中国农业科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (18): 3470-3485.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2018.18.004

• 耕作栽培·生理生化·农业信息技术 • 上一篇    下一篇


武永峰1(), 胡新2, 任德超2, 史萍1, 游松财1()   

  1. 1中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所/农业部农业环境重点实验室, 北京 100081
    2商丘市农林科学院小麦研究所,河南商丘 476000
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-23 接受日期:2018-06-19 出版日期:2018-09-16 发布日期:2018-09-16
  • 作者简介:


  • 基金资助:

Reduction of Plant Height in Winter Wheat and Its Relationship with Grain Yield Under Late Frost Stress

YongFeng WU1(), Xin HU2, DeChao REN2, Ping SHI1, SongCai YOU1()   

  1. 1Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081
    2Wheat Research Institute, Shangqiu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Shangqiu 476000, Henan
  • Received:2018-03-23 Accepted:2018-06-19 Online:2018-09-16 Published:2018-09-16


【目的】探究晚霜冻胁迫对冬小麦株高及其构成因素的影响,阐明株高降低特性及其与节间长、穗长和籽粒产量的内在关系,为晚霜冻害评估指标的建立提供依据。【方法】基于低温室和田间可移动式霜箱2种模拟霜冻手段,分别以冬小麦幼穗发育阶段(小花原基分化、雌雄蕊原基分化、药隔形成、四分体形成和抽穗期)和零下处理温度(-1℃、-3℃、-5℃、-7℃、-9℃和-11℃)为梯度,共开展6期盆栽试验和3期小区试验;在考察植株茎部冻害、测定株高与其构成因素、统计籽粒产量要素的基础上,运用方差分析、回归函数拟合、以及突变检验等方法研究晚霜冻胁迫下株高降低特性,分析各构成因素对株高的贡献、以及株高与籽粒产量的回归关系。【结果】(1)在雌雄蕊原基分化至药隔形成后期,株高随处理温度降低而呈突变性降低特征,处理温度低于-5 ℃左右时突变开始,且不同植株个体、品种间有一定差异;在同一处理温度下,株高最大降幅出现在药隔形成后期。(2)在雌雄蕊原基分化期、药隔形成前期和药隔形成后期,对株高贡献排前两位的节间分别为倒四节间和倒三节间、倒三节间和倒二节间、倒二节间和倒四节间,其长度均因冻害胁迫而显著缩短,且与株高呈极强显著相关性(P<0.001),此时株高亦呈显著降低趋势。(3)株高与穗粒数、千粒重、单株产量之间的回归模型符合幂函数曲线特征,其中,单株产量的降幅随株高降低而呈现先快后慢的变化态势;当单株产量因冻害胁迫降低至1.5 g以下时,其随株高继续降低而不再明显减少,此时穗粒数变化也已不大。【结论】在模拟晚霜冻胁迫条件下,正在伸长或待伸长的冬小麦节间长度与穗长显著缩短;当缩短节间与对株高起主要贡献的节间相一致时,株高显著降低。利用节间缩短特性、以及单株产量和株高降低之间的幂函数关系模型,可为冬小麦生长后期植株倒伏以及产量损失风险评估方法提供新的研究途径。

关键词: 冬小麦, 晚霜冻胁迫, 发育进程, 株高, 节间和穗长, 籽粒产量


【Objective】 The objective of this study was to explore the effects of late frost stress on plant height and its components in winter wheat, and to clarify the characteristics of plant height reduction and its relationship with internode length, ear length and grain yield, in order to provide a basis for establishing the evaluation index of late frost damage. 【Method】By using two frost simulation means based on the Cold Climate Chamber and the Field Movable Climate Chamber, six pot experiments and three plots experiments were carried out with the developmental progresses (floret primordia differentiation (FPD), pistil and stamen primordia differentiation (PSPD), anther connective tissue formation (ACTF), tetrad formation (TF) and heading phase) of young ear and the subfreezing treatment temperatures (-1 °C, -3 °C, -5 °C, -7 °C, -9 °C and -11 °C) as the gradients. Culm injury was investigated after each frosting treatment, and plant height and its components, and grain yield were measured at maturity. Variance analysis, regression function fitting and test method for sudden change were used to study the rule of plant height reduction, the contribution of each component to plant height, and the regression relationship of plant height and grain yield. 【Result】 (1) In the stages of PSPD to late ACTF, plant height generally showed a decreasing trend with the decrease of treatment temperature. When the treatment temperature was lower than -5℃ or so, a mutation began, and there were certain differences between individual plants and varieties. At the same treatment temperature, the greatest decline in plant height occurred in the late ACTF stage. (2) In the stages of PSPD, early ACTF and late ACTF, fourth internode length from the top (FIL), antepenultimate internode length (AIL), penultimate internode length (PIL) and ear length (EL) all showed shortening trends in different degrees under the frost stress. In these periods, the key two internodes contributing to plant height were FIL and AIL, AIL and PIL, and PIL and FIL, respectively, that showed a strongly significant correlation (P<0.001) with plant height. Correspondingly, plant height significantly decreased. (3) The regression curves between plant height and kernel number per ear, 1 000-kernel weight, and yield per plant were well fitted by the power function models. The reduction in yield per plant showed a trend from the rapid to the slow as plant height decreased. When yield per plant was reduced to 1.5 g or less because of the further frost stress, it became relatively stable as plant height continued to decrease, also, kernel number per ear did not change significantly any more at that time. 【Conclusion】 Under the simulated late frost stress, a significantly shortening trend occurred only in the imminent or elongated internodes and young ear, but not in the end of elongation. When the shortening internodes were consistent with the internodes that mainly contributed to the plant height, plant height significantly decreased. Using the shortening feature of the internodes, and the power function model between plant height and yield per plant, a new approach could be provided for the risk assessment of plant lodging in late growth and yield loss of winter wheat affected by late frost.

Key words: winter wheat, late frost stress, developmental progress, plant height, length of internode and ear, grain yield