Please wait a minute...
Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2021, Vol. 20 Issue (3): 646-663    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63367-6
Section 1: Review of current research on fall armyworm Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Biology, invasion and management of the agricultural invader: Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Jing WAN1*, HUANG Cong2*, LI Chang-you3, ZHOU Hong-xu3, REN Yong-lin1, LI Zai-yuan4, XING Long-sheng2, ZHANG Bin3, QIAO Xi2, LIU Bo2, LIU Cong-hui2, XI Yu2, LIU Wan-xue5, WANG Wen-kai4, QIAN Wan-qiang2, Simon MCKIRDY1, WAN Fang-hao1, 2, 3, 5 
1 Harry Butler Institute, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia
2 Shenzhen Branch, Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Genome Analysis Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenzhen 518120, P.R.China
3 College of Plant Health and Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, P.R.China
4 Hubei Engineering Research Center for Pest Forewarning and Management, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, P.R.China
5 Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, P.R.China
Download:  PDF in ScienceDirect  
Export:  BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      


The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is native to the Americas.  It has rapidly invaded 47 African countries and 18 Asian countries since the first detection of invasion into Nigeria and Ghana in 2016.  It is regarded as a super pest based on its host range (at least 353 host plants), its inherent ability to survive in a wide range of habitats, its strong migration ability, high fecundity, rapid development of resistance to insecticides/viruses and its gluttonous characteristics.  The inherently superior biological characteristics of FAW contribute to its invasiveness.  Integrated pest management (IPM) of FAW has relied on multiple applications of monitoring and scouting, agricultural control, chemical pesticides, viral insecticides, sex attractants, bio-control agents (parasitoids, predators and entomopathogens) and botanicals.  Knowledge gaps remain to be filled to: (1) understand the invasive mechanisms of S. frugiperda; (2) understand how to prevent its further spread and (3) provide better management strategies.  This review summarizes the biological characters of FAW, their association with its invasiveness and IPM strategies, which may provide further insights for future management.
Keywords:   invasive alien species        fall armyworm        Spodoptera frugiperda        biological invasions        prevention        management        biosecurity  
Received: 24 June 2020   Accepted:
Fund: This work was supported by the Australia-China Joint Center for the Prevention and Management of Exotic Invasive Species, the Harry Butler Institute, Murdoch University, WA, Australia and the Shenzhen Science and Technology Program, China (KQTD20180411143628272).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence WAN Fang-hao, E-mail:; Simon MCKIRDY, E-mail:    
About author:  Jing WAN, E-mail:; HUANG Cong, E-mail:; * These authors contributed equally to this study.

Cite this article: 

Jing WAN, HUANG Cong, LI Chang-you, ZHOU Hong-xu, REN Yong-lin, LI Zai-yuan, XING Long-sheng, ZHANG Bin, QIAO Xi, LIU Bo, LIU Cong-hui, XI Yu, LIU Wan-xue, WANG Wen-kai, QIAN Wan-qiang, Simon MCKIRDY, WAN Fang-hao . 2021. Biology, invasion and management of the agricultural invader: Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(3): 646-663.

Abrahams P, Bateman M, Beale T, Clottey V, Cock M, Colmenarez Y, Corniani N, Day R, Early R, Godwin J, Gomez J, Moreno P G, Murphy S T, Oppong-Mensah B, Phiri N, Pratt C, Richards G, Silvestri S, Witt A. 2017. Fall Armyworm: Impacts and Implications for Africa. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International, Wallingford.
Altre J A, Vandenberg J D. 2001. Comparison of blastospores of two Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolates: in vitro traits and virulence when injected into fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 78, 170–175.
Andrade R, Rodriguez C, Oehlschlager A C. 2000. Optimization of a pheromone lure for Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) in Central America. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 11, 609–613.
Assefa Y. 2019. Molecular identification of the invasive strain of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Swaziland. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 39, 73–78.
Ayra-Pardo C, Borras-Hidalgo O. 2019. Fall armyworm (FAW; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Moth oviposition and crop protection. In: Picimbon J F, ed., Olfactory Concepts of Insect Control-Alternative to Insecticides. Springer, Switzerland. pp. 93–116.
Banerjee R, Hasler J, Meagher R, Nagoshi R, Hietala L, Huang F, Narva K, Jurat-Fuentes J L. 2017. Mechanism and DNA-based detection of field-evolved resistance to transgenic Bt corn in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). Scientific Reports, 7, 10877.
Barrera G P, Belaich M N, Patarroyo M A, Villamizar L F, Ghiringhelli P D. 2015. Evidence of recent interspecies horizontal gene transfer regarding nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda. BMC Genomics, 16, 1008.
Bateman M L, Day R K, Luke B, Edgington S, Kuhlmann U, Cock M J W. 2018. Assessment of potential biopesticide options for managing fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in Africa. Journal of Applied Entomology, 142, 805–819.
Batista-Pereira L G, Stein K, de Paula A F, Moreira J A, Cruz I, de Lourdes C Figueiredo M, Perri Jr J, Correa A G. 2006. Isolation, identification, synthesis, and field evaluation of the sex pheromone of the Brazilian population of Spodoptera frugiperda. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 32, 1085–1099.
