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Journal of Integrative Agriculture  2018, Vol. 17 Issue (07): 1676-1690    DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(18)61966-5
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Multi-mycotoxin exposure and risk assessments for Chinese consumption of nuts and dried fruits
WANG Yu-jiao1, 2, 3, NIE Ji-yun1, 2, 3, YAN Zhen1, 2, 3, LI Zhi-xia1, 2, 3, CHENG Yang1, 2, 3, Saqib Farooq1, 2, 3
1 Institute of Pomology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xingcheng 125100, P.R.China
2 Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Fruit?(Xingcheng), Ministry of Agriculture, Xingcheng 125100, P.R.China
3 Quality Inspection and Test Center for Fruit and Nursery Stocks (Xingcheng), Ministry of Agriculture, Xingcheng 125100, P.R.China
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In this study, 15 mycotoxins were detected in 233 nut and dried fruit samples from China.  The 15 mycotoxins included aflatoxins (AFs: AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), trichothecene toxins (TCs: T-2, ZEA, ENA, ENA1, ENB, ENB1 and BEA), Alternaria toxins (ATs: TEN, AOH and AME) and ochratoxin A (OTA).  The mycotoxins were detected in 47.6% of the samples and all 15 of the mycotoxins were found.  Two samples were positive for AFB1 and exceeded the maximum tolerable levels allowed in China.  The contamination levels of the mycotoxins found in nuts, dried jujubes, raisins, dried figs and dried longans were in the ranges of 0.1–462.7, 0.2–247.3, 0.8–10.1, 0.2–384.1 and 0.1–89.2 μg kg–1, respectively.  Dried figs (80.0%) had the highest incidence of mycotoxins, followed by dried longans (60.0%), dried jujubes (57.1%), nuts (43.6%) and raisins (26.7%).  The estimated daily intake (EDI) values of each individual mycotoxin and all of the mycotoxins collectively were calculated by both the deterministic approach (DA) and the probability approach (PA).  For risk characterization, dietary exposure to TCs, ATs and OTA through consumption of nuts and dried fruits according to both approaches, showed no health risk to Chinese adults by exposure to either individual mycotoxins or in combination.  To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work in which risk assessment of multimycotoxins is performed, specifically including the emerging ENNs and BEA, in nuts and dried fruits of China. 
Keywords:  mycotoxins ')" href="#">  
Received: 02 November 2017   Accepted:
Fund: This work was supported by the National Program for Quality and Safety Risk Assessment of Agricultural Products of China (GJFP2016003 and GJFP2017003) and the Scientific and Technological Innovation Project of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS-ASTIP).
Corresponding Authors:  Correspondence NIE Ji-yun, Tel: +86-429-3598178, Fax: +86-429-3598185, E-mail:    
About author:  WANG Yu-jiao, Mobile: +86-18811773273, E-mail: wyj961314@;
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WANG Yu-jiao
NIE Ji-yun
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LI Zhi-xia
Saqib Farooq

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WANG Yu-jiao, NIE Ji-yun, YAN Zhen, LI Zhi-xia, CHENG Yang, Saqib Farooq. 2018. Multi-mycotoxin exposure and risk assessments for Chinese consumption of nuts and dried fruits. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17(07): 1676-1690.

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