Scientia Agricultura Sinica ›› 2023, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (17): 3435-3451.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2023.17.016

• FOOD SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Warmed-Over Flavor of Nanjing Water-Boiled Salted Duck Detected by HS-SPME-GC-MS Technology and Electronic Nose

WU ShiHao1(), HUANG TianRan2, HUANG Ming1()   

  1. 1College of Food Science and Technology/Key Laboratory of Meat Processing and Quality Control, Ministry of Education, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095
    2Nanjing Huangjiaoshou Food Science and Technology Co., Ltd./National R&D Center for Poultry Processing/Jiangsu Research Center for Livestock and Poultry Products Processing Engineering Technology, Nanjing 211225
  • Received:2023-03-13 Accepted:2023-05-31 Online:2023-09-01 Published:2023-09-08
  • Contact: HUANG Ming
  • Supported by:


【Objective】 By using flavor detection technology, the effect of heat treatment on Nanjing water-boiled salted duck’s warmed-over flavor (WOF) was investigated, and the main components of warmed-over flavor were identified. The study could fill the gap in research on warmed-over flavor of Nanjing water-boiled salted duck, as well as provide a basis for controlling the odor associated with poultry processing. 【Method】 The raw materials for the Nanjing water-boiled salted duck were 12 cherry valley duck legs, washed, dry pickled, wet pickled, cooled, and boiled. The samples were vacuum packed in high-temperature retort pouches and randomly divided into four groups after cooling. In order to examine the changes in volatile odor substances in water-boiled salted ducks after heat treatment, one group was used as a control without heat treatment, and the other three groups were heated at different temperatures (80 ℃ 50 min, 100 ℃ 30 min, and 121 ℃ 15 min). By using HS-SPME-GC-MS in combination with electronic nose and sensory evaluation, the effect of heat treatment on Nanjing water-boiled salted duck's warmed-over flavor was studied by cluster analysis and PLS-DA. 【Result】 Under different heat treatment conditions, Nanjing water-boiled salted duck contained different volatile flavor substances. Sensory evaluation showed that the highest warmed-over flavor was found in the 121 ℃ heat treatment group, followed by 100 ℃ and 80 ℃ group, and the best flavor was found in water-boiled salted duck without heat treatment. A total of 78 flavor compounds were detected in the four groups, mainly including aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons, alcohols, nitrogenous sulfur, and benzene. These 78 flavor substances were analyzed for OAV, and 22 active odors were detected with OAV>1, among these 22 active odor substances, cluster analysis showed that Valeraldehyde, 2-Heptanone, Decanal, Dodecanal, Octanal, Hexanal, Heptanal, Nonanal, 2,5-Octanedione, 1-Octen-3-ol and 2-Pentylfuran were the most abundant in the 121 ℃ group. Nonanal, Octanal, Valeraldehyde, 1-Octen-3-ol, and 2-Pentylfuran were found to have VIP>1 and the highest content at 121 ℃ in the OPLS-DA analysis (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 It has been found that heat treatment at 121 ℃ increased oxidative degradation of lipids in water-boiled salted duck, significantly reduced the content of representative aroma substances, and increased the amount of representative odor substances. Nanjing water-boiled salted duck’s warmed-over flavor mainly consisted of Nonanal, Octanal, Valeraldehyde, 1-Octen-3-ol, and 2-Pentylfuran.

