Reduction of arsenic bioavailability by amending seven inorganic materials in arsenic contaminated soil
SUN Yuan-yuan, LIU Rong-le, ZENG Xi-bai, LIN Qi-mei, BAI Ling-yu, LI Lian-fang, SU Shi-ming, WANG Ya-nan
Seven inorganic amendment materials were added into arsenic (As) contaminated soil at a rate of 0.5% (w/w); the materials used were sepiolite, red mud, iron grit, phosphogypsum, ferrihydrite, iron phosphate, and layered double oxides (LDO). Plant growth trials using rape (edible rape, Brassia campestris L.) as a bio-indicator are commonly used to assess As bioavailability in soils. In this study, B. campestris was grown in a contaminated soil for 50 days. All of the inorganic amendments significantly inhibited the uptake of As by B. campestris. Following soil treatment with the seven aforementioned inorganic ammendments, the As concentrations in the edible parts of B. campestris were reduced by 28.6, 10.5, 8.7, 31.0, 47.4, 25.3, and 28.8%, respectively, as compared with the plants grown in control soil. The most effective amendment was ferrihydrite, which reduced As concentration in B. campestris from 1.84 to 0.97 mg kg–1, compared to control. Furthermore, ferrihydrite-treated soils had a remarkable decrease in both non-specifically sorbed As and available-As by 67 and 20%, respectively, comparing to control. Phosphogypsum was the most cost-effective amendment and it showed excellent performance in reducing the water soluble As in soils by 31% and inhibiting As uptake in B. campestris by 21% comparing to control. Additionally, obvious differences in As transfer rates were observed in the various amendments. The seven amendment materials used in this study all showed potential reduction of As bioavailability and influence on plant growth and other biological processes still need to be further explored in the long term.