Behle R W, Popham H J R. 2012. Laboratory and field evaluations of the efficacy of a fast-killing baculovirus isolate from Spodoptera frugiperda. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 109, 194–200.
Berretta M F, Rios M L, de Cap A S. 1998. Characterization of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Spodoptera frugiperda from Argentina. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 71, 280–282.
Beserra E B, Dias C T, Parra J R. 2005. Behavior of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and T. pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) egg masses. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 65, 9–17.
Boaventura D, Bolzan A, Padovez F E O, Okuma D M, Omoto C, Nauen R. 2020. Detection of a ryanodine receptor target-site mutation in diamide insecticide resistant fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Pest Management Science, 76, 47–54.
Botha A S, Erasmus A, du Plessis H, Van den Berg J. 2019. Efficacy of Bt maize for control of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in South Africa. Journal of Economic Entomology, 112, 1260–1266.
Bradshaw C J A, Leroy B, Bellard C, Roiz D, Albert C, Fournier A, Barbet-Massin M, Salles J M, Simard F, Courchamp F. 2016. Massive yet grossly underestimated global costs of invasive insects. Nature Communications, 7, 12986.
Buntin G D, Lee R D, Wilson D M, McPherson R M. 2001. Evaluation of yieldgard transgenic resistance for control of fall armyworm and corn earworm (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) on corn. Florida Entomologist, 84, 37–42.
Carneiro A A, Gomes E A, Guimaraes C T, Fernandes F T, Carneiro N P, Cruz I. 2008. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of isolates of Beauveria spp. to fall armyworm. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 43, 513–520.
Carvalho R A, Omoto C, Field L M, Williamson M S, Bass C. 2013. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. PLoS ONE, 8, e62268.
Castillejos V, Trujillo J, Ortega L D, Santizo J A, Cisneros J, Penagos D I, Valle J, Williams T. 2002. Granular phagostimulant nucleopolyhedrovirus formulations for control of Spodoptera frugiperda in maize. Biological Control, 24, 300–310.
Chandrasena D I, Signorini A M, Abratti G, Storer N P, Olaciregui M L, Alves A P, Pilcher C D. 2018. Characterization of field-evolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry1F delta-endotoxin in Spodoptera frugiperda populations from Argentina. Pest Management Science, 74, 746–754.
Che J Y, Chen H, Chen Y M, Wang F L, Lu P, Zhu J P, Zhang H B, Xiao L B, Jiang C Y, Jin L, Zhu Z F, Zhang F. 2020. Trapping effect of four different sex attractants on Spodoptera frugiperda. Plant Protection, 46, 261–266. (in Chinese)
Chen W, Hasegawa D K, Kaur N, Kliot A, Pinheiro P V, Luan J, Stensmyr M C, Zheng Y, Liu W, Sun H, Xu Y, Luo Y, Kruse A, Yang X, Kontsedalov S, Lebedev G, Fisher T W, Nelson D R, Hunter W B, Brown J K, et al. 2016. The draft genome of whitefly Bemisia tabaci MEAM1, a global crop pest, provides novel insights into virus transmission, host adaptation, and insecticide resistance. BMC Biology, 14, 110.
Chen W B, Li Y Y, Wang M Q, Liu C X, Mao J J, Chen H Y, Zhang L S. 2019. Entomopathogen resources of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and their application status. Plant Protection, 45, 1–9. (in Chinese)
Cheng T, Wu J, Wu Y, Chilukuri R V, Huang L, Yamamoto K, Feng L, Li W, Chen Z, Guo H, Liu J, Li S, Wang X, Peng L, Liu D, Guo Y, Fu B, Li Z, Liu C, Chen Y, et al. 2017. Genomic adaptation to polyphagy and insecticides in a major East Asian noctuid pest. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1, 1747–1756.
Chiwamba S H, Phiri J, Nkunika P O Y, Nyirenda M, Kabemba M M, Sohati P H. 2019a. Machine learning algorithms for automated image capture and identification of fall armyworm (FAW) moths. Zambia Information Communication Technology (ICT) Journal, 3, 1–4.
Chiwamba S H, Phiri J, Nkunika P O Y, Sikasote C, Kabemba M M, Moonga M N. 2019b. Automated fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, J.E. Smith) pheromone trap based on machine learning. Journal of Computer Science, 15, 1759–1779.
Chulu F, Phiri J, Nkunika P O Y, Nyirenda M, Kabemba M M, Sohati P H. 2019. A convolutional neural network for automatic identification and classification of fall armyworm moth. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 10, 112–118.
Cisneros J, Pérez J A, Penagos D I, Ruiz J, Goulson D, Caballero P, Cave R D, Williams T. 2002. Formulation of a nucleopolyhedrovirus with boric acid for control of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize. Biological Control, 23, 87–95.
Cruz-Esteban S, Rojas J C, Sanchez-Guillen D, Cruz-Lopez L, Malo E A. 2018. Geographic variation in pheromone component ratio and antennal responses, but not in attraction, to sex pheromones among fall armyworm populations infesting corn in Mexico. Journal of Pest Science, 91, 973–983.
