Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2021, Vol. 20 Issue (3): 783-791    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63392-5
Section 4: Integrated pest management Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Insecticide resistance monitoring for the invasive populations of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda in China
ZHANG Dan-dan1, XIAO Yu-tao2, XU Peng-jun3, YANG Xian-ming1, WU Qiu-lin1, WU Kong-ming1 
1 State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, P.R.China
2 Agricultural Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenzhen 518120, P.R.China
3 Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266101, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      


Fall armyworm has invaded China and colonized its populations in tropical and sub-tropical regions of South China since December 2018.  Chemical spray has been widely used to control the pest, which shall lead to resistance evolution.  In this research, we collected five populations of the pest from Yunnan, Hainan, Tibet, and Fujian of China, and tested their susceptibilities to pyrethroid, organophosphorus, oxadiazine, diamide, antibiotics and other types of insecticides (14 insecticides totally) in the laboratory.  Based on the susceptible baseline published from the previous studies, the resistance ratio was 615–1 068-fold to chlorpyrifos, 60–388-fold to spinosad, 26–317-fold to lambda-cyhalothrin, 13–29-fold to malathion, 9–33-fold to fenvalerate, 8–20-fold to deltamethrin, 3–8-fold to emamectin benzoate and 1–2-fold to chlorantraniliprole, respectively.  The median lethal concentration (LC50) of other six insecticides without the susceptible baselines was 148.27–220.96 µg mL–1 for beta-cypermethrin, 87.03–128.43 µg mL–1 for chlorfenapyr, 16.35–99.67 µg mL–1 for indoxacarb, 10.55–51.01 µg mL–1 for phoxim, 7.08–8.78 µg mL–1 for M-EBI (the mixed insecticide of emamectin benzoate and indoxcarb) and 1.49–4.64 µg mL–1 for cyantraniliprole.  This study can be helpful for chemical control as well as for resistance monitoring and management of the pest in China.
Keywords:  Spodoptera frugiperda        insecticides        resistance monitoring        China  
Received: 04 June 2020   Accepted:
Fund: This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2019YFD0300101) and the Central Public-interest Scientific Institution Basal Research Fund, China (CAAS-ZDRW202007).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence WU Kong-ming, Tel: +86-10-82105551, E-mail:   
About author:  ZHANG Dan-dan, Tel: +86-10-62816306, E-mail: wua134152;

Cite this article: 

ZHANG Dan-dan, XIAO Yu-tao, XU Peng-jun, YANG Xian-ming, WU Qiu-lin, WU Kong-ming. 2021. Insecticide resistance monitoring for the invasive populations of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda in China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(3): 783-791.

Armes N J, Jadhav D R, Bond G S. 1992. Insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera in South India. Pesticide Science, 34, 355–364.
Blanco C A, Pellegaud J G, Nava-Camberos U, Lugo-Barrera D, Vega-Aquino P, Coello J, Terán-Vargas A P, Vargas-Camplis J. 2014. Maize pests in Mexico and challenges for the adoption of integrated pest management programs. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 5, 1–9.
Burtet L M, Bernardi O, Melo A A, Pes M P, Strahl T T, Guedes J V. 2017. Managing fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with Bt maize and insecticides in southern Brazil. Pest Management Science, 73, 2569–2577.
Carvalho R A, Omoto C, Field L M, Williamson M S, Bass C. 2013. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. PLoS ONE, 8, e62268.
Day R, Abrahams P, Bateman M, Beale T, Clottey V, Cock M, Colmenarez Y, Corniani N, Early R, Godwin J, Gomez J, Moreno P G, Murphy S T, Oppong-Mensah B, Phiri N, Pratt C, Silvestri S, Witt A. 2017. Fall armyworm: Impacts and implications for Africa. Outlooks on Pest Management, 28, 196–201.
Nascimento A R, Farias J R, Bernardi D, Horikoshi R J, Omoto C. 2016. Genetic basis of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance to the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron. Pest Management Science, 72, 810–815.
Dumas P, Legeai F, Lemaitre C, Scaon E, Orsucci M, Labadie K, Gimenez S, Clamens A L, Henri H, Vavre F, Aury J M, Fournier P, Kergoat G J, Alencon E. 2015. Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host-plant variants: Two host strains or two distinct species? Genetica, 143, 305–316.
Early R, González-Moreno P, Murphy S T, Day R. 2018. Forecasting the global extent of invasion of the cereal pest Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm. NeoBiota, 40, 25–50.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2018. First detection of fall army worm on the border of Thailand. [2018-12-19].
