Comparative effects of nitrogen application on growth and nitrogen use in a winter wheat/summer maize rotation system
YIN Min-hua, LI Yuan-nong, XU Yuan-bo
Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education/College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, P.R.China
Abstract The application of fertilizer in agricultural production has become universally common for achieving high crop yields and economic benefits, but it has potential impacts on food safety, energy crisis and environmental pollution. Optimal management of fertilization is thus necessary for maintaining sustainable agriculture. Two-year (2013–2015) field experiment was conducted, in Yangling (108°24´E, 34°20´N, and 521 m a.s.l.), Shaanxi Province, China, to explore the effects of different nitrogen (N) applications on biomass accumulation, crop N uptake, nitrate N (NO3–-N) distribution, yield, and N use with a winter wheat/summer maize rotation system. The N applications consisted of conventional urea (U) (at 80 (U80), 160 (U160), and 240 (U240) kg N ha–1; 40% applied as a basal fertilizer and 60% top-dressed at jointing stage) and controlled-release urea (CRU) (at 60 (C60), 120 (C120), 180 (C180), and 240 (C240) kg N ha–1; all applied as a basal fertilizer) with no N application as a control (CK). The continuous release of N from CRU matched well with the N demands of crop throughout entire growing stages. Soil NO3–-N content varied less and peaked shallower in CRU than that in urea treatments. The differences, however, were smaller in winter wheat than that in summer maize seasons. The average yield of summer maize was the highest in C120 in CRU treatments and in U160 in urea treatments, and apparent N use efficiency (NUE) and N agronomic efficiency (NAE) were higher in C120 than in U160 by averages of 22.67 and 41.91%, respectively. The average yield of winter wheat was the highest in C180 in CRU treatments and in U240 in urea treatments with C180 increasing NUE and NAE by averages of 14.89 and 35.62% over U240, respectively. The annual yields under the two N fertilizers were the highest in C120 and U160. The results suggested that CRU as a basal fertilizer once could be a promising alternative of urea as split application in semiarid areas.
This research was financially supported by the National High-Tech R&D Program of China (863 Program, 2011AA100504) and the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest of China (201503105 and 201503125).
Corresponding Authors: Correspondence LI Yuan-nong, Tel: +86-29-87082901, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
About author: YIN Min-hua, Mobile: +86-15109217864, E-mail: email@example.com;
Cite this article:
. Comparative effects of nitrogen application on growth and nitrogen use in a winter wheat/summer maize rotation system[J]. Journal of Integrative Agriculture,
2017, 16(09): 2062-2072.
Ayadi S, Karmous C, Chamekh Z, Hammami Z, Baraket M, Esposito S, Rezgui S, Trifa Y. 2016. Effects of nitrogen rates on grain yield and nitrogen agronomic efficiency of durum wheat genotypes under different environments. Annals of Applied Biology, 168, 264-273.
Blackshaw R E, Hao X, Brandt R N, Clayton G W, Harker K N, O’Donovan J T, Johnson E N, Vera C L. 2011. Canola response to ESN and urea in a four-year no-till cropping system. Agronomy Journal, 103, 92-99.
Cavoski I, Al Chami Z, Jarrar M, Mondelli D. 2016. Solutions for soil fertility management to overcome the challenges of the mediterranean organic agriculture: Tomato plant case study. Soil Research, 54, 125-133.
Chen D, Suter H, Islam A, Edis R, Freney J R, Walker C N. 2008. Prospects of improving efficiency of fertiliser nitrogen in Australian agriculture: a review of enhanced efficiency fertilisers. Soil Resource, 46, 289-301.
Choudhury A T M A, Kennedy I R. 2005. Nitrogen fertilizer losses from rice soils and control of environmental pollution problems. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 36, 1625-1639.
Devkota M, Martius C, Lamers J P A, Sayre K D, Devkota K P, Vlek P L G. 2013. Tillage and nitrogen fertilization effects on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of irrigated cotton. Soil & Tillage Research, 134, 72-82.
Douglas L A, Riazi A, Smith C J. 1980. A semi-micro method for determining total nitrogen in soils and plant material containing nitrite and nitrate. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 44, 431-433.
Geng J B, Ma Q, Zhang M, Li C L, Liu Z G, Lyu X X, Zheng W K. 2015a. Synchronized relationships between nitrogen release of controlled release nitrogen fertilizers and nitrogen requirements of cotton. Field Crops Research, 184, 9-16.
