. 2000. Defect in cell wall integrity of the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae caused by a mutation of the GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase gene VIG9. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 64, 1937–1941.

Zhang Z, Wang J, Zhang R, Huang R. 2012. The ethylene response factor AtERF98 enhances tolerance to salt through the transcriptional activation of ascorbic acid synthesis in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal, 71, 273–287.

Zou L P, Li H X, Ouyang B, Zhang J H, Ye Z B. 2006. Cloning, expression, and mapping of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase cDNA from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Acta Genetica Sinica, 33, 757–764. (in Chinese)
[1] MA Xiao-wen, MA Qiu-xiang, MA Mu-qing, CHEN Yan-hang, GU Jin-bao, LI Yang, HU Qing, LUO Qing-wen, WEN Ming-fu, ZHANG Peng, LI Cong, WANG Zhen-yu.

Cassava MeRS40 is required for the regulation of plant salt tolerance [J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(5): 1396-1411.

[2] WANG Chu-kun, ZHAO Yu-wen, HAN Peng-liang, YU Jian-qiang, HAO Yu-jin, XU Qian, YOU Chun-xiang, HU Da-gang. Auxin response factor gene MdARF2 is involved in ABA signaling and salt stress response in apple[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2022, 21(8): 2264-2274.
[3] LIU Min-min, LI Ya-lun, LI Guang-cun, DONG Tian-tian, LIU Shi-yang, LIU Pei, WANG Qing-guo. Overexpression of StCYS1 gene enhances tolerance to salt stress in the transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plant[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2020, 19(9): 2239-2246.
[4] ZHONG Yun-peng, QI Xiu-juan, CHEN Jin-yong, LI Zhi, BAI Dan-feng, WEI Cui-guo, FANG Jin-bao . Growth and physiological responses of four kiwifruit genotypes to salt stress and resistance evaluation[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(1): 83-95.
[5] HUANG Ying, ZHANG Xiao-xia, LI Yi-hong, DING Jian-zhou, DU Han-mei, ZHAO Zhuo, ZHOU Li-na, LIU Chan, GAO Shi-bin, CAO Mo-ju, LU Yan-li, ZHANG Su-zhi. Overexpression of the Suaeda salsa SsNHX1 gene confers enhanced salt and drought tolerance to transgenic Zea mays[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(12): 2612-2623.
[6] Sajid Hussain, ZHANG Jun-hua, ZHONG Chu, ZHU Lian-feng, CAO Xiao-chuang, YU Sheng-miao, Allen Bohr James, HU Ji-jie, JIN Qian-yu. Effects of salt stress on rice growth, development characteristics, and the regulating ways: A review[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2017, 16(11): 2357-2374.
[7] PARK Sung-chul, YU Yi-cheng, KOU Meng, YAN Hui, TANG Wei, WANG Xin, LIU Ya-ju, ZHANG Yun-gang, KWAK Sang-soo, MA Dai-fu, SUN Jian, LI Qiang. Ipomoea batatas HKT1 transporter homolog mediates K+ and Na+ uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2017, 16(10): 2168-2176.
No Suggested Reading articles found!