FAO. 2019a. Briefing note on FAO actions on fall armyworm. Rome, Italy. [2019-03-05].
FAO. 2019b. FAO Statement on fall armyworm in Sri Lanka. [2019-01-24]. detail-events/en/c/1177796
FAO. 2019c. First detection report of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptra: Noctuidae) on maize in Myanmar. [2019-01-14].
Fatoretto J C, Michel A P, Silva Filho M C, Silva N. 2017. Adaptive potential of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) limits Bt trait durability in Brazil. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 8, 1–10, 17.
Gao X W. 2010. Current status and development strategy for chemical control in China. Plant Protection, 36, 19–22. (in Chinese)
Goergen G, Kumar P L, Sankung S B, Togola A, Tamo M. 2016. First report of outbreaks of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a new Alien invasive pest in West and Central Africa. PLoS ONE, 11, e0165632.
Gutierrez-Moreno R, Mota-Sanchez D, Blanco C A, Whalon M E, Teran-Santofimio H, Rodriguez-Maciel J C, DiFonzo C. 2019. Field-evolved resistance of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to synthetic insecticides in Puerto Rico and Mexico. Journal of Economic Entomology, 112, 792–802.
He L M, Zhao S Y, Wu K M. 2019. Study on the damage of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda to peanut. Plant Protection, 46, 28–33. (in Chinese)
Liang G M, Guo Y Y, Hong X W, Wang W G. 1996. Studies on the laboratory development of resistance and cross-resistance of cotton bollworm to deltamethrin cyhalothrin and a mixture contained cyhalothrin. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 23, 66–72. (in Chinese)
Liang G M, Tan W J, Guo Y Y. 1999. An improvement in the technique of artificial rearing cotton bollworm. Plant Protection, 25, 15–17. (in Chinese)
Muraro D S, Garlet C G, Godoy D N, Cossa G E, Rodrigues J G, Stacke R F, Medeiros S L, Guedes J V, Bernardi O. 2019. Laboratory and field survival of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt and non-Bt maize and its susceptibility to insecticides. Pest Management Science, 75, 2202–2210.
Okuma D M, Bernardi D, Horikoshi R J, Bernardi O, Silva A P, Omoto C. 2018. Inheritance and fitness costs of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance to spinosad in Brazil. Pest Management Science, 74, 1441–1448.
Russell R M, Robertson J L, Savin N E. 1977. POLO: A new computer program for probit analysis. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 23, 209–213.
Sharanabasappa D, Kalleshwaraswamy C M, Asokan R, Swamy H M, Maruthi M S, Pavithra H B, Hegde K, Navi S, Prabhu S T, Goergen G. 2018. First report of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an alien invasive pest on maize in India. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 24, 23–29.
Song Y F, Wu K M. 2020. Investigation on controlling status of fall armyworm in sweet/ waxy corn fields in western Yunnan Province. Plant Protection, 46, 217–222.
Storer N P, Babcock J M, Schlenz M, Meade T, Thompson G D, Bing J W, Huckaba R M. 2010. Discovery and characterization of field resistance to Bt Maize: Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Puerto Rico. Journal of Economic Entomology, 103, 1031–1038.
Sun X X, Hu C X, Jia H R, Wu Q L, Shen X J, Zhao S Y, Jiang Y Y, Wu K M. 2021. Case study on the first immigration of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda invading into China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20, 664–672.
Togola A, Meseka S, Menkir A, 2018. Measurement of pesticide residues from chemical control of the invasive Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in a maize experimental field in Mokwa, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 15, 849.
Wu K M. 2018. Development direction of crop pest control science and technology in China. Journal of Agriculture, 8, 35–38. (in Chinese)
Wu K M. 2020. Management strategies of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in China. Plant Protection, 46, 1–5. (in Chinese)
Wu K M, Guo Y Y. 2000. The coordinated development and analysis of contributing factors of cotton bollworm resistance to insecticides in round-Bohai Bay-region. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 27, 173–178. (in Chinese)
Wu Y D, Shen J L, Tan F J, You Z P. 1996. Stability of pyrethroids resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 39, 342–346. (in Chinese)
Wu Y D, Shen J L, You Y P. 1995. Genetic analysis of fenvalerate resistance in cotton bollworm, Heliothis armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica, 38, 20–24. (in Chinese)
Yang X M, Sun X X, Zhao S Y, Li J Y, Chi X C, Jiang Y Y, Wu K M. 2019. Population occurrence, spatial distribution and sampling technique of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda in wheat fields. Plant Protection, 46, 10–16, 23. (in Chinese)
Yu S J. 1991. Insecticide resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 39, 84–91.