Cui Y, Ren Y D, Lyu M, Zheng S C, Feng Q L, Xiang H. 2020. Genomic divergences between the two polyphagous Spodoptera relatives provide cues for successful invasion of the fall armyworm. Insect Science, 27, 1257–1265.
Dumas P, Legeai F, Lemaitre C, Scaon E, Orsucci M, Labadie K, Gimenez S, Clamens A L, Henri H, Vavre F, Aury J M, Fournier P, Kergoat G J, d’Alencon E. 2015. Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host-plant variants: Two host strains or two distinct species? Genetica, 143, 305–316.
FAO. 2018. Integrated management of the fall armyworm on maize: a guide for farmer field schools in Africa. Food and Agriculture Organnization, Rome.
Farias J R, Andow D A, Horikoshi R J, Sorgatto R J, Fresia P, dos Santos A C, Omoto C. 2014. Field-evolved resistance to Cry1F maize by Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil. Crop Protection, 64, 150–158.
Farmer B. 2019. Fall armyworm marches on as pest that devastated African crops spreads in Asia. [2019-01-09].
Feng H Q, Wu K M, Cheng D F, Guo Y Y. 2003. Radar observations of the autumn migration of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and other moths in northern China. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 93, 115–124.
Feng H Q, Wu K M, Cheng D F, Guo Y Y. 2004. Spring migration and summer dispersal of Loxostege sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and other insects observed with radar in Northern China. Environmental Entomology, 33, 1253–1265.
Feng H Q, Wu X F, Wu B, Wu K M. 2009. Seasonal migration of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea. Journal of Economic Entomology, 102, 95–104.
Flagel L, Lee Y W, Wanjugi H, Swarup S, Brown A, Wang J, Kraft E, Greenplate J, Simmons J, Adams N, Wang Y, Martinelli S, Haas J A, Gowda A, Head G. 2018. Mutational disruption of the ABCC2 gene in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, confers resistance to the Cry1Fa and Cry1A.105 insecticidal proteins. Scientific Reports, 8, 7255.
Fu X W, Li C, Feng H Q, Liu Z F, Chapman J W, Reynolds D R, Wu K M. 2014. Seasonal migration of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) over the Bohai Sea in northern China. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 104, 601–609.
Garcia L C, Raetano C G, Leite L G. 2008. Application technology for the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn. Neotropical Entomology, 37, 305–311.
Ge S S, He L M, He W, Xu R B, Sun X T, Wu K M. 2019. Determination on moth flight capacity of Spodoptera frugiperda. Plant Protection, 45, 28–33. (in Chinese)
Gimenez S, Abdelgaffar H, Goff G L, Hilliou F, Blanco C A, Hanniger S, Bretaudeau A, Legeai F, Negre N, Jurat-Fuentes J L, d’Alencon E, Nam K. 2020. Adaptation by copy number variation increases insecticide resistance in the fall armyworm. Communications Biology, 3, 664.
Goergen G, Kumar P L, Sankung S B, Togola A, Tamo M. 2016. First report of outbreaks of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a new alien invasive pest in West and Central Africa. PLoS ONE, 11, e0165632.
Gomez J, Guevara J, Cuartas P, Espinel C, Villamizar L. 2013. Microencapsulated Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus: Insecticidal activity and effect on arthropod populations in maize. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 23, 829–846.
Gouin A, Bretaudeau A, Nam K, Gimenez S, Aury J M, Duvic B, Hilliou F, Durand N, Montagne N, Darboux I, Kuwar S, Chertemps T, Siaussat D, Bretschneider A, Mone Y, Ahn S J, Hanniger S, Grenet A G, Neunemann D, Maumus F, et al. 2017. Two genomes of highly polyphagous lepidopteran pests (Spodoptera frugiperda, Noctuidae) with different host-plant ranges. Scientific Reports, 7, 11816.
Gramkow A W, Perecmanis S, Sousa R L, Noronha E F, Felix C R, Nagata T, Ribeiro B M. 2010. Insecticidal activity of two proteases against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae infected with recombinant baculoviruses. Virology Journal, 7, 143.
Grijalba E P, Espinel C, Cuartas P E, Chaparro M L, Villamizar L F. 2018. Metarhizium rileyi biopesticide to control Spodoptera frugiperda: stability and insecticidal activity under glasshouse conditions. Fungal Biology, 122, 1069–1076.
Groot A T, Marr M, Heckel D G, Schofl G. 2010. The roles and interactions of reproductive isolation mechanisms in fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host strains. Ecological Entomology, 35, 105–118.
Groot A T, Marr M, Schofl G, Lorenz S, Svatos A, Heckel D G. 2008. Host strain specific sex pheromone variation in Spodoptera frugiperda. Frontiers in Zoology, 5, 20.
Gui F R, Lan T M, Zhao Y, Guo W, Dong Y, Fang D M, Liu H, Li H M, Wang H L, Hao R S, Cheng X F, Li Y H, Yang P C, Sahu S K, Chen Y P, Cheng L, He S Q, Liu P, Fan G Y, Lu H R, et al. 2020. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis unveils population evolution and development of pesticide resistance in fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Protein & Cell, doi: 10.1007/s13238-020-00795-7.