Key words: Nanjing water-boiled salted duck, heat treatment, warmed-over flavor, volatile compounds

Table 1

Performance description of 10 sensors for PEN3 electronic nose"

传感器名称Sensor name 性能描述Performance description 灵敏性Sensitivity (mL·m-3)
W1C 对芳香族化合物敏感,苯 Sensitive to aromatic compounds, Benzene 10
W5S 对氮氧化物敏感 Sensitive to nitrogen oxides 1
W3C 对香气敏感,氨气 Sensitive to aroma, ammonia 10
W6S 对氢化物敏感 Sensitive to hydrides 100
W5C 对短链烷烃及芳香组分敏感 Sensitive to short-chain alkanes and aromatic components 1
W1S 对甲基敏感 Sensitive to methyl groups 100
W1W 对硫化物敏感 Sensitive to sulfides 1
W2S 对醇、醛、酮类化合物敏感 Sensitive to alcohols, aldehydes and ketones 100
W2W 对芳香成分及有机硫化物敏感 Sensitive to aromatic components and organic sulfides 1
W3S 对长链烷烃敏感 Sensitive to long-chain alkanes 100

Fig. 1

Nanjing water-boiled salted duck electronic nose radar diagram (A) and PCA diagram (B) at different heat treatment temperatures"

Table 2

Changes of volatile flavor substances in Nanjing water-boiled salted duck at different heat treatment temperatures"

