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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2021, Vol. 20 Issue (5): 1157-1166    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(20)63333-0
Special Focus: Resource utilization of agricultural solid waste Advanced Online Publication | Current Issue | Archive | Adv Search |
Changes in speciation, mobility and bioavailability of Cd, Cr and As during the transformation process of pig manure by black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens)
WANG Xiao-bo1*, WU Nan2*, CAI Rui-jie1, GENG Wei-na1, XU Xiao-yan1
1 College of Agronomy and Resource and Environment, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, P.R.China
2 College of Engineering and Technology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, P.R.China
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摘要  黑水虻幼虫(Hermetia illucens)处理畜禽粪便是一种新兴技术,处理产物虫体和虫粪可分别作为动物饲料和有机肥料,然而粪便中残留的重金属会对黑水虻转化过程产生不利影响。本文研究了Cd、Cr、As在黑水虻转化猪粪过程中对黑水虻幼虫生长的影响,以及重金属迁移和形态变化规律。结果表明,As显著降低了黑水虻幼虫的生物量,而Cr和Cd对幼虫的生长无明显影响。黑水虻幼虫对Cd的生物富集系数(BAFs:2.8-3.7)显著高于Cr(0.44-0.62)和As(0.43-0.45)。在黑水虻幼虫转化猪粪过程中,猪粪中的重金属主要迁移到黑水虻的虫粪中,Cd、Cr、As在虫粪中的残留比例分别为52.6-62.0%、90.3-94.2%和93.0-93.3%。转化后,虫粪中Cd含量显著低于猪粪,而Cr和As的含量与猪粪无显著差异(添加150 mg kg-1 Cr处理除外)。与猪粪相比,虫粪中的重金属形态(弱酸溶解态、可还原态、可氧化态和残留态)均有明显变化。其中虫粪中Cr的可还原态含量降低,但可氧化态比例增加。Cd主要以弱酸溶解态和还原态存在于猪粪和虫粪中。虫粪中As的弱酸溶解态和还原态比例降低。猪粪经过黑水虻转化后,Cr的生物有效性降低了17.3-23.1%, Cd和As的生物有效性无明显变化(CK组的As除外)。这些发现有助于我们了解黑水虻幼虫在畜禽粪便生物转化过程中的作用以及对转化产物的安全利用。

The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) are a good candidate for poultry and livestock manure treatment.  The harvested insect bodies and feces can be used as animal feed and organic fertilizer.  However, heavy metals have a negative impact on the transformation process of the manure by BSFL.  Here we evaluated the effects of Cd, Cr and As in pig manure on the growth of BSFL, as well as the mobility and changes in speciation of the metals during the transformation process.  The results showed that As significantly reduced the weight of BSFL, but Cr and Cd had no significant effects on BSFL growth.  The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) at various concentrations of Cd (2.8–3.7) were significantly higher than those of Cr (0.44–0.62) and As (0.43–0.45).  The heavy metals in pig manure were mainly transferred to BSFL feces, and the distribution percentages of Cd, Cr and As in the BSFL feces were 52.6–62.0%, 90.3–94.2% and 93.0–93.3%, respectively.  Cd concentrations in BSFL feces were significantly lower than those in the pig manure, while there were no significant differences in the concentrations of Cr and As between BSFL feces and pig manure (except for the treatment with the addition of 150 mg Cr kg–1).  The metal speciation (weak acid soluble, reducible, oxidizable and residual fractions) in BSFL feces obviously changed when compared with pig manure.  In BSFL feces, the reducible proportion of Cr decreased while the oxidizable proportion increased.  Cd mainly existed in the weak acid soluble and reducible states in pig manure and BSFL feces.  For As, the proportions of weak acid soluble and reducible states decreased in BSFL feces.  After the BSFL transformation process, the bioavailable fraction of Cr decreased by 17.3–23.1%, but those of Cd and As did not change significantly, except for As in the CK group.  These findings contribute to our understanding of the roles of BSFL during the biotransformation process of livestock manure as well as the safe utilization of transformed products.
Keywords:  black soldier fly        heavy metal        mobility        speciation        pig manure  
Received: 20 March 2020   Accepted:
Fund: This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFD0500205), the Tianjin Science and Technology Plan Project, China (19ZYYFSN00010 and 18ZXYENC00130), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21607114).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence XU Xiao-yan, E-mail:   
About author:  * These authors contributed equally to this study.

Cite this article: 

WANG Xiao-bo, WU Nan, CAI Rui-jie, GENG Wei-na, XU Xiao-yan. 2021. Changes in speciation, mobility and bioavailability of Cd, Cr and As during the transformation process of pig manure by black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens). Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 20(5): 1157-1166.

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