Gutierrez-Moreno R, Mota-Sanchez D, Blanco C A, Whalon M E, Teran-Santofimio H, Rodriguez-Maciel J C, DiFonzo C. 2019. Field-evolved resistance of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to synthetic insecticides in Puerto Rico and Mexico. Journal of Economic Entomology, 112, 792–802.
Haas-Stapleton E J, Washburn J O, Volkman L E. 2005. Spodoptera frugiperda resistance to oral infection by Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus linked to aberrant occlusion-derived virus binding in the midgut. Journal of General Virology, 86, 1349–1355.
Hailu G, Niassy S, Zeyaur K R, Ochatum N, Subramanian S. 2018. Maize-legume intercropping and push-pull for management of fall armyworm, stemborers, and striga in Uganda. Agronomy Journal, 110, 2513–2522.
Hay-Roe M M, Meagher R L, Nagoshi R N. 2011. Effects of cyanogenic plants on fitness in two host strains of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 37, 1314–1322.
Hoover K, Humphries M A, Gendron A R, Slavicek J M. 2010. Impact of viral enhancin genes on potency of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in L. dispar following disruption of the peritrophic matrix. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 104, 150–152.
Horikoshi R J, Bernardi D, Bernardi O, Malaquias J B, Okuma D M, Miraldo L L, Amaral F S, Omoto C. 2016. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management. Scientific Reports, 6, 34864.
Hruska A J, Gould F. 1997. Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea lineolata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Impact of larval population level and temporal occurrence on maize yield in Nicaragua. Journal of Economic Entomology, 90, 611–622.
Huang C, Li Y Z, Yang N W, Wu Q, Xing L S, Qian W Q, Xi Y, Li F, Wan F H. 2019. Progresses in invasive insect genomics. Plant Protection, 45, 112–120. (in Chinese)
Huang F, Qureshi J A, Meagher Jr R L, Reisig D D, Head G P, Andow D A, Ni X, Kerns D, Buntin G D, Niu Y, Yang F, Dangal V. 2014. Cry1F resistance in fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: Single gene versus pyramided Bt maize. PLoS ONE, 9, e112958.
Jakka S R, Knight V R, Jurat-Fuentes J L. 2014. Fitness costs associated with field-evolved resistance to Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 107, 342–351.
Jakka S R K, Gong L, Hasler J, Banerjee R, Sheets J J, Narva K, Blanco C A, Jurat-Fuentes J L. 2016. Field-evolved mode 1 resistance of the fall armyworm to transgenic Cry1Fa-expressing corn associated with reduced Cry1Fa toxin binding and midgut alkaline phosphatase expression. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 82, 1023–1034.
Jiang Y Y, Liu J, Xie M C, Li Y H, Yang J J, Zhang M L, Qiu K. 2019. Observation on law of diffusion damage of Spodoptera frugiperda in China in 2019. Plant Protection, 45, 10–19. (in Chinese)
Jiang Y Y, Liu J, Yang J J, Zhao W X, Yin L, Liu Y, Ye S F, Qin B Q, Song L D. 2020. Trapping effect of searchlight-trap and light trap for the moth of Spodoptera frugiperda in 2019. Plant Protection, 46, 118–122. (in Chinese)
Jin M H, Tao J H, Li Q, Cheng Y, Sun X X, Wu K M, Xiao Y T. 2021. Genome editing of the SfABCC2 gene confers resistance to Cry1F toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis in Spodoptera frugiperda. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20, 815–820.
Jourdie V, Alvarez N, Turlings T C, Franck P. 2009. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in two primary parasitoids of the noctuid Spodoptera frugiperda: Chelonus insularis and Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera). Molecular Ecology Resources, 9, 171–173.
Kakumani P K, Malhotra P, Mukherjee S K, Bhatnagar R K. 2014. A draft genome assembly of the army worm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Genomics, 104, 134–143.
Kurmen C, Elena J, Gómez Alvarez M I, Villamizar Rivero L F. 2015. Microencapsulation of a colombian Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus with Eudragit@ S100 by spray drying. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 58, 468–476.
Leibee G L, Capinera J L. 1995. Pesticide resistance in Florida insects limits management options. Florida Entomologist, 78, 386–399.
Li X J, Wu M F, Ma J, Gao B Y, Wu Q L, Chen A D, Liu J, Jian Y Y, Zhai B P, Early R, Chapman J W, Hu G. 2020. Prediction of migratory routes of the invasive fall armyworm in eastern China using a trajectory analytical approach. Pest Management Science, 76, 454–463.
Li Y P, Zhang S, Wang X J, Xie X P, Liang P, Zhang L, Gu S H, Gao X W. 2019. Current status of insecticide resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda and strategies for its chemical control. Plant Protection, 45, 14–19. (in Chinese)
Li Z G, Lv X, Ya Y K, Xu Q Y, Ye J W, Han S C, Zhang C L, Li J. 2019. The parasitism of Telenomus remus and Trichogramma chilonis on Spodoptera frugiperda found in the fields of Guangzhou and Hong Kong. Journal of Environmental Entomology, 41, 760–765.