Geng J B, Sun Y B, Zhang M, Li C L, Yang Y C, Liu Z G, Li S L. 2015b. Long-term effects of controlled release urea application on crop yields and soil fertility under rice-oilseed rape rotation system. Field Crops Research, 184, 65-73.
Grant C A, Wu R, Selles F, Harker K N, Clayton G W, Bittman S, Zebarth B J, Lupwayi N Z. 2012. Crop yield and nitrogen concentration with controlled release urea and split applications of nitrogen as compared to non-coated urea applied at seeding. Field Crops Research, 127, 170-180.
Hu H Y, Ning T Y, Li Z J, Han H F, Zhang Z Z, Qin S J, Zheng Y H. 2013. Coupling effects of urea types and subsoiling on nitrogen-water use and yield of different varieties of maize in northern China. Field Crops Research, 142, 85-94.
Huang L N, Liu J S. 2009. Development status of Chinese slow/controlled release fertilizers and the problems in its industrialization. Resource Development & Market, 25, 527-530. (in Chinese)
Jiang T. 2013. Effects of nitrogen application regime on yield, quality and plant nutrient contents of summer maize. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, 19, 559-565. (in Chinese)
Kemmitt S J, Wright D, Goulding K W T, Jones D L. 2006. pH regulation of carbon and nitrogen dynamics in two agricultural soils. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 38, 891-911.
Kiran J K, Khanif Y M, Amminuddin H, Anuar A R. 2010. Effects of controlled release urea on the yield and nitrogen nutrition of flooded rice. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 41, 811-819.
Lal R. 2003. Cropping systems and soil quality. Journal of Crop Production, 8, 33-52.
Lu Y L, Bai Y L, Wang L, Wang H, Du J, Wang Z Y. 2011. Efficiency analysis of slow/controlled release fertilizer on wheat-maize in North China. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science, 17, 209-215. (in Chinese)
Miao Y X, Stewart B A, Zhang F S. 2011. Long-term experiments for sustainable nutrient management in China. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 31, 397-414.
Officer S J, Phillips F, Kearney G, Armstrong R, Graham J, Partington D. 2015. Response of soil nitrous oxide flux to nitrogen fertiliser application and legume rotation in a semi-arid climate, identified by smoothing spline models. Soil Research, 53, 227-241.
Owens L B, Edwards W M, Vankeuren R W. 1994. Groundwater nitrate level sunder fertilized grass and grass legume. Journal of Environmental Quality, 23, 752-758.
Shao G Q, Li Z J, Ning T Y, Zhang M, Jiang X D, Wang Y, Zhao J B, Lü M R, Zhao J. 2009. Effects of normal urea and release-controlled urea on root and shoot growth and yield of maize in different water conditions. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 35, 118-123. (in Chinese)
Sun B F, Zhao H, Lü Y Z, Lu F, Wang X K. 2016. The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on methane and nitrous oxide emission/uptake in Chinese croplands. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 15, 440-450.
Yang Y C, Zhang M, Zheng L, Cheng D D, Liu M, Geng Y Q. 2011. Controlled release urea improved nitrogen use efficiency, yield, and quality of wheat. Soil Fertility & Crop Nutrition, 103, 479-485.
Ye Y S, Liang X Q, Chen Y X, Liu J, Gu J T, Guo R, Li L. 2013. Alternate wetting and drying irrigation and controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer in late-season rice. Effects on dry matter accumulation, yield, water and nitrogen use. Field Crops Research, 144, 212-224.
Zebarth B J, Rosen C J. 2007. Research perspective on nitrogen BMP development for potato. American Journal of Potato Research, 84, 3-18.
Zhang A P, Gao J, Liu R L, Zhang Q W, Chen Z, Yang S Q, Yang Z L. 2016. Using side-dressing technique to reduce nitrogen leaching and improve nitrogen recovery efficiency under an irrigated rice system in the upper reaches of Yellow River Basin, Northwest China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 15, 220-231.
Zhang F S, Wang J Q, Zhang W F, Cui Z L, Ma W Q, Chen X P, Jiang R F. 2008. Nutrient use efficiencies of major cereal crops in China and measures for improvement. Acta Pedologica Sinica, 45, 915-924. (in Chinese)
Zhao B, Dong S T, Zhang J W, Liu P. 2010. Effects of controlled-release fertiliser on yield and nitrogen accumulation and distribution in summer maize. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 36, 1760-1768. (in Chinese)