SI 鉴定依据
Identification basis
Odor description
含量Content (μg·kg-1)
CK 80 ℃ 100 ℃ 121 ℃
烃类 Hydrocarbons
(3E)-3-丙-2-烯亚基环丁烯(3E)-3-prop-2-enylidenecyclobutene 828 MS NC 520.10±15.11a 84.69±3.03b 60.38±2.71b
右旋萜二烯 Cyclohexene,1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (4R)- 1071 MS、RI 橙子香气
Orange aroma
3,7-二甲基-1辛烯 3,7-dimethyl-1-Octene 862 MS、RI NC 308.56±11.33a
茴香脑 cis-Anethol 906 MS、RI 甜、清凉、茴香气味 Sweet, cool, fennel smell 229.56±10.76b 56.43±5.34a 92.81±9.31a
十二烷 Dodecane 1200 MS、RI NC 374.03±12.43b 198.99±8.35a 131.35±6.33a 134.05±5.12a
2,6,10-三甲基十四烷 2,6,10-Trimethyltetradecane 1456 MS、RI NC 73.09±6.15a 54.57±4.33a 55.81±4.11a 67.92±5.32a
2,6,11-三甲基十二烷 2,6,11-Trimethyldodecane 1241 MS、RI NC 141.89±9.31a 174.29±8.82a 120.05±10.05a 125.86±9.33a
十四烷 Tetradecane 1400 MS、RI NC 97.76±9.11a 66.11±6.21a 50.83±3.33a 72.35±5.33a
2-氯辛烷 2-Chlorooctane 902 MS、RI NC 106.63±6.30a
十五烷 Pentadecane 1504 MS、RI NC 153.31±10.33a 114.88±9.45a 100.72±8.33a 123.04±10.33a
[1S-(1R*,4E,9S*)]-4,11,11-Trimethyl-8-methylenebicyclo [7.2.0] undec-4-ene
971 MS NC 9.98±1.21a
1074 MS、RI 松木,柑橘味 Matsuki, citrus flavor 64.58±4.30a
1087 MS、RI NC 164.65±10.33a 70.55±8.20b
1033 MS、RI 柠檬、薄荷味
Lemon, mint flavor
65.91±7.01b 76.01±8.10b 54.37±6.33b 37.44±4.02a
6-methylene-1,5,5-Trimethyl cyclohexene
911 MS、RI NC 52.98±4.37b 51.20±6.12a 12.55±0.12b
1468 MS、RI 辛香、木头味
Spicy, woody flavor
1375 MS、RI 松木,针叶香
Pine, coniferous aroma
十六烷 Hexadecane 1618 MS、RI NC 161.39±12.33b 89.67±7.33a
1080 MS、RI NC 35.21±1.02a
十一烷 Undecane 1101 MS、RI NC 63.67±4.33a 56.69±3.72a 52.18±5.11a 64.21±9.02a
癸烷 Decane 996 MS、RI NC 42.75±8.33a 38.33±5.56a 28.89±2.33a 28.01±1.89a
1152 MS、RI NC 123.50±11.03a 89.69±8.02a 75.16±8.41a 95.15±7.73a
1018 MS、RI 木头,金属味
Wood, metallic smell
32.37±2.36a 33.63±1.03a 44.11±5.45a 43.60±3.33a
CK 80 ℃ 100 ℃ 121 ℃
804 MS NC 121.68±13.72a
1421 MS、RI NC 16.81±2.01a 15.00±1.89a
3-二十碳烯 3-Eicosane 1986 MS、RI NC 123.48±17.03a
辛基环丙烷 Octylcyclopropane 805 MS、RI NC 7.41±0.33a
1226 MS、RI NC 9.48±1.64a
3-二十二烯 3-Docosanol 2281 MS、RI NC 21.33±3.41a 28.30±6.02a
环庚三烯 Cycloheptatriene 813 MS、RI NC 94.34±10.05a
10-二十一碳烯 10-Henicosene 2046 MS、RI NC 13.66±1.82a
醛类 Aldehydes
692 MS、RI 杏仁,麦芽,辛辣味Almond, malt, spicy flavor 280.53±19.33a 285.13±13.02a 256.59±17.56a 996.64±17.01b
1202 MS、RI 肥皂,橙皮,牛脂味Soap, orange peel, tallow flavor 45.49±4.13a 45.01±3.01a 47.20±3.33a 48.89±4.11a
1146 MS、RI 鸢尾,脂肪,黄瓜味Iris, fatty, cucumber flavor 20.35±2.03a 27.09±2.67a
1101 MS、RI 脂肪,柑橘味
Fatty, citrus flavor
914.53±21.01c 1329.39±32.37b 1316.03±17.33b 1584.60±34.02a
1003 MS、RI 脂肪,肥皂,柠檬味Fatty, soap, lemon flavor 1022.08±43.73c 1369.69±34.56b 1347.81±29.11b 1689.87±39.72a
908 MS、RI 脂肪,柑橘,腐臭味Fatty, citrus, rancid smell 424.10±27.15a 320.82±18.62b 347.96±20.13ab 486.59±30.56a
961 MS、RI 杏仁,烧糖味Almonds, burnt sugar flavor 91.38±10.33a 73.23±9.67a 65.33±7.56a 80.31±9.02a
801 MS、RI 低浓度:脂肪、青草味;高浓度:酸败、辛辣味
Low concentration: fat, grassy flavor; high concentration: rancidity, spicy taste
3286.68±312.65b 3788.73±275.13a 3824.27±266.42a 3960.89±302.33a
638 MS、RI 可可、杏仁、麦芽味 Cocoa, almond, malt flavor 351.26±37.42a 22.70±3.12b