Lima E R, McNeil J N. 2009. Female sex pheromones in the host races and hybrids of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Chemoecology, 19, 29–36.
Lin S K, Liu K H, Wang R F, Liu B J, Zhang Y, Wu J Y Z, Cheng D M, Xu H H, Zhang Z X. 2020. Indoor toxicity of azadirachtin to Spodoptera frugiperda and its control effect in field. Journal of South China Agricultural University, 41, 22–27. (in Chinese)
Ma Z Z, Zhou H, Wei Y L, Yan S, Shen J. 2020. A novel plasmid-Escherichia coli system produces large batch dsRNAs for insect gene silencing. Pest Management Science, 76, 2505–2512.
Mahadevaswamy H M, Asokan R, Kalleshwaraswamy C M, Sharanabasappa D, Prasad Y G, Maruthi M S, Shashank P R, Naorem I D, Surakasula A, Adarsha S, Srinivas A, Rao S, Sekhar V, Raju M S, Reddy G S S, Nagesh S N. 2018. Prevalence of ‘R’ strain and molecular diversity of fall army worm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in India. Indian Journal of Entomology, 80, 544–553.
Malaquias J B, Godoy W A C, Garcia A G, Ramalho F S, Omoto C. 2017. Larval dispersal of Spodoptera frugiperda strains on Bt cotton: A model for understanding resistance evolution and consequences for its management. Scientific Reports, 7, 16109.
Malo E A, Cruz-Lopez L, Valle-Mora J, Virgen A, Sanchez J A, Rojas J C. 2001. Evaluation of commercial pheromone lures and traps for monitoring male fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the coastal region of Chiapas, Mexico. Florida Entomologist, 84, 659–664.
Malo E A, Rojas J C, Gago R, Guerrero Á. 2013. Inhibition of the responses to sex pheromone of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Journal of Insect Science, 13, 134.
Martinez A M, Caballero P, Villanueva M, Miralles N, San Martin I, Lopez E, Williams T. 2004. Formulation with an optical brightener does not increase probability of developing resistance to Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus in the laboratory. Journal of Economic Entomology, 97, 1202–1208.
McCord Jr E, Yu S. 1987. The mechanisms of carbaryl resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 27, 114–122.
Mendez W A, Valle J, Ibarra J E, Cisneros J, Penagos D I, Williams T. 2002. Spinosad and nucleopolyhedrovirus mixtures for control of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize. Biological Control, 25, 195–206.
Mitchell E, Doolittle R. 1976. Sex pheromones of Spodoptera exigua, S. eridania, and S. frugiperda: bioassay for field activity. Journal of Economic Entomology, 69, 324–326.
Molina-Ochoa J, Carpenter J E, Heinrichs E A, Foster J E. 2003. Parasitoids and parasites of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Americas and Caribbean Basin: An inventory. Florida Entomologist, 86, 254–289.
Monnerat R, Martins E, Macedo C, Queiroz P, Praca L, Soares C M, Moreira H, Grisi I, Silva J, Soberon M, Bravo A. 2015. Evidence of field-evolved resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt corn expressing Cry1F in Brazil that is still sensitive to modified Bt toxins. PLoS ONE, 10, e0119544.
Montezano D G, Specht A, Sosa-Gómez D R, Roque-Specht V F, Sousa-Silva J C, Paula-Moraes S V D, Peterson J A, Hunt T. 2018. Host plants of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Americas. African Entomology, 26, 286–300.
Mukawa S, Goto C. 2011. Enhancing effect of proteins derived from Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus on Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus infection in larvae of Autographa nigrisigna (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cabbage. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 46, 55–63.
Nagoshi R N, Adamczyk J J, Meagher R L, Gore J, Jackson R. 2014. Using stable isotope analysis to examine fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host strains in a cotton habitat. Journal of Economic Entomology, 100, 1569–1576.
Nagoshi R N, Dhanani I, Asokan R, Mahadevaswamy H M, Kalleshwaraswamy C M, Sharanabasappa D, Meagher R L. 2019. Genetic characterization of fall armyworm infesting South Africa and India indicate recent introduction from a common source population. PLoS ONE, 14, e0217755.
Nagoshi R N, Fleischer S, Meagher R L, Hay-Roe M, Khan A, Murua M G, Silvie P, Vergara C, Westbrook J. 2017. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations. PLoS ONE, 12, e0171743.
Nagoshi R N, Meagher R L. 2004. Behavior and distribution of the two fall armyworm host strains in Florida. Florida Entomologist, 87, 440–449.
Nandakumar S, Ma H, Khan A S. 2017. Whole-genome sequence of the Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cell line. Genome Announcements, 5, e00829–e00846.
Pasini A, Parra J R, Lopes J M. 2007. Artificial diet for rearing Doru luteipes (Scudder) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae), a predator of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Neotropical Entomology, 36, 308–311.