Yu S J. 1992. Detection and biochemical characterization of insecticide resistance in fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 85, 675–682.
Yu S J, McCord E. 2007. Lack of cross-resistance to indoxacarb in insecticide-resistant Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Pest Management Science, 63, 63–67.
Yu S J, Nguyen S N, Abo-Elghar G E. 2003. Biochemical characteristics of insecticide resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 77, 1–11.
Zhang L, Liu B, Jiang Y Y, Liu J, Wu K M, Xiao Y T. 2019. Molecular characterization analysis of fall armyworm populations in China. Plant Protection, 45, 20–27. (in Chinese)
[1] LI Dong-qing, ZHANG Ming-xue, LÜ Xin-xin, HOU Ling-ling. Does nature-based solution sustain grassland quality? Evidence from rotational grazing practice in China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(8): 2567-2576.
[2] LÜ Chun-yang, GE Shi-shuai, HE Wei, ZHANG Hao-wen, YANG Xian-ming, CHU Bo, WU Kong-ming. Accurate recognition of the reproductive development status and prediction of oviposition fecundity in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) based on computer vision[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2023, 22(7): 2173-2187.
[3] SHU Ben-shui, YU Hai-kuo, DAI Jing-hua, XIE Zi-ge, QIAN Wan-qiang, LIN Jin-tian. Stability evaluation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR normalization in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(9): 2471-2482.
[4] QIAO Fang-bin, HUANG Ji-kun. Farmers’ risk preference and fertilizer use[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(7): 1987-1995.
[5] LEI Ming, YUAN Xuan-yu, YAO Xin-yan. Synthesize dual goals: A study on China’s ecological poverty alleviation system[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(4): 1042-1059.
[6] ZHOU Yan, WU Qiu-lin, ZHANG Hao-wen, WU Kong-ming. Spread of invasive migratory pest Spodoptera frugiperda and management practices throughout China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(3): 637-645.
[7] Jing WAN, HUANG Cong, LI Chang-you, ZHOU Hong-xu, REN Yong-lin, LI Zai-yuan, XING Long-sheng, ZHANG Bin, QIAO Xi, LIU Bo, LIU Cong-hui, XI Yu, LIU Wan-xue, WANG Wen-kai, QIAN Wan-qiang, Simon MCKIRDY, WAN Fang-hao . Biology, invasion and management of the agricultural invader: Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(3): 646-663.
[8] ZHOU Xian-yong, WU Qiu-lin, JIA Hui-ru, WU Kong-ming. Searchlight trapping reveals seasonal cross-ocean migration of fall armyworm over the South China Sea[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(3): 673-684.
[9] JIA Hui-ru, GUO Jiang-long, WU Qiu-lin, HU Chao-xing, LI Xiao-kang, ZHOU Xian-yong, WU Kong-ming . Migration of invasive Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) across the Bohai Sea in northern China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(3): 685-693.
[10] WU Qiu-lin, SHEN Xiu-jing, HE Li-mei, JIANG Yu-ying, LIU Jie, HU Gao, WU Kong-ming. Windborne migration routes of newly-emerged fall armyworm from Qinling Mountains–Huaihe River region, China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(3): 694-706.
[11] WU Li-hong, ZHOU Cao, LONG Gui-yun, YANG Xi-bin, WEI Zhi-yan, LIAO Ying-jiang, YANG Hong, HU Chao-xing . Fitness of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda to three solanaceous vegetables[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(3): 755-763.
[12] ZHANG Dan-dan, ZHAO Sheng-yuan, WU Qiu-lin, LI Yu-yan, WU Kong-ming. Cold hardiness of the invasive fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda in China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(3): 764-771.
[13] JIN Ming-hui, TAO Jia-hui, LI Qi, CHENG Ying, SUN Xiao-xu, WU Kong-ming, XIAO Yu-tao . Genome editing of the SfABCC2 gene confers resistance to Cry1F toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis in Spodoptera frugiperda[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(3): 815-820.
[14] LIU Ying-jie, ZHANG Dan-dan, YANG Li-yu, DONG Yong-hao, LIANG Ge-mei, Philip DONKERSLEY, REN Guang-wei, XU Peng-jun, WU Kong-ming . Analysis of phototactic responses in Spodoptera frugiperda using Helicoverpa armigera as control[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(3): 821-828.
[15] LI Hui, JIANG Shan-shan, ZHANG Hao-wen, GENG Ting, Kris A. G. WYCKHUYS, WU Kong-ming . Two-way predation between immature stages of the hoverfly Eupeodes corollae and the invasive fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith)[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(3): 829-839.
No Suggested Reading articles found!