十八醛 Octadecanal 2052 MS、RI 油脂味 Grease smell 7.76±1.21b 15.24±2.73a 20.44±3.32a 20.52±2.67a
十六醛 Hexadecanal 1834 MS、RI 蒜味 Garlic smell 16.83±3.23c 31.57±4.02b 62.38±6.45a 81.02±6.12a
(Z)-4-癸烯醛 (Z)-4-Decenal 667 MS、RI 青味 Green taste 21.97±2.33b 56.94±6.67a
Myristicin aldehyde
1198 MS、RI 脂肪、蜡味
Fatty, waxy taste
CK 80 ℃ 100 ℃ 121 ℃
1423 MS、RI 脂肪、松油味
Fatty, pine oil flavor
13.05±1.01a 15.92±1.67a 13.26±0.92a 16.56±1.93a
十七醛 Heptadecanal 1906 MS、RI NC 5.42±0.21a 5.35±0.73a
十三醛 Tridecanal 1503 MS、RI 花,甜味 Flower, sweet 4.66±0.91a
十四醛 Tetradecenal 1611 MS、RI NC 22.24±3.72a 51.18±6.11a
1056 MS、RI 绿色,坚果,脂肪味 Green, nutty, fatty flavor 7.69±2.12a
956 MS、RI 蘑菇味
Mushroom flavor
1367.97±121.42b 1582.81±145.29b 1469.03±133.65b 1747.05±113.67a
1100 MS、RI 花,薰衣草味
Flower, lavender flavor
206.62±22.67a 116.50±17.33b 135.77±13.51b 106.80±11.01b
1104 MS、RI 肥皂,塑料味
Soap, plastic smell
62.19±7.93b 88.07±9.20b 213.03±28.77a 73.28±9.33b
1031 MS、RI 樟脑样香气,清凉味
Camphor-like aroma, cool taste
348.84±52.21a 131.01±17.83b 158.49±15.01b 186.30±19.62b
907 MS 松节油,肉豆蔻
Turpentine, nutmeg
233.49±28.33a 142.54±16.67b 163.39±21.56b 188.70±19.38b
1889 MS、RI 花,蜡味
Flower, waxy smell
87.03±9.73a 46.30±5.20b 35.49±3.45b 30.84±4.21b
1189 MS、RI 松油,茴香,薄荷味 Pine oil, fennel, mint flavor 131.08±16.31b 57.36±11.14a 46.45±8.42a
760 MS、RI 香醋味
Vinegar flavor
90.04±8.67b 109.13±13.62b 123.92±19.33b 179.04±21.77a
(-)-4-萜品醇 (-)-Terpinen-4-ol 904 MS、RI NC 366.92±66.67a
3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, α,α, 4-trimethyl-, (R)-
857 MS NC 74.61±11.01a 74.84±9.82a 82.24±7.34a
962 MS、RI 化学、青味
Chemical, green
2-庚酮 2-Heptanone 891 MS、RI 肥皂味 Soapy smell 24.51±3.12b 219.90±19.33a 247.34±23.56a 281.07±22.67a
921 MS NC 197.66±18.03b 281.95±25.67a 319.20±33.45a 311.04±29.89a
2,5-辛二酮 2,5-Heptanedione 984 MS、RI NC 4041.89±245.35a 4392.15±168.62a 4181.72±160.67a 4410.86±217.45a
2015 MS、RI 玫瑰,花香
Roses, Flowers
83.22±11.02b 42.88±9.73a 42.48±6.33a 41.93±7.67a
酯类 Esters
Vinyl hexanoate
998 MS、RI 甜的醚香味
Sweet ether scent
Propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 3-hydroxy- 2,2,4-Trimethylpentyl ester
815 MS NC 205.30±21.33a 115.58±11.45b 173.90±17.67a 121.79±13.80b
CK 80 ℃ 100 ℃ 121 ℃
含氮含硫及苯系物 Benzene and sulfur series containing nitrogen
Butylated hydroxytoluene
1180 MS、RI NC 23.69±4.02b 34.11±3.33a 40.67±6.74a 47.90±5.67a
对二甲苯 p-Xylene 845 MS、RI 塑胶味 Plastic smell 26.69±4.33c 67.20±8.67b 107.65±9.06a 159.93±11.45a
乙胺 Ethylamine 677 MS、RI 鱼味 Fish smell 345.75±39.71a 203.44±22.04b 187.29±23.33b
乙基苯 Ether 816 MS、RI NC 25.68±3.31b 41.59±5.73a 49.51±6.01a 44.13±6.33a
间二甲苯 m-Xylene 869 MS、RI 塑胶味 Plastic smell 42.86±5.42a 95.43±7.67b
1073 MS、RI NC 19.42±1.72b 31.47±2.84a 34.33±3.65a
甲苯 Toluene 773 MS、RI 油漆味 Smell of paint 42.27±6.78a
邻异丙基甲苯 o-Cymene 846 MS、RI NC 149.94±17.67a
间异丙基甲苯 m-Cymene 872 MS、RI NC 101.71±11.33a
817 MS、RI NC 131.54±14.48a
呋喃类 Furans
992 MS、RI 豆香、果香
Bean-aroma, fruity
1386.48±110.73d 1887.56±187.42c 2477.94±214.33b 2884.23±267.25a
其他 Others
Dodecane-1-sulfonyl chloride
770 MS NC 3.92±0.67a