Pearce S L, Clarke D F, East P D, Elfekih S, Gordon K H J, Jermiin L S, McGaughran A, Oakeshott J G, Papanicolaou A, Perera O P, Rane R V, Richards S, Tay W T, Walsh T K, Anderson A, Anderson C J, Asgari S, Board P G, Bretschneider A, Campbell P M, et al. 2017. Genomic innovations, transcriptional plasticity and gene loss underlying the evolution and divergence of two highly polyphagous and invasive Helicoverpa pest species. BMC Biology, 15, 63.
Pitre H N. 1986. Chemical control of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): An update. Florida Entomologist, 69, 570–578.
Pitre H N. 1988. Relationship of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Florida, Honduras, Jamaica, and Mississippi: Susceptibility to insecticides with reference to migration. Florida Entomologist, 71, 56–61.
Pomari A F, Bueno A D, Bueno R, Junior A, Fonseca A. 2013. Releasing number of Telenomus remus (Nixon) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) against Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, cotton and soybean. Ciencia Rural, 43, 377–382.
Prasanna B, Huesing J, Eddy R, Peschke V. 2018. Fall Armyworm in Africa: A Guide for Integrated Pest Management. CAB International, Wallingford. pp. 1–109.
Qi G J, Huang D C, Wang L, Zhang Y P, Xiao H X, Shi Q X, Xiao Y, Su X N, Huang S H, Zou S F, Chen K W, Zhou Z B, Zhong B Y, Zheng J J, Zhang Z X, Jiang T H, Lv L H, Lu Y Y, Zhang Z F. 2020. The occurrence characteristic in winter and year-round breeding region of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) in Guangdong Province. Journal of Environmental Entomology, 42, 573–582. (in Chinese)
Qiao X, Li Y Z, Su G Y, Tian H K, Zhang S, Sun Z Y, Yang L, Wan F H, Qian W Q. 2020. MmNet: Identifying Mikania micrantha Kunth in the wild via a deep Convolutional Neural Network. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 19, 1292–1300.
Qin Y J, Yamng D C, Kang D L, Zhao Z H, Zhao Z H, Yang P Y, Li Z H. 2020. Potential economic loss assessment of maize industry caused by fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in China. Plant Protection, 46, 69–73. (in Chinese)
Rioba N B, Stevenson P C. 2020. Opportunities and scope for botanical extracts and products for the management of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) for smallholders in Africa. Plants, 9, 207.
Rodriguez-Cabrera L, Trujillo-Bacallao D, Borras-Hidalgo O, Wright D J, Ayra-Pardo C. 2010. RNAi-mediated knockdown of a Spodoptera frugiperda trypsin-like serine-protease gene reduces susceptibility to a Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca1 protoxin. Environmental Microbiology, 12, 2894–2903.
Schofl G, Heckel D G, Groot A T. 2009. Time-shifted reproductive behaviours among fall armyworm (Noctuidae: Spodoptera frugiperda) host strains: evidence for differing modes of inheritance. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 22, 1447–1459.
Sekul A A, Sparks A N. 1967. Sex pheromone of the fall armyworm moth: isolation, identification, and synthesis. Journal of Economic Entomology, 60, 1270–1272.
Shapiro M. 2000. Effect of two granulosis viruses on the activity of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Journal of Economic Entomology, 93, 1633–1637.
Sharanabasappa D, Kalleshwaraswamy C M, Maruthi M S, Pavithra H B. 2018. Biology of invasive fall army worm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on maize. Indian Journal of Entomology, 80, 540–543.
Sharanabasappa D, Kalleshwaraswamy C M, Poorani J, Maruthi M S, Pavithra H B. 2019. Natural enemies of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a recent invasive pest on maize in South India. Florida Entomologist, 102, 619–623.
Shylesha A N, Jalali S K, Gupta A, Varshney R, Venkatesan T, Shetty P, Ojha R, Ganiger P C, Navik O, Subaharan K, Bakthavatsalam N, Ballal C R, Raghavendra A. 2018. Studies on new invasive pest Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its natural enemies. Journal of Biological Control, 32, 1–7.
Shylesha A N, Sravika A. 2018. Natural occurrence of predatory bugs, Eocanthecona furcellata (Wolff) and Andrallus spinidens (Fabr.) on Spodoptera frugiperd (Smith) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in maize and their potential in management of fall armyworm. Journal of Biological Control, 32, 209–211.
Siebert M W, Babock J M, Nolting S, Santos A C, Adamczyk J J, Neese P A, King J E, Jenkins J N, McCarty J, Lorenz G M, Fromme D D, Lassiter R B. 2008. Efficacy of Cry1f insecticidal protein in maize and cotton for control of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Florida Entomologist, 91, 555–565.
Simberloff D, Gibbons L. 2004. Now you see them, now you don’t - population crashes of established introduced species. Biological Invasions, 6, 161–172.
Simon O, Palma L, Williams T, Lopez-Ferber M, Caballero P. 2012. Analysis of a naturally-occurring deletion mutant of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus reveals sf58 as a new per os infectivity factor of lepidopteran-infecting baculoviruses. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 109, 117–126.
Singh G, Sachdev B, Sharma N, Seth R, Bhatnagar R K. 2010. Interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with ribosomal S2 protein triggers larvicidal activity in Spodoptera frugiperda. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76, 7202–7209.