Table 3

OAV of volatile flavor substances of Nanjing water-boiled salted duck at different heat treatment temperatures"

Sensitivity (μg·kg-1)
CK 80 ℃ 100 ℃ 121 ℃
醛类 Aldehydes
戊醛 Valeraldehyde 12 23.38 23.76 21.38 83.05
癸醛 Decanal 0.1 454.90 450.10 472 488.90
(Z)-2-壬烯醛 (Z)-2-Nonenal 4.1 4.96 6.61
壬醛 Nonanal 1 914.53 1329.39 1316.03 1584.6
辛醛 Octanal 0.7 1460.11 1956.7 1925.44 2414.4
庚醛 Heptanal 3 141.37 106.94 115.99 162.20
苯甲醛 Benzaldehyde 350 0.26 0.21 0.19 0.23
己醛 Hexanal 4.5 730.37 841.94 849.84 880.2
3-甲基丁醛 Isovaleraldehyde 0.2 1756.3 113.5
十二醛 Dodecanal 2 6.53 7.96 6.63 8.28
(E)-2-辛烯醛 (E)-2-octenal 3 2.56
醇类 Alcohols
1-辛烯-3-醇 1-Octen-3-ol 1 1367.97 1582.81 1469.03 1747.05
芳樟醇 Linalool 6 34.44 19.42 22.63 17.80
2-辛烯-1-醇 2-Octen-1-ol 40 1.55 2.20 5.33 1.83
桉叶油醇 Cineole 140.04 2.49 0.94 1.13 1.33
4-萜烯醇 Terpinine-4-ol 1240 0.19 0.11 0.13 0.15
α-松油醇 Alpha-Terpineol 330 0.40 0.17 0.14
戊醇 Isoamyl alcohol 4000 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04
酮类 Ketones
2-庚酮 2-Heptanone 141 0.17 1.56 1.75 1.99
2,5-辛二酮 2,5-Heptanedione 2.52 1603.92 1742.92 1659.41 1750.34
香叶基丙酮 Geranylacetone 60 1.39 0.71 0.71 0.70
酯类 Esters
己酸乙烯酯 Vinyl hexanoate 14 177.81
呋喃类 Furans
2-戊基呋喃 2-Pentylfuran 6 231.08 314.59 412.99 480.705
烃类 Hydrocarbons
茴香脑 cis-Anethol 0.14 925.43 403.07 662.93
十二烷 Dodecane 2040 0.09 0.10 0.06 0.07
异松油烯 Terpinolene 3260 0.02
柠檬烯 Limonene 10 6.59 7.60 5.44 3.74
β-石竹烯 β-Caryophyllene 64 1.33
α-蒎烯 α-pinene 6 20.27
含氮含硫及苯系物 Benzene and sulfur series containing nitrogen
对二甲苯 p-Xylene 450.23 0.06 0.15 0.24 0.36
甲苯 Toluene 1550 0.03

Fig. 2

Cluster analysis heat map of volatile flavor substance OAV>1 of Nanjing water-boiled salted duck at different heat treatment temperatures CK1-3 represent 3 replicates of the control group; L1-3 represent 3 replicates of the 80 ℃ treatment group; M1-3 represent 3 replicates of the 100 ℃ treatment group; H1-3 represent 3 replicates of the 121 ℃ treatment group"

Fig. 3

The variable importance in the projection (VIP) values based on key volatile compound data OAV>1"

Fig. 4

Sensory evaluation of Nanjing water-boiled salted duck at different heat treatment temperatures"

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