Sparks A N. 1979. A review of the biology of the fall armyworm. The Florida Entomologist, 62, 82–87.
Steinhaus E A. 1957. New records of insect-virus diseases. Hilgardia, 26, 417–430.
Storer N P, Babcock J M, Schlenz M, Meade T, Thompson G D, Bing J W, Huckaba R M. 2010. Discovery and characterization of field resistance to Bt maize: Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Puerto Rico. Journal of Economic Entomology, 103, 1031–1038.
Sueldo M R, Bruzzone O A, Virla E G. 2010. Characterization of the earwig, Doru lineare, as a predator of larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda: A functional response study. Journal of Insect Science, 10, 38.
Sun X X, Hu C X, Jia H R, Wu Q L, Shen X J, Zhao S Y, Jiang Y Y, Wu K M. 2021. Case study on the first immigration of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda invading into China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20, 664–672.
Sun Y, Liu X G, Lu G Q, Hao X Z, Li S H, Li G P, Feng H Q. 2020. Comparison of population fitness of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on wheat and different varieties of maize. Plant Protection, 46, 126–131. (in Chinese)
Tang Y T, Li Y Y, Liu C X, Mao J J, Chen H Y, Zhang L S, Wang M Q. 2019a. Predation and behavior of Arma chinensis (Fallou) to Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Plant Protection, 45, 65–68. (in Chinese)
Tang Y T, Wang M Q, Chen H Y, Wang Y, Zhang H M, Chen F S, Zhao X Q, Zhang L S. 2019b. Predation and behavior of Picromerus lewisi Scott to Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 35, 698–703. (in Chinese)
Tellez-Rodriguez P, Raymond B, Moran-Bertot I, Rodriguez-Cabrera L, Wright D J, Borroto C G, Ayra-Pardo C. 2014. Strong oviposition preference for Bt over non-Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda and its implications for the evolution of resistance. BMC Biology, 12, 48.
Tendeng E, Labou B, Diatte M, Djiba S, Diarra K. 2019. The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith), a new pest of maize in Africa: Biology and first native natural enemies detected. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 13, 1011–1026.
Tian J C, Lu Y H, Wang G R, Zheng X S, Yang Y J, Xu H X, Zang L S, Lv Z X. 2020. The parasitic capability of five Trichogramma species on eggs of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 36, 485–490. (in Chinese)
Tumlinson J H, Mitchell E R, Teal P E, Heath R R, Mengelkoch L J. 1986. Sex pheromone of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith): Identification of components critical to attraction in the field. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 12, 1909–1926.
Unbehend M, Hanniger S, Meagher R L, Heckel D G, Groot A T. 2013. Pheromonal divergence between two strains of Spodoptera frugiperda. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 39, 364–376.
Unbehend M, Hanniger S, Vasquez G M, Juarez M L, Reisig D, McNeil J N, Meagher R L, Jenkins D A, Heckel D G, Groot A T. 2014. Geographic variation in sexual attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda corn- and rice-strain males to pheromone lures. PLoS ONE, 9, e89255.
Velasquez-Velez M I, Saldamando-Benjumea C I, Rios-Diez J D. 2011. Reproductive isolation between two populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) collected in corn and rice fields from central Colombia. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 104, 826–833.
Wan F H, Yin C L, Tang R, Chen M H, Wu Q, Huang C, Qian W Q, Rota-Stabelli O, Yang N W, Wang S P, Wang G R, Zhang G F, Guo J Y, Gu L Q, Chen L F, Xing L S, Xi Y, Liu F L, Lin K J, Guo M B, et al. 2019. A chromosome-level genome assembly of Cydia pomonella provides insights into chemical ecology and insecticide resistance. Nature Communications, 10, 4237.
Wan F H, Yang N W. 2016. Invasion and management of agricultural alien insects in China. Annual Review of Entomology, 61, 77–98.
Westbrook J K. 2008. Noctuid migration in Texas within the nocturnal aeroecological boundary layer. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 48, 99–106.
Westbrook J K, Nagoshi R N, Meagher R L, Fleischer S J, Jairam S. 2016. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths. International Journal of Biometeorology, 60, 255–267.
Wild S. 2017. African countries mobilize to battle invasive caterpillar. Nature, 543, 13–14.
Williams T, Goulson D, Caballero P, Cisneros J, Martinez A M, Chapman J W, Roman D X, Cave R D. 1999. Evaluation of a baculovirus bioinsecticide for small-scale maize growers in Latin America. Biological Control, 14, 67–75.
Wu K, Shirk P D, Taylor C E, Furlong R B, Shirk B D, Pinheiro D H, Siegfried B D. 2018. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knockout of the abdominal - A homeotic gene in fall armyworm moth (Spodoptera frugiperda). PLoS ONE, 13, e0208647.
Wu N, Zhang S, Li X, Cao Y, Liu X, Wang Q, Liu Q, Liu H, Hu X, Zhou X J. 2018. Fall webworm genomes yield insights into rapid adaptation of invasive species. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 3, 105–115.
Xiao H, Ye X, Xu H, Mei Y, Yang Y, Chen X, Yang Y, Liu T, Yu Y, Yang W, Lu Z, Li F. 2020. The genetic adaptations of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda facilitated its rapid global dispersal and invasion. Molecular Ecology Resources, 20, 1050–1068.
Xiao Y T, Wu K M. 2019. Recent progress on the interaction between insects and Bacillus thuringiensis crops. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (B: Biological Sciences), 374, 20180316.
Xie M H, Zhong Y Z, Chen H L, Lin L L, Zhang G L, Xu L N, Wang Z Y, Zhang J P, Zhang F, Su W H. 2020. Potential overwintering ability of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) in Anhui Province. Plant Protection, 46, 236–241. (in Chinese)
Yan S, Qian J, Cai C, Ma Z, Li J, Yin M, Ren B, Shen J. 2020. Spray method application of transdermal dsRNA delivery system for efficient gene silencing and pest control on soybean aphid Aphis glycines. Journal of Pest Science, 93, 449–459.
Yu S. 1991. Insecticide resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 39, 84–91.
Yu S J, McCord Jr E. 2007. Lack of cross-resistance to indoxacarb in insecticide-resistant Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Pest Management Science, 63, 63–67.
Yu S J, Nguyen S N, Abo-Elghar G E. 2003. Biochemical characteristics of insecticide resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 77, 1–11.
Zhang L, Jin M H, Zhang D D, Jiang Y Y, Liu J, Wu K M, Xiao Y T. 2019. Molecular identification of invasive fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda in Yunnan Province. Plant Protection, 45, 19–24. (in Chinese)
Zhang L, Liu B, Zheng W G, Liu C H, Zhang D D, Zhao S Y, Li Z Y, Xu P J, Wilson K, Withers A, Jones C M, Smith J A, Chipabika G, Kachigamba D L, Nam K, d’Alençon E, Liu B, Liang X Y, Jin M H, Wu C, et al. 2020. Genetic structure and insecticide resistance characteristics of fall armyworm populations invading China. Molecular Ecology Resources, 20, 682–1696.
Zhao X, Zhu K H, Zhang Z T, He K L, Zhang L S, Zhou J C, Dong H. 2020. Preliminary evaluation of the control efficacy of Telenomus remus against Spodoptera frugiperda in field conditions. Plant Protection, 46, 74–77. (in Chinese)
Zhao X C, Feng H Q, Wu B, Wu X F, Liu Z F, Wu K M, McNeil J N. 2009. Does the onset of sexual maturation terminate the expression of migratory behaviour in moths? A study of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata. Journal of Insect Physiology, 55, 1039–1043.
Zhu K H, Zhou J C, Zhang Z T, He K L, Zhang L S, Dong H. 2020. Preliminary evaluation of field competition between Trichogramma pretiosum and Telenomus remus in the control of Spodoptera frugiperda. Plant Protection, 46, 267–271. (in Chinese)
Zhu Y C, Blanco C A, Portilla M, Adamczyk J, Luttrell R, Huang F. 2015. Evidence of multiple/cross resistance to Bt and organophosphate insecticides in Puerto Rico population of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 122, 15–21.
[1] LI Hui, JIANG Shan-shan, ZHANG Hao-wen, GENG Ting, Kris A. G. WYCKHUYS, WU Kong-ming . Two-way predation between immature stages of the hoverfly Eupeodes corollae and the invasive fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith)[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(3): 829-839.
[2] JIANG Cheng-gang, SUN Ying, ZHANG Fan, AI Xin, FENG Xiao-ning, HU Wei, ZHANG Xian-feng, ZHAO Dong-ming, BU Zhi-gao, HE Xi-jun. Viricidal activity of several disinfectants against African swine fever virus[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(11): 3084-3088.
[3] HUANG Cong, LANG Kun, QIAN Wan-qiang, WANG Shu-ping, CAO Xiao-mei, HE Rui, ZHAN An-ran, CHEN Meng-yao, YANG Nian-wan, LI Fei. InvasionDB: A genome and gene database of invasive alien species[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2021, 20(1): 191-200.
[4] LI Qiang, CHANG Xu-hong, MENG Xiang-hai, LI Ding, ZHAO Ming-hui, SUN Shu-luan, LI Hui-min, QIAO Wen-chen. Heat stability of winter wheat depends on cultivars, timing and protective methods[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2020, 19(8): 1984-1997.
[5] LIU Huan, ZHANG Dong-ju, XU Yi-juan, WANG Lei, CHENG Dai-feng, QI Yi-xiang, ZENG Ling, LU Yong-yue. Invasion, expansion, and control of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2019, 18(4): 771-787.
[6] Daisuke Hayasaka, Shingo Fujiwara, Taizo Uchida. Impacts of invasive Iris pseudacorus L. (yellow flag) establishing in an abandoned urban pond on native semi-wetland vegetation[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(08): 1881-1887.
[7] YUAN Hui-guo, WU Sheng-yong, LEI Zhong-ren,?Silvia I. Rondon, GAO Yu-lin. Sub-lethal effects of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) on field populations of the potato tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella Zeller in China[J]. >Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 2018, 17(04): 911-918.
No Suggested Reading articles found!